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Encyclopedia > Vostok 1
Vostok 1
Mission insignia
Mission statistics
Mission name: Vostok 1
Spacecraft name: "Swallow"
Call sign: Кедр (Kedr -
Siberian Pine)
Number of crew members: 1
Launch: April 12, 1961
06:07 UTC
Baikonur LC1
45°55′12.72″N, 63°20′32.32″E
Landing: April 12, 1961
07:55 UTC
51° N, 46° E
Duration: 1 hour, 48 minutes
Number of Orbits: 1
Apogee: 315 km
Perigee: 169 km
Period: 89.34 minutes
Orbit inclination: 64.95°
Mass: 4725 kg
Crew photo

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Sputnik 10 Vostok 2

Vostok 1 (Russian: Восток-1, meaning Orient-1 or East-1) was the first human spaceflight. The Vostok 3KA spacecraft was launched on April 12, 1961, taking into space Yuri Gagarin, a cosmonaut from the Soviet Union. The Vostok 1 mission was the first time anyone had journeyed into outer space and the first time anyone had entered into orbit. Image File history File links Vostok 1 patch File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Pinus sibirica The Siberian Pine (Pinus sibirica; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine tree that occurs in Siberia from 58°E in the Ural Mountains east to 126°E in the Stanovoy Khrebet mountains in southern Sakha Republic, and from Igarka at 68°N in the lower... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Crew None Mission Parameters Mass: 4,695 kg Perigee: 164 km Apogee: 230 km Inclination: 64. ... Gherman Titov Vostok 2 was a Soviet space mission which carried cosmonaut Gherman Titov into orbit for a full day in order to study the effects of a more prolonged period of weightlessness on the human body. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... The Vostok (Russian: Восток, translated as East) was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Unions space programme for human spaceflight. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian: , Yuriy Alekseyevich Gagarin IPA: ; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968), Hero of the Soviet Union, was a Soviet cosmonaut. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit outside the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ...

Contents

Crew

Backup Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian: , Yuriy Alekseyevich Gagarin IPA: ; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968), Hero of the Soviet Union, was a Soviet cosmonaut. ...

Reserve Gherman Titov Gherman Stepanovich Titov (Russian: Герман Степанович Титов; September 11, 1935, Verkhnee Zhilino – September 20, 2000, Moscow) was a Soviet cosmonaut and the second person to orbit the Earth. ...

Grigori Nelyubov, one of the original 20 cosmonauts Grigori Grigoyevich Nelyubov (March 31, 1934 – February 18, 1966) was a Russian cosmonaut who was likely to have been the third or fourth person in space before his dismissal from the Soviet space program. ...

Mission highlights

Spaceflight path

Gagarin orbited the Earth once in 108 minutes. He returned unharmed, ejecting from the Vostok capsule 7 km above the ground and parachuting separately to the ground (the capsule's parachute landing was too rough for cosmonauts to risk). Image File history File links Vostok 1 orbital path. ... Image File history File links Vostok 1 orbital path. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ...


Ground controllers did not know if a stable orbit had been achieved until 25 minutes after launch.


The spacecraft attitude control was run by an automated system. Medical staff and spacecraft engineers were unsure how a human being might react to weightlessness, and therefore the pilot's flight controls were locked out to prevent Gagarin from taking manual control. (Codes to unlock the controls were placed in an onboard envelope, for Gagarin's use in case of emergency.) Vostok could not change its orbit, only spacecraft attitude (orientation), and for much of the flight the spacecraft's attitude was allowed to drift. The automatic system brought Vostok 1 into alignment for retrofire about 1 hour into the flight. // In the context of spacecraft, attitude control is control of the angular position and rotation of the spacecraft, either relative to the object that it is orbiting, or relative to the celestial sphere. ...


Retrofire took place off the west coast of Africa, near Angola, about 8000 km from the desired landing place. The liquid-fueled retros fired for about 42 seconds. Due to weight constraints there was no backup retro engine. The spacecraft carried 10 days of provisions to allow for survival and natural decay of the orbit in the event the retros failed. A retrorocket is a rocket engine used to provide thrust opposing the motion of a spacecraft, thereby causing it to decelerate. ...


After retrofire, the Vostok equipment module unexpectedly remained attached to the reentry module by a bundle of wires. The two halves of the craft were supposed to separate ten seconds after retrofire, but this did not happen until 10 minutes had passed. The spacecraft went through wild gyrations before the wires burned through and the descent module settled into the proper reentry attitude.


The FAI rules in 1961 required that a pilot must land with the spacecraft to be considered an official spaceflight for the FAI record books. At the time, the Soviet Union insisted that Gagarin had landed with the Vostok and the FAI certified the flight. Years later, it was revealed that Gagarin had ejected and landed separately from the Vostok descent module. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) is a standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics. ...


