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Encyclopedia > Voting Rights Act
Voting Rights Act of 1965
89th United States Congress

Long title:
Introduced by:
Dates
Date passed: August 3, 1965 (House)
August 4, 1965 (Senate)

July 13, 2006 (House) Renewed
July 20, 2006 (Senate) Renewed Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Members Senate Category: ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 413 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2895 × 4201 pixels, file size: 1. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ...

Date signed into law: August 6, 1965
Amendments: 1970, 1975, 1982, 2006
Related legislation:

The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. § 19731973aa-6)[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. The Act also provided for Department of Justice oversight to registration, and the Department's approval for any change in voting law in districts that had used a "device" to limit voting and in which less than 50% of the population was registered to vote in 1964. It was signed in 1965, and signed for a 25 year extension by President George W. Bush on July 27, 2006. is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Title 42 of the United States Code outlines the role of Public Health and Social Welfare in the United States Code. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


While the Act is often considered a landmark in civil rights legislation, it has been criticized by some (especially during talks of renewal in 2006) as a bill that has achieved its goal of minority voting and now has become an overreach of federal power or too demanding of certain states.[2]

Contents

Background

Further information: Disfranchisement after the Civil War

The Thirteenth Amendment ratified in 1865 after the United States Civil War, abolished and prohibited slavery and secured a minimal degree of citizenship to former slaves. The Fourteenth Amendment ratified in 1868, granted citizenship to all people “born or naturalized in the United States,” and includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. This amendment failed to explicitly prohibit vote discrimination on racial grounds. The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1870 in response to the American Civil War, prevented any state from denying the right to vote to any male citizen twenty-one years old or older on account of his race. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Due process of law is a legal concept that ensures the government will respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights, when the government deprives a person of life, liberty, or property. ... Congressman John Bingham of Ohio was the principal framer of the Equal Protection Clause. ...


The prohibition of voting rights discrimination on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of slavery was first codified by the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1870. Soon after the failure of Reconstruction, southern states found other means besides those enumerated in the Fifteenth Amendment to deny the vote to blacks, through violence, intimidation, via Jim Crow laws that included literacy tests, poll taxes, and also grandfather clauses that permitted otherwise disqualified voters whose grandfathers voted (thus allowing some white illiterates to vote), some with the aim and effect of re-imposing racially motivated restrictions on the voting process that prevented blacks from having political and economic power. Although the Fifteenth Amendment established particular voting rights, and gave Congress the authority to enforce those rights and regulate the voting process, the vote was still allowed to be withheld from most southern blacks and from non-white minorities throughout the U.S., from the post-Reconstruction era through the 1960s. Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... The term Jim Crow laws refers to a series of laws enacted mostly in the Southern United States in the later half of the 19th century that restricted most of the new privileges granted to African-Americans after the Civil War. ... A Voting test is a test designed to determine ones ability to read and write a given language. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... A grandfather clause is an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations, when a new rule will apply to all future situations. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Redemption, in the history of the United States, was a term used by white Southerners to refer to the reversion of the U.S. South to conservative Democratic Party rule after the period of Reconstruction (1865-1877), which in turn followed the U.S. Civil War. ...


In 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was created with the mission to promote blacks' civil rights, including to "secure for them impartial suffrage." The NAACP's success was limited: despite some important judicial and legislative successes, many southern blacks remained disenfranchised through the early 1960s. Following the 1964 election, a variety of civil rights organizations banded together to push for the passage of legislation that would ensure black voting rights once and for all. The campaign to bring about federal intervention to prevent discrimination in voting culminated in the voting rights protests in Selma, Alabama, and the famous Selma to Montgomery marches, and also sadly in the separate murders of Jimmie Lee Jackson, James Reeb, and Viola Liuzzo, after which President Lyndon Baines Johnson, in a dramatic joint-session address, called upon Congress to enact a strong voting rights bill. Johnson's administration drafted a bill intended to enforce the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, aiming to eliminate various previously legal strategies to prevent blacks and other minorities from voting. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... John Lewis (on right in trench coat) and Hosea Williams (on the left) lead marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge, March 7, 1965 The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. ... Viola Liuzzo with her husband Anthony, 1949. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson ( August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ...


