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Encyclopedia > Voting
Voting
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on Politics and Elections
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Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. The term Finno-Ugric people is used to describe a people speaking a Finno-Ugric language. ... Votes are people of Votia who speak the Finno-Ugric Votic language, who until World War II lived in the northern parts of Estonia. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the political process. ... Image File history File links Vote_icon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Postal voting. ... Abstention is a term in election procedure for when a participant in a vote either does not goes to vote (on election day) or, in parliamentary procedure, isnt absent during the vote, but does not cast a ballot. ... For the town in France, see Ballots, Mayenne. ... Clear sided ballot boxes used in the Haitian general election in 2006. ... Ballot stuffing is the act of one person submitting multiple ballots during a vote in which only one ballot per person is permitted. ... Early voting, or vote banking, not to be confused with absentee voting, allows a voter to cast a ballot in front of an elections official before the official poll date. ... Election Day Registration, also known as same-day voter registration, permits eligible citizens to register and vote on Election Day. ... In party-list proportional representation systems, an election threshold is a clause that stipulates that a party must receive a minimum percentage of votes, either nationally or within a particular district, to get any seats in the parliament. ... An elector can be: In the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation, the collegiate of seven Electors (eight since 1648) (Kurfürsten) consisted of those lay or clerical princes who had the right to vote in the election of the king or Holy Roman Emperor; see prince-elector. ... None of the Above (NOTA) is a ballot choice in some jurisdictions or organizations, placed so as to allow the voter to indicate his disapproval with all of the candidates in any voting system. ... The paradox of voting, also referred to as Downs paradox is a reference to the fact that for a rational, self-interested voter, the costs of voting will normally exceed the expected benefits. ... A polling station situated inside a suburban library in the north of Cambridge during the United Kingdom general election, 2005. ... Postal Voting describes the method of voting in an election whereby ballot papers are distributed and/or returned by post to electors, in contrast to electors voting in person at a Polling station or electronically via an Electronic voting system. ... A precinct is a space enclosed by the walls or other boundaries of a particular place or building, or by an arbitrary and imaginary line drawn around it. ... In an open list proportional representation system voters can indicate their preference for a particular individual candidate on a party list by voting for him or her. ... A Protest vote is a vote cast in an election to demonstrate the casters unhappiness with the choice of candidates or the current political system. ... In U.S. elections, when someone shows up at a polling place to cast a vote, but is not on the list of people who may vote there (is not registered in that precinct, or his registation is otherwise invalid or inaccurate), he may be allowed to cast a provisional... A refused ballot, or similar alternative, is a choice available to voters in many elections. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... In voting, a ballot paper is considered to be spoilt, void, or null if it is regarded by the election authorities to contain irregularities during vote counting, and hence cannot be recorded as a valid vote. ... In voting systems, tactical voting (or strategic voting) occurs when a voter supports a candidate other than his or her sincere preference in order to prevent an undesirable outcome. ... A tally (also see tally sticks) is an unofficial private observation of an election count carried out under Proportional Representation using the Single Transferable Vote. ... A ticket refers to a single election choice which fills more than one political office or seat. ... Ticket Splitters are those who split their tickets for public office, voting on the basis of individual personalities and records instead of on the basis of party loyalties. ... Election Technology This box:      A vote center sometimes known as a super precinct is a polling place that combines multiple precincts allowing voters to choose at which location to vote. ... Vote pairing (or vote swapping as it has also been called) is the method where a voter in one district agrees to vote tactically for a less-preferred candidate or party who has a greater chance of winning in their district, in exchange for a voter from another district voting... In politics, voter fatigue is the apathy that the public can experience when they are required to vote too often. ... Voter registration is the shit in some democracies for citizens to check in with some central registry before being allowed to vote in elections. ... Voters lining up outside a Baghdad polling station during the 2005 Iraqi election. ... A polling station situated inside a suburban library in the north of Cambridge during the United Kingdom general election, 2005. ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... Meetings are sometimes held around conference tables. ... In politics, an electorate is the group of people entitled to vote in an election. ...


Voting is used in two different ways. First, members of a group may express their individual interests by their votes in order to aggregate them into a single group preference.


Second, members of a jury may express their individual opinions by their votes in order to select that opinion.

Contents

Process of voting

Most forms of democracy discern the will of the people by a common voting procedure:

  • Individual voter registration and qualification,
  • Opening the Election for a set time period,
  • Registration of voters at established voting locations,
  • Distribution of ballots with preset candidates, issues, and choices (including the write-in option in some cases),
  • Selection of preferred choices (often in secret, called a secret ballot),
  • Secure collection of ballots for unbiased counting, and
  • Proclamation of the will of the voters as the will of the people for their government.

Voter registration is the shit in some democracies for citizens to check in with some central registry before being allowed to vote in elections. ...

