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Encyclopedia > Vowel
Manners of articulation
Obstruent
Click
Plosive
Ejective
Implosive
Affricate
Fricative
Sibilant
Sonorant
Nasal
Flaps/Tap
Trill
Approximant
Liquid
Vowel
Semivowel
Lateral
This page contains phonetic information in IPA, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
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In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by an open configuration of the vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, which are characterized by a constriction or closure at one or more points along the vocal tract. A vowel is also understood to be syllabic: an equivalent open but non-syllabic sound is called a semivowel. In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ... Implosive consonants are plosives (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ), but release as a fricative such as or (or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... A sibilant is a type of fricative or affricate, made by directing a jet of air through a narrow channel towards the sharp edge of the teeth. ... In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a member of a class of speech sounds that are continuants produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... Semivowels (also called semiconsonants or glides) are vowels that function phonemically as consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... A schematic representation of hearing. ... The vocal tract is that cavity in animals and humans, where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. ... The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Semivowels (also called semiconsonants or glides) are vowels that function phonemically as consonants. ...


In all languages, vowels form the nucleus or peak of syllables, whereas consonants form the onset and (in languages which have them) coda. However, some languages also allow other sounds to form the nucleus of a syllable, such as the syllabic l in the English word table [ˈteɪ.bl̩] (the stroke under the l indicates that it is syllabic; the dot separates syllables), or the r in the Czech word vrba [vr̩.ba] "willow". In phonetics and phonology, the nucleus is the central part of the syllable, mostly commonly a vowel. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... In phonetics and phonology, a syllable onset is the part of a syllable that precedes the syllable nucleus. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The word vowel comes from the Latin word vocalis, meaning "speaking", because in most languages words and thus speech are not possible without vowels. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

Contents

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Articulation

Vowels
Edit - 2× Front N.-front Central N.-back Back
Close
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
• ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ
ɐ
a • ɶ
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right
represents a rounded vowel.

The articulatory features that distinguish different vowels in a language are said to determine the vowel's quality. Daniel Jones developed the cardinal vowel system to describe vowels in terms of the common features height (vertical dimension), backness (horizontal dimension) and roundedness (lip position). These three parameters are indicated in the schematic IPA vowel diagram on the right. There are however still more possible features of vowel quality, such as the velum position (nasality), type of vocal fold vibration (phonation), and tongue root position. Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here On this page is a version of the IPA vowel chart designed for browsers currently set to display large text sizes. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A near-front vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A near-back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x700, 5 KB) Blank vowel trapezoid, for use with the International Phonetic Alphabet. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The close back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The close-mid central rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The open front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... -1... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A mid vowel is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... The open-mid vowels make a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. ... A near-open vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics. ... Daniel Jones (1881 - 1967) was a British phonetician. ... Vowel sound produced when the tongue is in an extreme position, either front or back, high or low. ...

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Height

Height refers to the vertical position of the tongue relative to either the roof of the mouth or the aperture of the jaw. In high vowels, such as [i] and [u], the tongue is positioned high in the mouth, whereas in low vowels, such as [a], the tongue is positioned low in the mouth. Sometimes the terms open and close are used as synonyms for low and high for describing vowels. The International Phonetic Alphabet identifies seven different vowel heights, although no known language distinguishes all seven: In phonetics, vowel height refers to the position of the tongue relative to the roof of the mouth in a vowel sound. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mandible. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... In phonetics, vowel height refers to the position of the tongue relative to the roof of the mouth in a vowel sound. ...

It may be that some varieties of German have five contrasting vowel heights independently of length or other parameters. The Bavarian dialect of Amstetten has thirteen long vowels, reported to distinguish four heights (close, close-mid, mid, and near-open) each among the front unrounded, front rounded, and back rounded vowels, plus an open central vowel: /i e ɛ̝ æ̝/, /y ø œ̝ ɶ̝/, /u o ɔ̝ ɒ̝/, /a/. Otherwise, the usual limit on the number of vowel heights is four. A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... -1... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A mid vowel is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... The open-mid vowels make a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. ... A near-open vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... Austro-Bavarian or Bavarian is a major group of Upper German varieties. ... Amstetten is a municipality in Alb-Donau-Kreis, 20 kilometers north-west of Ulm in Baden-Württemberg. ...


The parameter of vowel height appears to be the primary feature of vowels cross-linguistically in that all languages use height contrastively. No other parameter, such as front-back or rounded-unrounded (see below), is used in all languages. Some languages use only height to distinguish vowels. Vertical vowel system refers to a system of vowels in a language which uses just one vowel dimension to phonemically distinguish vowels. ...