Legislative history

Final page of the Voting Rights Act, signed by President Johnson, the President of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House

The Act was sent to Congress by President Lyndon Johnson on March 17, 1965. The Senate passed the bill on May 11 (after a successful cloture vote on March 23); the House passed it on July 10. After differences between the two bills were resolved in conference, the House passed the Conference Report on August 3, the Senate on August 4. President Johnson signed the Act on August 6, 1965. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2879 × 4226 pixels, file size: 1,024 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Voting Rights Act of 1965 Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2879 × 4226 pixels, file size: 1,024 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Voting Rights Act of 1965 Source: http://www. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In parliamentary procedure, cloture (pr: KLO-cher) (also called closure, and sometimes a guillotine) is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...

President George W. Bush signs the reauthorization of the Voting Rights Act as lawmakers look on.

Image File history File linksMetadata BUSHSIGN.jpg‎ http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata BUSHSIGN.jpg‎ http://www. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...

Vote count

The two numbers in each line of this list refer to the number of representatives voting in favor and against the act, respectively.


Senate: 77–19

  • Democrats: 47–17
  • Republicans: 30–2

House: 333–85

  • Democrats: 221–61
  • Republicans: 112–24

Conference Report:


Senate: 79–18

  • Democrats: 49–17
  • Republicans: 30–1

House: 328–74

  • Democrats: 217–54
  • Republicans: 111–20

Some votes were not included due to some members' absence.


Periodic renewal

Some temporary amendments of the Voting Rights Act (none involving the outlawing of poll taxes or literacy tests, on which the ban is permanent)[3] have been renewed four times and remain in force. They were renewed in 1970, 1975, 1982, and 2006. In the 1982 action, Congress amended the Act to make some sections (perhaps most importantly section 2) permanent while renewing the remainder (perhaps most importantly section 5) for 25 years, until (July 1, 2007). Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


In July 2006, 41 years after the Voting Rights Act passed, renewal of the temporary provisions enjoyed bi-partisan support. However, a number of Republican lawmakers acted to amend, delay or defeat renewal of the Act for various reasons. One group of lawmakers led by Georgia congressman Lynn Westmoreland came from some pre-clearance states, and claimed that it is no longer fair to target their states given the passage of time since 1965 and the changes that have taken place since then. Another group of 80 legislators supported an amendment offered by Steve King of Iowa, seeking to strip provisions from the Act that require that translators or multilingual ballots be provided for U.S. citizens who do not speak English.[2] The "King letter" said that providing ballots or interpreters in multiple languages is a costly, unfunded mandate. The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Lynn Westmoreland is a racist prick who has consistently voted against bills meant to bring murderers to justice. ... For other people named Steve King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ...


The bill to renew the Act was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives, 390-33, with support from Republican House leadership, led by Judiciary Committee Chairman F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr.. The U.S. Senate passed the bill 98–0. [4] The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Frank James Sensenbrenner, Jr. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ...


President George W. Bush signed the bill in a morning ceremony on the South Lawn of the White House on July 27, 2006, one year in advance of the 2007 expiration date. The audience included members of the families of slain civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. and the late Mrs.Rosa Parks. Also in attendance were the Revs. Al Sharpton and Jesse Jackson, NAACP Chairman Julian Bond and other prominent African Americans.[4] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American civil rights activist and seamstress whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake... This biographical article needs additional references for verification. ... Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. ... Julian Bond (2004) Horace Julian Bond (born January 14, 1940) is an American leader of the American Civil Rights Movement. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


Criticisms

Pre-clearance

Some municipalities singled out in the Act for their practices from the 1960s are still required by law to receive federal permission for certain changes to election law or changes in venue.[5] These nine Southern states and mostly Southern counties have complained that the practices banned by the Act disappeared long ago and further compliance with the mandates of the Act are a costly nuisance and an "unfair stigma" to their towns.[2] As an example of the federal bureaucracy involved, Georgia Rep. Jack Kingston said, "If you move a polling place from the Baptist church to the Methodist church, you've got to go through the Justice Department."[2] John Heddens Jack Kingston (born April 24, 1955), an American Republican politician, has been a member of the United States House of Representatives since 1993, representing Georgias 1st congressional district in the southeastern part of the state (map). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ...


Rep. Lynn Westmoreland, R-Ga., said: Lynn Westmoreland is a racist prick who has consistently voted against bills meant to bring murderers to justice. ...