Reasons for voting

In a democracy, voting commonly implies election, i.e. a way for an electorate to select among candidates for office. In politics voting is the method by which the electorate of a democracy appoints representatives in its government. This article is about the political process. ... In politics, an electorate is the group of people entitled to vote in an election. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...


A vote, or a ballot, is an individual's act of voting, by which he or she express support or preference for a certain motion (e.g. a proposed resolution), a certain candidate, or a certain selection of candidates. A secret ballot, the standard way to protect voters' political privacy, generally takes place at a polling station. (Compare postal ballot). The act of voting in most countries is voluntary, however some countries, such as Australia, Belgium and Brazil, have compulsory voting systems. A motion is a formal step to introduce a matter for consideration by a group. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... Political privacy has been a concern since voting systems emerged in ancient times. ... A polling station situated inside a suburban library in the north of Cambridge during the United Kingdom general election, 2005. ... In the United States, an absentee ballot is a ballot that the voter receives and (usually) sends through the mail, rather than travelling to a polling place and marking the ballot at a voting booth. ... Compulsory voting is a practice that requires citizens to vote in elections or to attend a polling place to get their name crossed off the electoral roll. ...


Types of votes

Different voting systems use different types of vote. Suppose that the options in some election are Alice, Bob, Charlie, Daniel, and Emily. A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ...


In a voting system that uses a single vote, the voter can select one of the five that they most approve of. "First past the post" uses single votes. So, a voter might vote for Charlie. This precludes him voting for anyone else. An example of a plurality ballot. ...


An improvement on the single vote system is to have run-off elections, or repeat first past the post, however, the winner must win by 50% plus one, called a simple majority. If subsequent votes must be used, often a candidate, the one with the fewest votes or anyone who wants to move their support to another candidate, is removed from the ballot. Run-off or runoff may refer to one of the following. ...


In a voting system that uses a multiple vote, the voter can vote for any subset of the alternatives. So, a voter might vote for Alice, Bob, and Charlie, rejecting Daniel and Emily. Approval voting uses such multiple votes. On an approval ballot, the voter can vote for any number of candidates. ...


In a voting system that uses a ranked vote, the voter has to rank the alternatives in order of preference. For example, they might vote for Bob in first place, then Emily, then Alice, then Daniel, and finally Charlie. Many voting systems use ranked votes.


In a voting system that uses a scored vote (or range vote), the voter gives each alternative a number between one and ten (the upper and lower bounds may vary). See range voting. Range voting (also called ratings summation, average voting, cardinal ratings, 0–99 voting, or the score system or point system) is a voting system for one-seat elections under which voters score each candidate, the scores are added up, and the candidate with the highest score wins. ...


Fair voting

Economist Kenneth Arrow lists five characteristics of a fair voting system. However, Arrow's impossibility theorem shows that it is impossible for any voting system which offers more than three options per question to have all 5 characteristics at the same time. Kenneth Joseph Arrow (born August 23, 1921) is an American economist, joint winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics with John Hicks in 1972, and the youngest person ever to receive this award, at 51. ... A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... In voting systems, Arrow’s impossibility theorem, or Arrow’s paradox, demonstrates that no voting system can possibly meet a certain set of reasonable criteria when there are three or more options to choose from. ...


Casting a vote expresses an implied willingness to participate in a common process with some shared outcome. Those who feel unable to express their limits or boundaries of tolerance in a voting system may be more likely to resist or fight or fail to support decisions made through it (more of an issue with parties or policies). Those who feel unable to express their real preferences may lack all enthusiasm for the choices or for the eventually chosen representative or leader. Any vote balances both kinds of considerations. Political Parties redirects here. ... Leader redirects here. ...


One common issue, especially in first-past-the-post systems, is that of the protest vote: one might "waste one's vote" on a minor party to send a signal of strong preference for a candidate or party that cannot win, or of intolerance for the "more mainstream" options. However it is difficult to tell from the vote alone whether one is positively inclined to the minor party or negatively inclined to the major party. Russia offers its electors a "None of the Above" option, so that protest votes can be properly tallied. Other jurisdictions may record the incidence of (apparently deliberately) spoiled ballot papers. A Protest vote is a vote cast in an election to demonstrate the casters unhappiness with the choice of candidates or the current political system. ... None of the Above (NOTA) is a ballot choice in some jurisdictions or organizations, placed so as to allow the voter to indicate his disapproval with all of the candidates in any voting system. ... A spoiled ballot is a ballot which uncountable for the election in question using the applicable vote counting system. ...


Also, it is often not clear whether the voter really understands how his or her vote is counted in the voting system, especially with the more complex types. This often leads to issues with the results. Ballot design and the use of voting machines have particular importance, given this issue. Optimally participants in a vote should perceive the results, especially of a political vote, as fair. If fairness appears lacking, resistance to the results may lead at best to confusion, at worst to violence and even civil war, in the case of political rivals. A ballot is a device used to record choices made by voters. ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ... Justice is a concept involving the fair and moral treatment of all persons, especially in law. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...