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Backness

Backness refers to the horizontal tongue position during the articulation of a vowel relative to the back of the mouth. In front vowels, such as [i], the tongue is positioned forward in the mouth, whereas in back vowels, such as [u], the tongue is positioned towards the back of the mouth. The International Phonetic Alphabet identifies five different degrees of vowel backness, although no known language distinguishes all five: In phonetics, vowel backness is the position of the tongue relative to the back of the mouth in a vowel sound. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ...

The highest number of contrastive degrees of backness is 3. Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A near-front vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A near-back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ...

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Roundedness

Roundedness refers to whether the lips are rounded or not. In most languages, roundedness is a reinforcing feature of mid to high back vowels, and not distinctive. Usually the higher a back vowel, the more intense the rounding. However, some languages treat roundedness and backness separately, such as French and German (with front rounded vowels), most Uralic languages (Estonian has a rounding contrast for /o/ and front vowels), Turkic languages (with an unrounded /u/), Vietnamese (with back unrounded vowels), and Korean (with a contrast in both front and back vowels). Exolabial and endolabial [ʏ] in Swedish. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ...


Nonetheless, even in languages such as German and Vietnamese, there is usually some phonetic correlation between rounding and backness: front rounded vowels tend to be less front than front unrounded vowels, and back unrounded vowels tend to be less back than back rounded vowels. That is, the placement of unrounded vowels to the left of rounded vowels on the IPA vowel chart is reflective of their typical position.


Different kinds of labialization are also possible. The Japanese /u/, for example, is not rounded like English /u/, where the lips are protruded (or pursed), but neither are the lips spread to the sides as they are for unrounded vowels. Rather, they are compressed in both directions, leaving a slot between the lips for the air to escape. (See Vowel roundedness for illustrations.) Swedish and Norwegian is two of the few languages where this feature is contrastive, having both protruded-lip and compressed-lip high front vowels. In many treatments, both are considered a type of rounding, and are often called endolabial rounding (pursed, where the insides of the lips approach each other) and exolabial rounding (compressed, where the margins of the lips approach each other). However, some phoneticians do not believe that these are subsets of a single phenomenon of rounding, and prefer instead the three independent terms rounded, compressed, and spread (for unrounded). Exolabial and endolabial [ʏ] in Swedish. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ...

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Nasalization

Nasalization refers to whether some of the air escapes through the nose. In nasal vowels, the velum is lowered, and some air travels through the nasal cavity as well as the mouth. An oral vowel is a vowel in which all air escapes through the mouth. French, Polish and Portuguese contrast nasal and oral vowels. A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the mouth and the nose. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... An oral vowel is a vowel that is produced by air that escapes through the mouth only (as opposed to nasal vowels, in which air also goes out through the nose). ...

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Phonation

Voicing describes whether the vocal cords are vibrating during the articulation of a vowel. Most languages only have voiced vowels, but several Native American languages, such as Cheyenne and Totonac, contrast voiced and devoiced vowels. Vowels are devoiced in whispered speech. In Japanese and Quebec French, vowels that are between voiceless consonants are often devoiced. In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds. ... The Cheyenne language (TsÄ—hesenÄ—stsestotse or, in easier spelling, Tsisinstsistots) is a Native American language spoken in present-day Montana and Oklahoma, USA. It is part of the Algonquian language family. ... The Totonac are a Native American people in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Modal voice, creaky voice, and breathy voice (murmured vowels) are phonation types that are used contrastively in some languages. Often, these co-occur with tone or stress distinctions; in the Mon language, vowels pronounced in the high tone are also produced with creaky voice. In cases like this, it can be unclear whether it is the tone, the voicing type, or the pairing of the two that is being used for phonemic contrast. This combination of phonetic cues (i.e. phonation, tone, stress) is known as register or register complex. Creaky voice (also called laryngealisation or vocal fry, especially in the US), is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact, and forming a large, irregularly vibrating... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... The Mon language is an Austroasiatic language spoken in Myanmar and Thailand. ...

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Tongue root retraction

Advanced tongue root (ATR) is a feature common across much of Africa. The contrast between advanced and retracted tongue root resembles the tense/lax contrast acoustically, but they are articulated differently. ATR vowels involve noticeable tension in the vocal tract. In phonetics, advanced tongue root, abbreviated ATR or +ATR, or expanded, is the expansion of the pharyngeal cavity by moving the base of the tongue forward, and often lowering the larynx, during the pronunciation of a vowel. ... In phonetics, retracted tongue root, abbreviated RTR or –ATR, is the retraction of the base of the tongue in the pharynx during the pronunciation of a vowel. ...