"Congress is declaring from on high that states with voting problems 40 years ago can simply never be forgiven, that Georgians must eternally wear the scarlet letter because of the actions of their grandparents and great-grandparents. ... We have repented and we have reformed."[6]

Some who think that this federal oversight is discriminatory to these particular states have proposed that the oversight be extended to all 50 states or eliminated entirely.[7]


Multilingual balloting

The Act requires munipalities that receive requests for ballots in other languages to comply with the request. Rep. Dana Rohrabacher of California said of the Act, "What unites us? It's our language, the English language" and that the Act is "hurting America by making it easier not to learn English."[6] Dana Tyron Rohrabacher (born June 21, 1947, in Coronado, California) is an American politician, who has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1989, currently representing Californias 46th congressional district. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Gerrymandering

Some judges and proponents of racially drawn congressional districts have interpreted Section 5 of the Act as requiring racial gerrymandering in order to ensure minority representation.[8][9] Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The Gerry-Mander first appeared in this cartoon-map in the Boston Gazette, 26 March 1812 Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ...


Section 2

Section 2 contains a general prohibition on voting discrimination, enforced through federal district court litigation. Congress amended this section in 1982, prohibiting any voting practice or procedure that has a discriminatory result. The 1982 amendment provided that proof of intentional discrimination is not required. The provision focused instead on whether the electoral processes is equally accessible to minority voters.[10] This section is permanent and does not require renewal.


Preclearance

Section 5 of the Act requires that the United States Department of Justice "preclear" any attempt to change “any voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure with respect to voting..." in any "covered jurisdiction." The Supreme Court gave a broad interpretation to the words "any voting qualification or prerequisite to voting" in Allen v. State Board of Election, 393 U.S. 544 (1969). A covered jurisdictions that seeks to obtain Section 5 preclearance, either from the Attorney General or the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, must demonstrate that a proposed voting change does not have the purpose and will not have the effect of discriminating based on race or color. In some cases, they must also show that the proposed change does not have the purpose or effect of discriminating against a "language minority group." Membership in a language minority group includes “persons who are American Indian, Asian American, Alaskan Natives or of Spanish heritage.” The burden of proof under current Section 5 jurisprudence is on the covered jurisdiction to establish that the proposed change does not have a retrogressive purpose.[11] The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... Alaskan Natives are Aboriginal Americans who live in Alaska. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ...


Covered jurisdictions may not implement voting changes without federal preclearance. The Justice Department has 60 days to respond to a request for a voting change. If the Justice Department or federal court rejects a request for preclearance, the jurisdiction may continue the prior voting practice or may adopt a substitute and seek preclearance for it. If the jurisdiction implements a voting change before the Justice Department denies preclearance in contravention of the Act, the jurisdiction must return to the pre-existing practice or enact a different change.


Those states which had less than 50% of the voting age population voting in 1960 and/or 1964 were originally covered. (This was when the average percentage of the voting age population participating in a presidential election was in the mid-60s instead of around 50% in 1996, 2000, and 2004.) In addition some counties and towns that have been found in violation of section 2 have since been added. Some counties in Virginia (see below) have been since found to no longer need preclearance.


The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights recently reviewed the Justice Department preclearance record and found that the percentage of DOJ objections to submitted changes has declined markedly over the 40-year period of the Act: The Commission on Civil Rights (USCCR) is an independent federal agency of the United States government. ...

  • During the three legislative periods that the Commission examined, 196574, 197582, and 19822004, the number of submitted changes from jurisdictions rose substantially, from 4,998 to 414,927. The proportion of objections to submitted changes decreased throughout, from 5.5 percent in the first period to 1.2 percent in the second, and to 0.6 percent in the third. Over the last 10 years, the overall objection rate was so low as to be practically negligible, at less than 0.1 percent.[12]

The Commission's two Democratic members dissented from the report, charging that the Commission had "abandon[ed] the field of battle." [13] Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The jurisdictions listed below must be precleared


States

This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Augusta County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ... Location in the state of Virginia Formed 1743 Seat Winchester Area  - Total  - Water 1,076 km² (416 mi²) 3 km² (1 mi²) 0. ... Greene County is a county in central Virginia in the eastern United States. ... Pulaski County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shenandoah County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... Warren County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Founded 1805 Government  - Mayor Robert Lederer Area  - City  6. ... Nickname: Location in Virginia Coordinates: , County Independent City Founded 1737 Government  - Mayor Rodney Eagle[1] Area  - City 45. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1802 Government  - Mayor Elizabeth Minor Area  - City  9. ...