In an effort to make balloting cheaper and more transparent, Brazil introduced electronic voting in all levels of elections, gradually since 1994. By 2002 general elections, all voting in Brazil was cast on electronic system, with paper ballots being used only in last case emergencies (such as black-outs). Argentina followed in 2003 for a gubernatorial election. This pilot test involved 500,000 voters distributed among 20 constituencies in the eastern Argentine province of Buenos Aires. However, concerns over the security of paperless voting machines have caused controversy, particularly in the United States. Electronic voting machine by Premier Election Solutions (formerly Diebold Election Systems) used in all Brazilian elections and plebiscites. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ...


Criteria. It may be premature to choose the best method of voting without deciding the criteria by which the methods are to be judged. The criterion most commonly accepted is that the method should choose the candidate or policy that would defeat all others in a series of individual contests. This is what our usual balloting system does, looking only at the voter’s positive choices. Pairwise comparisons is a good implementation of that aim.


Maybe that should not be the sole criterion, however. Another possible goal would be to protect minorities from what has been called the “militant majority.” A town meeting is one implementation of democracy that often does this. Such a meeting would probably not choose the initially most popular candidate if that candidate was totally unacceptable to a significant minority. A candidate would probably be chosen who had slightly fewer supporters but many fewer enemies. A blackball or veto provision also protects minority rights, though at great cost to majority rule.


It may be desirable then that an ideal voting system should consider who people oppose as well as who they support. These are not mirror images of each other. The decision makers have latitudes of acceptance, indifference, and rejection, and these may differ in their widths. Many alternatives may fall in the latitude of indifference - they are neither accepted nor rejected. Avoiding the choice that the most people strongly reject may sometimes be at least as important as choosing the one that they most favor.


Voting and Information

Modern political science has questioned whether average citizens have sufficient political information to cast meaningful votes. A series of studies coming out of the University of Michigan in the 1950s and 1960s argued that voters lack a basic understanding of current issues, the liberal-conservative ideological dimension, and the relative ideological positions of the major parties. Only a handful of sophisticated voters—usually those with education and high levels of political involvement—seemed to understand political debates fully.[1][2] The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Political Parties redirects here. ...


Though these studies arose from research in the United States, their implications for democracy are severe. However, these conclusions continue to be contested as current scholarly research debates the Michigan studies' findings. A consensus has begun to emerge that voters do not need the high levels of political information that the Michigan studies expected to find in order to participate fully in politics; instead, voters learn to rely on "information shortcuts"—for example, they look at which politicians and interest groups endorse each side of a proposal to get a feel for whether they ought to support it.[3][4] This article is about political advocates. ...


See also

Look up vote, voting in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... In economics, dollar voting is an analogy used to explain how the purchasing choices of consumers affect which products will continue to be produced and supplied to the market. ... Mundialization is the name of one of the movements aiming at democratic globalization. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The Gerry-Mander first appeared in this cartoon-map in the Boston Gazette, 26 March 1812 Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ... Democratic globalization is a movement towards an institutional system that expands globalization by giving world citizens a say in world organizations. ... Look up poll in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the political process. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The process known as redistricting in the United States and redistribution in many Commonwealth countries is the changing of political borders (in many countries, specifically the electoral district/constituency boundaries) usually in response to periodic census results. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Voters lining up outside a Baghdad polling station during the 2005 Iraqi election. ...

References

  1. ^ Campbell, Converse, Miller, and Stokes. 1960. The American voter. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  2. ^ Converse. 1964. The nature of belief systems in mass publics. In Ideology and Discontent, edited by David Apter. (Summary)
  3. ^ Popkin. 1994. The reasoning voter: Communication and persuasion in presidential campaigns. 2d edition. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
  4. ^ Lupia and McCubbins. 1998. The Democratic Dilemma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Summary)
  • A New Nation Votes: American Elections Returns 1787-1825

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Voting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (886 words)
A vote, or a ballot, is an individual's act of voting, by which he or she express support or preference for a certain motion (e.g.
Though voting is usually recognized as one of the main characteristics of democracy, a country's having an election featuring the populace casting votes does not necessarily mean the country is democratic.
Some people think that whenever votes are recorded in a medium which is invisible to humans, electors lose any possibility to verify how their votes are collected and tallied up to produce the final result, thus they need to have an absolute faith in the accuracy, honesty and security of the whole electoral apparatus.
vote: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com (5110 words)
Eventually in political voting, the ballot came into use, a sophisticated form of which is the voting machine.
While in democracies voting is, generally, a voluntary right, in totalitarian systems it is virtually a compulsory duty, and nonvoting may be considered an act of disapproval of government policies.
Voting systems are also in place in which a machine optically scans a paper ballot and tabulates the votes for each office.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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