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Secondary narrowings in the vocal tract

Pharyngealized vowels occur in some languages; Sedang uses this contrast, as do the Tungusic languages. Pharyngealisation is similar in articulation to retracted tongue root, but is acoustically distinct. Pharyngealisation is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx is constricted during the articulation of the sound. ... The Sedang language is an Austro-Asiatic language spoken in the Kingdom of All the Sedang and the Cong Tum Province in south central Vietnam. ... Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ... Acoustics is a branch of physics and is the study of sound, mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids. ...


A stronger degree of pharyngealisation occurs in the Northeast Caucasian languages and the Khoisan languages. These might be called epiglottalized, since the primary constriction is at the tip of the epiglottis. The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian, Caspian, Nakh-Dagestanian, or Dagestanian, are a family of languages spoken mostly in the Dagestan, Chechnya, and Ingushetia regions of Russia, in Northern Azerbaijan, and in Georgia. ... Map showing the distribution of the Khoi-San languages. ...


The greatest degree of pharyngealisation is found in the strident vowels of the Khoisan languages, where the larynx is raised, and the pharynx constricted, so that either the epiglottis or the arytenoid cartilages vibrate instead of the vocal chords. Strident vowels (also called sphincteric vowels) are strongly pharyngealized vowels accompanied by epiglottal trill, where the larynx is raised and the pharynx constricted, so that either the epiglottis or the arytenoid cartilages vibrate instead of the vocal chords. ... The pharynx (plural pharynx), or voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... The arytenoid cartilages are a pair of small pyramid-shaped cartilages, at the upper rear of the larynx, to which the vocal cords are attached. ...


Note that the terms pharyngealized, epiglottalized, strident, and sphincteric are sometimes used interchangeably.

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Rhotic vowels

Rhotic vowels are the "R-colored vowels" of English and a few other languages.   In phonetics, an r-colored vowel or rhotacized vowel is a vowel either with the tip or blade of the tongue turned up during at least part of the articulation of the vowel (a retroflex articulation) or with the tip of the tongue down and the back of the tongue...

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Tenseness/checked vowels vs. free vowels

Tenseness is used to describe the opposition of tense vowels as in leap, suit vs. lax vowels as in lip, soot. This opposition has traditionally been thought to be a result of greater muscular tension, though phonetic experiments have repeatedly failed to show this. Tenseness is a term used in phonology to describe a particular vowel quality that is phonemically contrastive in many languages, including English. ...


Unlike the other features of vowel quality, tenseness is only applicable to the few languages that have this opposition (mainly Germanic languages, e.g. English), whereas the vowels of the other languages (e.g. Spanish) cannot be described with respect to tenseness in any meaningful way. In discourse about the English language, "tense and lax" are often used interchangeably with "long and short", respectively, because the features are concomitant in the common varieties of English. This cannot be applied to all English dialects or other languages. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In most Germanic languages, lax vowels can only occur in closed syllables. Therefore, they are also known as checked vowels, whereas the tense vowels are called free vowels since they can occur in any kind of syllable. The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... This article discusses the unit of speech. ... In English phonetics and phonology, checked vowels are those that must be followed by a consonant in a stressed syllable, while free vowels are those that may stand in a stressed open syllable with no following consonant. ... In English phonetics and phonology, checked vowels are those that must be followed by a consonant in a stressed syllable, while free vowels are those that may stand in a stressed open syllable with no following consonant. ...

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Acoustics

Spectrogram of vowels [i, u, ɑ]. [ɑ] is a low vowel, so its F1 value is higher than that of [i] and [u], which are high vowels. [i] is a front vowel, so its F2 is substantially higher than that of [u] and [ɑ], which are back vowels.
Enlarge
Spectrogram of vowels [i, u, ɑ]. [ɑ] is a low vowel, so its F1 value is higher than that of [i] and [u], which are high vowels. [i] is a front vowel, so its F2 is substantially higher than that of [u] and [ɑ], which are back vowels.