Counties

Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Kings County is a county located in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California, southeast of Fresno County. ... Merced County is a county located in Californias Central Valley, north of Fresno and southeast of San Jose. ... Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of California, its northwestern section forming the southern half of Monterey Bay. ... Yuba County is located in the U.S. state of Californias Central Valley, north of Sacramento, along the Feather River. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Collier County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... Hardee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... Hendry County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... Hillsborough County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... This article is about the state. ... The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of United States. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Anson County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Location in the state of North Carolina Formed 1712 Seat Washington Area  - Total  - Water 2,483 km² (959 mi²) 339 km² (131 mi²) 13. ... Bertie is the name of a very sweet breed of dog, a boxedor. ... Bladen County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Camden County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Caswell County Courthouse - 2005 Caswell County redirects here. ... Chowan County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Cleveland County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Craven County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Cumberland County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Edgecombe County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Franklin County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Gaston County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Gates County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Granville County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Greene County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Guilford County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Halifax County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Harnett County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Hertford County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Hoke County is a county in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Jackson County is a county located in the southwest of the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Lee County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Lenoir County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Martin County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Nash County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Northampton County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Onslow County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Pasquotank County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Perquimans County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Person County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Pitt County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Robeson County is the largest county in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Rockingham County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... For other uses, see Scotland (disambiguation). ... Union County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Vance County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Washington County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Wayne County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Wilson County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Shannon County is a county located in the U.S. state of South Dakota. ... Todd County is a county located in the state of South Dakota. ...

Towns

Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Clyde Township is a township located in Allegan County, Michigan. ... Buena Vista Charter Township is a charter township in Saginaw County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... Location in Cheshire County, New Hampshire Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Cheshire County Incorporated 1768  - Board of Selectmen Arthur C. Fiorelli Timothy Halliday Patricia Lang Barry Area    - Town  40. ... Millsfield is an unincorporated township located in Coos County, New Hampshire, USA. In New Hampshire, locations, grants, townships (which are different from towns), and purchases are unincorporated portions of a county which are not part on any town and have limited self-government (if any, as many are uninhabited). ... Pinkhams Grant is a grant located in Coos County, New Hampshire. ... Stewartstown is a town located in Coos County, New Hampshire. ... Stratford is a town located in Coos County, New Hampshire. ... Grafton County is a county located in the state of New Hampshire. ... Benton is a town located in Grafton County, New Hampshire. ... Antrim is a town located in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire. ... Boscawen is a town located in Merrimack County, New Hampshire. ... Newington is a town located in Rockingham County, New Hampshire. ... Unity is a town located in Sullivan County, New Hampshire. ...

Bail out

The term "bail out" refers to the process by which covered jurisdictions may seek exemption from Section 5 coverage. In order to bail out, a covered jurisdiction needs to obtain a declaratory judgment from the District Court for the District of Columbia. The 11 Virginia jurisdictions not covered by Section 5 preclearance requirements have all successfully "bailed out."


Before August 1984, this process required covered jurisdictions to demonstrate that the voting test that they used immediately before coverage was not used in a discriminatory fashion. The 1982 amendment included two significant changes. First, Congress provided that where a state is covered in its entirety, individual counties in that state may separately bail out. Second, Congress completely redesigned the bailout standard. The post-1984 bailout standard requires that a covered jurisdiction demonstrate nondiscriminatory behavior during the 10 years prior to filing and while the action is pending and that it has taken affirmative steps to improve minority voting opportunities.[14]


No affirmative right to vote

While the title of the Voting Rights Act might imply that it established an explicit right to vote for U.S. citizens, there is no such federal right. However, the Voting Rights Act and three constitutional amendments that prevent discrimination in granting the franchise have established in United States Supreme Court jurisprudence that there is a "fundamental right" in the franchise, even though voting remains a state-granted privilege. However, states are given considerable leeway when it comes to this "fundamental right".