The acoustics of vowels are fairly well understood. The different vowel qualities are realized in acoustic analyses of vowels by the relative values of the formants, acoustic resonances of the vocal tract which show up as dark bands on a spectrogram. The vocal tract acts as a resonant cavity, and the position of the jaw, lips, and tongue affect the parameters of the resonant cavity, resulting in different formant values. The acoustics of vowels can be visualized using spectrograms, which display the acoustic energy at each frequency, and how this changes with time. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (946x705, 271 KB) en:Vowel Spectrogram_[iuɑ].png info spectrogram of the American English vowels [i, u, ɑ] demonstrating the frequencies of first and second formants. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (946x705, 271 KB) en:Vowel Spectrogram_[iuɑ].png info spectrogram of the American English vowels [i, u, ɑ] demonstrating the frequencies of first and second formants. ... Spectrogram of American English vowels [i, u, ɑ] showing the formants f1 and f2 A formant is a peak in an acoustic frequency spectrum which results from the resonant frequencies of any acoustical system. ... The Tacoma Narrows Bridge (shown twisting) in Washington collapsed spectacularly, under moderate wind, in part because of resonance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with periodogram. ...


The first formant, abbreviated "F1", corresponds to vowel openness (vowel height). Open vowels have high F1 frequencies while close vowels have low F1 frequencies, as can be seen at right: The [i] and [u] have similar low first formants, whereas [ɑ] has a higher formant. An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ...


The second formant, F2, corresponds to vowel frontness. Back vowels have low F2 frequencies while front vowels have high F2 frequencies. This is very clear at right, where the front vowel [i] has a much higher F2 frequency than the other two vowels. However, in open vowels the high F1 frequency forces a rise in the F2 frequency as well, so a better measure of frontness is the difference between the first and second formants. For this reason, vowels are usually plotted as F1 vs. F2 – F1. (This dimension is usually called 'backness' rather than 'frontness', but the term 'backness' can be counterintuitive when discussing formants.) A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ...


R-colored vowels are characterized by lowered F3 values.   In phonetics, an r-colored vowel or rhotacized vowel is a vowel either with the tip or blade of the tongue turned up during at least part of the articulation of the vowel (a retroflex articulation) or with the tip of the tongue down and the back of the tongue...


Rounding is generally realized by a complex relationship between F2 and F3 that tends to reinforce vowel backness. One effect of this is that back vowels are most commonly rounded while front vowels are most commonly unrounded; another is that rounded vowels tend to plot to the right of unrounded vowels in vowel charts. That is, there is a reason for plotting vowel pairs the way they are.

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Prosody and intonation

The features of vowel prosody are often described independently from vowel quality. In non-linear phonetics, they are located on parallel layers. The features of vowel prosody are usually considered not to apply to the vowel itself, but to the syllable, as some languages do not contrast vowel length separately from syllable length. Prosody may mean several things: Prosody consists of distinctive variations of stress, tone, and timing in spoken language. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ...


Intonation encompasses the changes in pitch, intensity, and speed of an utterance over time. In tonal languages, in most cases the tone of a syllable is carried by the vowel, meaning that the relative pitch or the pitch contour that marks the tone is superimposed on the vowel. If a syllable has a high tone, for example, the pitch of the vowel will be high. If the syllable has a falling tone, then the pitch of the vowel will fall from high to low over the course of uttering the vowel. Intonation is a term used to cover particular uses of tones in linguistics and music. ... An utterance is a complete unit of talk, bounded by silence. ... Tone refers to the use of pitch in language to distinguish words. ...


Length or quantity refers to the abstracted duration of the vowel. In some analyses this feature is described as a feature of the vowel quality, not of the prosody. Japanese, Finnish, Hungarian, Arabic and Latin have a two-way phonemic contrast between short and long vowels. The Mixe language has a three-way contrast among short, half-long, and long vowels, and this has been reported for a few other languages, though not always as a phonemic distinction. Long vowels are written in the IPA with a triangular colon, which has two equilateral triangles pointing at each other in place of dots ([iː]). The IPA symbol for half-long vowels is the top half of this ([iˑ]). Longer vowels are sometimes claimed, but these are always divided between two syllables. In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ...


It should be noted that the length of the vowel is a grammatical abstraction, and there may be more phonologically distinctive lengths. For example, in Finnish, there are five different physical lengths, because stress is marked with length on both grammatically long and short vowels. However, Finnish stress is not lexical and is always on the first two moras, thus this variation serves to separate words from each other. Mora (plural moras or morae) is a unit of sound used in phonology that determines syllable weight (which in turn determines stress) in some languages. ...


In non-tonal languages, like English, intonation encompasses lexical stress. A stressed syllable will typically be pronounced with a higher pitch, intensity, and length than unstressed syllables. For example in the word intensity, the vowel represented by the letter 'e' is stressed, so it is longer and pronounced with a higher pitch and intensity than the other vowels. In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence. ...

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Pronunciation in English

Close Unrounded vowels: Close Rounded vowels:
The Front [i] is pronounced as in beet (RP, GA, AuE, NZE). Front [y]: does not occur in English.
Central [ɨ]: roses (in some dialects). Central [ʉ]: boot (AuE, NZE).
Back [ɯ] does not occur in English. Back [u]: boot (RP, GA).
Near-close Unrounded vowels: Near-close Rounded vowels:
Near-front [ɪ]: bit (RP, GA, AuE, NZE). Near-front [ʏ] does not occur in English.
Near-back [ʊ]: hook.
Schwa vowel:
Schwa [ə]: about, synonym, Rosa.
Close-mid Unrounded vowels: Close-mid Rounded vowels:
Front [e]: play (RP), bait (CaE), bed (AuE, NZE). Front [ø] does not occur in English.
Central [ɘ]: nut (SAE). Central [ɵ] does not occur in English.
Back [ɤ]: hope (YE). Back [o]: ball (AuE, NZE), boat (CaE).
Open-mid Unrounded vowels: Open-mid Rounded vowels:
Front [ɛ]: bed (GA), fat (AuE, NZE). Front [œ] does not occur in English.
Central [ɜ]: fur (RP, AuE, NZE), perfect (GA). Central [ɞ] does not occur in English.
Back [ʌ]: nut (GA, east AmE, SE, BA). Back [ɔ]: ball (RP), hot (AuE, NZE).
Near-open Unrounded vowels: Near-open Rounded vowels:
Front [æ]: fat (RP, GA, AuE, NZE).
Central [ɐ]: cut (RP, AE).
Open Unrounded vowels: Open Rounded vowels:
Front [a]: lie, how (GA, RP), cut, cart (AuE, NZE),

bat (CaE, NE, SE), stock (NCVS), star, father (BA). Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Canadian English (CaE) is a variety of English used in Canada. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... The Southern United States Red states show the core of the American South. ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Canadian English (CaE) is a variety of English used in Canada. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... English language spread in the United States. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... The Boston accent is the dialect of English not only of the city of Boston, Massachusetts itself, but more generally of all of eastern Massachusetts; it shares much in common with the accents of Rhode Island, New Hampshire, southern Maine, and northeastern Connecticut. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... English language spread in the United States. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Canadian English (CaE) is a variety of English used in Canada. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Three isoglosses identifying the NCVS. The brown line encloses areas in which is more retracted than . ... The Boston accent is the dialect of English not only of the city of Boston, Massachusetts itself, but more generally of all of eastern Massachusetts; it shares much in common with the accents of Rhode Island, New Hampshire, southern Maine, and northeastern Connecticut. ...

Front [ɶ] does not occur in English.
Back [ɑ]: spa (RP, GA), ball (CaE), buy (AuE, NZE). Back [ɒ]: hot (RP).
[edit]

Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Canadian English (CaE) is a variety of English used in Canada. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

Monophthongs, diphthongs, triphthongs

A vowel sound whose quality doesn't change over the duration of the vowel is called a monophthong. Monophthongs are sometimes called "pure" or "stable" vowels. A vowel sound that glides from one quality to another is called a diphthong, and a vowel sound that glides between three qualities is a triphthong. A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a vowel combination in a single syllable involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In phonetics, a triphthong is a monosyllabic vowel combination usually involving a quick, but smooth movement from one vowel to another that passes over a third one. ...


All languages have monophthongs and many languages have diphthongs, but triphthongs or vowel sounds with even more target qualities are relatively rare cross-linguistically. English has all three types: the vowel sound in hit is a monophthong [ɪ], the vowel sound in boy is in most dialects a diphthong [ɔɪ], and the vowel sounds of, flower (BrE [aʊə] AmE [aʊɚ]) form a triphthong (disyllabic in the latter cases), although the particular qualities vary by dialect. Dialect areas of England British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate between the form of the English language used in the British Isles and those used elsewhere. ... English language spread in the United States. ...


The longest sensible word with most consecutive vowels is Finnish riiuuyöaieuutinen (courting night intention news [certainly yellow press stuff!]), syllabicated rii-uu-yö-ai-e-uu-ti-nen.