In Bush v. Gore (2000), the Supreme Court ruled that, "The individual citizen has no federal constitutional right to vote for electors for the President of the United States." States do not have to extend sufferage to ex-felons [1], nor do they have to allow citizens to register and vote on the Election Day. In 2007, the Supreme Court will decide if, a "Voter ID law unfairly deters the poor and minorities from voting" [2]. While the Supreme Court has stated that the right to vote and the right to be a candidate are connected, they have often upheld state laws that make it difficult for independent and minor party candidates to be included on the election ballot or in the debates [3]. Holding In the circumstances of this case, any manual recount of votes seeking to meet the December 12 “safe harbor” deadline would be unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ...


Washington, D.C., not being a state, has been granted only limited voting rights by Congress, which controls the District "in all cases whatsoever", according to the District Clause of the Constitution.[15] U.S. Representative Jesse Jackson, Jr. re-introduced House Joint Resolution 28 in March, 2005, to amend the U.S. Constitution and create a federal right to vote.[16] The resolution had 60 co-sponsors as of October, 2006.[17] For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Jesse Louis Jackson, Jr. ...


References

  1. ^ US Department of Justice - Voting Rights Act of 1965. U.S. Department of Justice (2006-03-20). Retrieved on 2006-07-12.
  2. ^ a b c d "GOP Rebellion Stops Voting Rights Act", Washington Post, 2006-06-22. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. 
  3. ^ "House Renews Voting Rights Act Provisions", San Francisco Chronicle, 2006-07-14. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. 
  4. ^ a b "Bush signs Voting Rights Act extension: Historic 1965 law renewed for 25 years", Associated Press, 2006-07-21. Retrieved on 2006-09-17. 
  5. ^ "Renewal of Voting Rights Act postponed", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. 
  6. ^ a b "House Renews Voting Rights Act Unchanged", CBS News. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. 
  7. ^ Voting Rights Act. Court TV. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  8. ^ "Faith, race and Barack Obama", The Economist, July 6, 2006. 
  9. ^ http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/_ws-birth.htm
  10. ^ "U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Voting Rights Enforcement and Reauthorization: An Examination of the Act's Section 5 Preclearance Provision", April 2006.  at 3.
  11. ^ "U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Voting Rights Enforcement and Reauthorization: An Examination of the Act's Section 5 Preclearance Provision", April 2006.  at 6
  12. ^ "Voting Rights Enforcement and Reauthorization: An Examination of the Act's Section 5 Preclearance Provision", April 2006.  at 62
  13. ^ "Id.", April 2006.  at 62 (Commissioners Michael Yaki and Arlan Melendez, dissenting).
  14. ^ "U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Voting Rights Enorcement and Reauthorization: An Examination of the Act's Section 5 Preclearance Provision", April 2006. at 44.
  15. ^ Reynolds v. Sims 377 U.S. 533, 561–562 (1964): "Undoubtedly, the right of suffrage is a fundamental matter in a free and democratic society. Especially since the right to exercise the franchise in a free and unimpaired manner is preservative of other basic civil and political rights, any alleged infringement of the right of citizens to vote must be carefully and meticulously scrutinized. Almost a century ago, in Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356, the Court referred to "the political franchise of voting" as "a fundamental political right, because preservative of all rights." 118 U.S. at 370.
  16. ^ A Proposed Amendment to Establish a Constitutional Right to Vote in America (March 2005). Retrieved on 2006-06-23.
  17. ^ H.J.RES.28. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2006-06-23.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Reynolds v. ... Holding Racially discriminatory application of a facially neutral statute violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
ACLU :: Voting Rights Act :: ACLU Voting Rights :: Home (429 words)
On March 7th, 1965, voting rights marchers in Selma were viciously attacked by Alabama state police while peacefully protesting for the right to vote.
Renew the Voting Rights Act” with the release of two comprehensive reports documenting continuing discrimination in voting against racial minorities and the key policy issues associated with renewal of the expiring provisions of the VRA.
In July 2006, the Senate reauthorized the Voting Rights Act on a vote of 98 to 0.
Voting Rights Act - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (658 words)
The act also provided for DOJ oversight to registration, and the Department's approval for any change in voting law in districts whose populations were at least 5% African-American.
The act has been used to protect minority and poor voters but in May, 2006 it has been used to protect white voters in Mississippi who were being intimidated to vote by fl election officials.
Especially since the right to exercise the franchise in a free and unimpaired manner is preservative of other basic civil and political rights, any alleged infringement of the right of citizens to vote must be carefully and meticulously scrutinized.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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