In phonology, diphthongs and triphthongs are distinguished from sequences of monophthongs by whether the vowel sound may be analyzed into different phonemes or not. For example, the vowel sounds in a two-syllable pronunciation of the word flower (BrE [flaʊə] AmE [flaʊɚ]) phonetically form a disyllabic triphthong, but are phonologically a sequence of a diphthong (represented by the letters <ow>) and a monophthong (represented by the letters <er>). Some linguists use the terms diphthong and triphthong only in this phonemic sense. The vowels of modern (Standard) Arabic and (Israeli) Hebrew from the phonological point of view. ... In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (i. ... Dialect areas of England British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate between the form of the English language used in the British Isles and those used elsewhere. ... English language spread in the United States. ...

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Vowels in languages

The semantic significance of vowels varies widely depending on the language. In some languages, particularly Semitic languages, vowels mostly serve to denote inflections. This is similar to English man vs. men. In fact, the alphabets used to write the Semitic languages, such as the Hebrew alphabet and the Arabic alphabet, do not ordinarily mark all the vowels. These alphabets are technically called abjads. Although it is possible to construct simple English sentences that can be understood without written vowels (cn y rd ths?), extended passages of English lacking written vowels are difficult if not impossible to completely understand (consider dd, which could be any of add, aided, dad, dada, dead, deed, did, died, dodo, dud, dude, eddie, iodide, or odd). In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Inflection or inflexion refers to a modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) so that it reflects grammatical (i. ... This article is mainly about Hebrew letters. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... An abjad is a type of writing system where there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme, sometimes also called a consonantary. ...


In most languages, vowels are an unchangeable part of the words, as in English man vs. moon which are not different inflectional forms of the same word, but different words. Vowels are especially important to the structures of words in languages that have very few consonants (like Polynesian languages such as Maori and Hawaiian), and in languages whose inventories of vowels are larger than their inventories of consonants. The Polynesian languages are a group of related languages spoken in the region known as Polynesia. ... M&#257;ori (or Maori) is a language spoken by the native peoples of New Zealand and the Cook Islands. ... The Hawaiian language takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ...

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Vowel systems

  1. REDIRECT Template:Unreferenced

Most languages have 3–7 vowels, the following 5-vowel system being the most common:

/i/ /u/
/e/ /o/
/a/

This configuration is often thought to be particularly stable because it makes efficient use of the vowel space, in that slight variations in one vowel are not confused for another vowel. Spanish and Modern Greek, for example, have this vowel system; Latin had a similar system with the addition of (unwritten) vowel length; it is for this reason that the Latin alphabet has five vowel letters. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


All known languages have at least two vowels: Abxaz, Ubykh, Margi, Eastern Arrernte, and perhaps some of the Ndu languages contrast only two vowels: /a/ and /ɨ/ in the case of Margi, and /a/ and /ə/ for the others, with significant allophony. There have been proposals to reduce the three-vowel inventory of Kabardian to two, one, or even zero vowels (in which case all phonetic vowels would be epenthetic), but most linguists do not believe such analyses are workable. Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Georgia and Turkey. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Eastern Arrernte refers to Arrernte people who traditionally live in the Arrente lands East of Alice Springs, including Wallace Rock Hole. ... The Ndu languages are the best known family of the Sepik languages of northern Papua New Guinea. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... The Kabardian language is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Russia, Jordan and Turkey. ... In poetry and phonetics, epenthesis (Greek epi, on × en, in + thesis, putting) is the insertion of a phoneme or syllable into a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation. ...


Three-vowel systems have been noted in a large number of languages. These include,

A fair number of Native American languages, such as Nahuatl and Navajo, have vowel systems that lack /u/, but there is no known language that lacks some form of a. At the other end of the spectrum, languages with more than twelve vowels are uncommon, although some widely-spoken languages have large vowel inventories, particularly Germanic languages. For example, English has 14–20 vowels (including diphthongs) depending on dialect, and Swedish has 17 distinct vowel qualities in the height-backness-roundedness spectrum, although these also involve a length contrast, and the long vowels have diphthongized allophones. Some Norwegian dialects (in the municipalities Tynset and Alvdal in Hedmark county) have 14 standard vowels (and in addition comes length contrast and diphtongs). French has 16 vowel qualities, including nasals, and the previously-mentioned Sedang has 24 distinct monophthongs, which it achieves by contrasting phonation on seven vowel qualities. Ju/’hoan uses phonation and nasalization with five vowel qualities to achieve approximately 40 vowels, most of which may in addition occur both long and short. Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... The Australian Aboriginal languages are a Australia, and the rest are descended linguistically from them. ... Modern Standard Arabic is the dialect of Arabic used in almost all writing and in formal spoken contexts. ... The Pirahã language is a language spoken by Pirahã people of Brazil. ... The Kabardian language is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken in Russia, Jordan and Turkey. ... Wichita is a moribund language spoken in Oklahoma. ... Nahuatl (pronounced in two syllables, NA-watl ) is a term applied to some members of the Aztecan or Nahuan sub-branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... Navajo (also Navaho) (in Navajo: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken in the southwest United States by the Navajo people (Diné). It is geographically and linguistically one of the Southern Athabaskan languages (the majority of Athabaskan languages are spoken in northwest Canada and Alaska). ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... County Hedmark District Østerdalen Municipality NO-0437 Administrative centre Tynset Mayor (2006) Borgar Valle (Sp) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 34 1,879 km² 1,822 km² 0. ... County Hedmark Landscape Østerdalen Municipality NO-0438 Administrative centre Alvdal Mayor (2003) Svein Borkhus (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 116 943 km² 919 km² 0. ... Hedmark is a county in Norway, bordering Sør-Trøndelag, Oppland and Akershus. ... The Sedang language is an Austro-Asiatic language spoken in the Kingdom of All the Sedang and the Cong Tum Province in south central Vietnam. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Ju|’hoan (also called Zu|’hõasi, Dzu’oasi, Zû-|hoa) is a Khoisan language spoken in the Northwest District of Botswana by about 5,000 people (2002) and by perhaps a comparable number across the border in Namibia. ...

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Written vowels

The name "vowel" is often used for the symbols used for representing vowel sounds in a language's writing system, particularly if the language uses an alphabet. In the Latin alphabet, the vowel letters are A, E, I, O, U, and Y; in addition, extensions of the Latin alphabet have independent vowel letters such as Ä, Ö, Ü, Å, Æ, and Ø. The phonetic values vary by language, and some languages use I and Y for the consonant [j], e.g. initial I in Romanian and initial Y in English. Some languages using the Latin alphabet may use other letters to represent vowel sounds: for example, in Welsh, the letter W stands for [u] or [ʊ], while in Creek the letter V stands for [ə]. Writing Systems of the World today A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The Creek Language, also known as Muscogee (Mvskoke in Creek), is a Muskogean language spoken by the Muscogee (Creek) Nation and Seminole Indians in Florida and Oklahoma. ...


There is not necessarily a direct one-to-one correspondence between the vowel sounds of a language and the vowel letters. Many languages that use a form of the Latin alphabet have more vowel sounds than can be represented by the standard set of five vowel letters. In the case of English, the five primary vowel letters can represent a variety of vowel sounds.


Notice "conventional" vowel letters functioning in actual vocabulary, as they take their role in representing unique sounds in each word: "a" ask, broad, along, any, apex, aisle, war, beauty, aeon, all, learn; "e" have, pretty, gone, the, egg, where, height, beau, sleuth, he, sergeant, house, noise, her; "i" plain, in, friend, nail, I, suit, ski, oil, shirt; "o" women, log, ton, leopard, go, who, people, book, cow, boy, worm; "u" laugh, busy, cough, bug, busy, guy, your, tube, auto, put, out, fur; "y" gym, says, day, by, any, boy, syrup, yellow. For this reason, new pedagogy requires "spelling-out-sounds" instead of "sounding-out-letters". More research on this topic is posted at WordsAhead.org.


Other languages cope with the limitation in the number of Latin vowel letters in similar ways. Many languages, like English, make extensive use of combinations of vowel letters to represent various sounds. Other languages use vowel letters with modifications, e.g. Ä in Finnish, or add diacritical marks to vowels, such as accents or umlauts, to represent the variety of possible vowel sounds. Some languages have also constructed additional vowel letters by modifying the standard Latin vowels in other ways, such as æ or ø that are found in some of the Scandinavian languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet has a set of 28 symbols to represent the range of basic vowel qualities, and a further set of diacritics to denote variations from the basic vowel. A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation (i. ... This page is about punctuation. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ...

[edit]

Written vowels in writing systems

  • Arabic: long vowels: ا و ي; short vowels: ِ ُ َ
  • Bulgarian: non-iotated ('hard'): А О У Ъ; iotated ('soft'): Я Ю И Е
  • Czech: a e i o u y, long with an acute á é í ó ú ý or a ring ů, softening ě
  • Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish: back ('hard'): a o u å; front ('soft'): e i y æ/ä ø/ö
  • Devanagari: Independent vowels: अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ए ऐ ओ औ; Dependent vowels: ा ि ी ु ू े ै ो ौ
  • Estonian and Võro: a e i o u ü ä ö õ (y); half-long and over-long vowels doubled
  • Finnish: back: a o u; neutral: i e; front: ä ö y; long vowels doubled (aamu, uuma, etc.)
  • Guaraní: oral: a e i o u y; nasal: ã ẽ ĩ õ ũ ỹ
  • German: a ä e i o ö u ü
  • Korean: ㅏ ㅐ ㅑ ㅒ ㅓ ㅔ ㅕ ㅖ ㅗ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅛ ㅜ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ ㅠ ㅡ ㅢ ㅣ
  • Hebrew: ֱ ֲ ֳ ְ ֻ ֹ ִ ֵ ֶ ַ ָ (see Niqqud)
  • Japanese: normal: あいうえお; grammatical: へを
  • Latin: a e i o u y
  • Russian: non-iotated ('hard'): А О У Ы Э; iotated ('soft'): Я Ё Ю И Е
  • Skolt Sami: u o õ å a, i e â ä (normal); long vowels doubled (lääij, nââ'ǩǩted, etc.).
  • Turkish: a ı o u ('thick'), e i ö ü ('thin')
  • Vietnamese: a ă â e ê i o ô ơ u ư y, plus tonal marks (e.g. , , ...).
[edit]

The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Iotation is a form of palatalisation which occurs in Slavic languages. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark &#730; (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... The Danish and Norwegian alphabet is based upon the Latin alphabet and consists of 29 letters: In computing, several different coding standards have existed for this alphabet: DS 2089 (Danish) and NS 4551-1 (Norwegian), later established in international standard ISO 646 IBM PC code page 865 ISO 8859-1... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Võro language area - Võromaa (Võro county) in its historical boundaries between Tartu and Seto areas, Russia (Vinnemaa) and Latvia (Läti) The Võro language (võro kiil´), like Estonian, Hungarian, and Finnish, is a Finno-Ugric language. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ... This article is mainly about Hebrew letters. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Iotation is a form of palatalisation which occurs in Slavic languages. ... Skolt Sami (Sää´mÇ©iõll) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland and nearby parts of Russia. ...

See also

[edit]

A Acoustic phonetics Affricate Airstream mechanism Alfred C. Gimson Allophone Alveolar approximant Alveolar consonant Alveolar ejective fricative Alveolar ejective Alveolar flap Alveolar nasal Alveolar ridge Alveolar trill Alveolo-palatal consonant Apical consonant Approximant consonant Articulatory phonetics aspiration Auditory phonetics B Back vowel Bilabial click Bilabial consonant Bilabial ejective Bilabial nasal... This table lists all the vowels of the International Phonetic Alphabet. ... This is a list of vowels. ...

References

  • Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, 1999. Cambridge University ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Johnson, Keith, Acoustic & Auditory Phonetics, second edition, 2003. Blackwell ISBN 1-4051-0123-7
  • Ladefoged, Peter, A Course in Phonetics, fourth edition, 2000. Heinle ISBN 0-15-507319-2
  • Ladefoged, Peter, Elements of Acoustic Phonetics, 1995. University of Chicago ISBN 0-226-46764-3
  • Ladefoged, Peter and Ian Maddieson, The Sounds of the World's Languages, 1996. Blackwell ISBN 0-631-19815-6
  • Ladefoged, Peter, Vowels and Consonants: An Introduction to the Sounds of Languages, 2000. Blackwell ISBN 0-631-21412-7.
  • Lindau, Mona. (1978). Vowel features. Language, 54, 541-563.
  • Stevens, Kenneth N. (1998). Acoustic phonetics. Current studies in linguistics (No. 30). Cambridge, MA: MIT. ISBN 0-262-19404-X.
  • Stevens, Kenneth N. (2000). Toward a model for lexical access based on acoustic landmarks and distinctive features. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 111 (4), 1872-1891.
  • Korhonen, Mikko. Koltansaamen opas, 1973. Castreanum ISBN 951-45-0189-6
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Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (September 17, 1925 – January 24, 2006) was a British-American linguist phonetician who traveled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data. ...

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