When Soviet officials filled out the FAI papers to register the flight of Vostok 1, they stated that the launch site was Baykonur at 47°22′00″N, 65°29′00″E. In reality, the launch site was near Tyura-Tam at 45°55′12.72″N, 63°20′32.32″E, 250 km to the south west of "Baykonur". They did this to try to keep the location of the Space Center a secret. In 1995, Russian and Kazakh officials renamed Tyura-Tam to Baikonur. Anthem My Kazakhstan Capital Astana Largest city Almaty Official languages Kazakh (state language), Russian Demonym Kazakhstani (Kazakh generally only ethnic citizens)[1] Government Republic  -  President Nursultan Nazarbayev  -  Prime Minister Karim Masimov Independence from the Soviet Union   -  1st Khanate 1361 as White Horde   -  2nd Khanate 1428 as Uzbek Horde   -  3rd Khanate... Map showing Baikonurs location in Kazakhstan. ...


The re-entry capsule is now on display at the museum of RKK Energiya in Korolyov. The recovered Vostok 1 capsule on display at the RKK Energiya museum. ... S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (also known as RKK Energiya) is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components. ... Korolyov or Korolev (Russian: ) is an industrial city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located at , well-known as the cradle of space exploration. ...


Mission timeline

  • Wednesday, 12 April 1961 Minutes before his launch, Yuri Gagarin recorded this statement, "Dear friends, known and unknown to me, my dear compatriots and all people of the world! Within minutes from now, a mighty Soviet rocket will boost my ship into the vastness of outer space. What I want to tell you is this. My whole life is now before me as a single breathtaking moment. I feel I can muster up my strength for successfully carrying out what is expected of me."
  • Countdown begins Yuri Gagarin is in the Vostok 1 spacecraft on the launchpad. His television picture appears on tv screens in the launch control room from an onboard television camera. Sergey Korolyov speaks into a microphone: " 'Dawn' calling 'Cedar' (Gagarin's call sign). The countdown is about to start." Gagarin replied, "Roger. Feeling fine, excellent spirits, ready to go."
  • 06:07 UTC Launch occurs from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, (Tyura-Tam 45°55′12.72″N, 63°20′32.32″E, after Gagarin's flight that launch pad became known as Russian: «Гагаринский старт», English: "Gagarin's Start") in the Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan. At ignition and liftoff, Sergey Korolyov radios, "Preliminary stage..... intermediate..... main..... LIFT OFF! We wish you a good flight. Everything is all right." Gagarin replies, "Poyekhali! (Off we go!)"
  • 06:09 UTC Two minutes into the flight and the four strap-on booster sections of the Vostok rocket have used up the last of their propellant, they shut down and drop away from the core vehicle. (T+ 119 s).
  • 06:10 UTC The payload shroud covering Vostok 1 is released, this uncovers the window at Gagarin's feet with the Vzor (Eyesight) optical orientation device. (T+ 156 s).
  • 06:12 UTC Five minutes into the flight and the Vostok rocket core stage has used up its propellant, shuts down and falls away from the Vostok spacecraft and final rocket stage. The final rocket stage ignites to continue the journey to orbit. (T+ 300 s).
  • 06:13 UTC The rocket is still firing, pushing Vostok 1 toward orbit. Gagarin reports, " .. the flight is continuing well. I can see the Earth. The visibility is good. ... I almost see everything. There's a certain amount of space under cumulus cloud cover. I continue the flight, everything is good."
  • 06:14 UTC The rocket continues to fire, starting to pass over central Russia now. Gagarin reports, "Everything is working very well. All systems are working. Let's keep going!"
  • 06:15 UTC Three minutes into the burn of the final rocket stage and Gagarin reports, "Zarya-1, Zarya-1, I can't hear you very well. I feel fine. I'm in good spirits. I'm continuing the flight..... ." Vostok 1 is moving further downrange from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. He is reporting back to "Zarya-1" (the Baikonur ground station) and must be starting to move out of radio range of that station.
  • 06:17 UTC The Vostok rocket final stage shuts down, ten seconds later the spacecraft separates and Vostok 1 reaches orbit. (T+ 676 s). Gagarin reports, "The craft is operating normally. I can see Earth in the view port of the Vzor. Everything is proceeding as planned". Vostok 1 passes over Russia and moves on over Siberia.
Yuri Gagarin in Vostok 1
Yuri Gagarin in Vostok 1
  • 06:21 UTC Vostok 1 passes over the Kamchatka peninsula and out over the North Pacific Ocean. Gagarin radios, "...the lights are on on the descent mode monitor. I'm feeling fine, and I'm in good spirits. Cockpit parameters: pressure 1; humidity 65; temperature 20; pressure in the compartment 1; first automatic 155; second automatic 155; pressure in the retro-rocket system 320 atmospheres...."
  • 06:25 UTC As Vostok 1 begins its diagonal crossing of the Pacific Ocean from Kamchatka peninsula to the southern tip of South America, Gagarin asks, "What can you tell me about the flight? What can you tell me?". He is requesting information about his orbital parameters. The ground station at Khabarovsk reports back, "There are no instructions from No. 20 (Sergey Korolyov), and the flight is proceeding normally" They are telling Gagarin that they don't have his orbital parameters yet because spacecraft is in orbit for only 6 minutes, but the spacecraft systems are performing well.
  • 06:31 UTC Gagarin transmits to the Khabarovsk ground station, "I feel splendid, very well, very well, very well. Give me some results on the flight!". Vostok 1 is nearing the VHF radio horizon for Khabarovsk and they respond, "Repeat. I can't hear you very well". Gagarin transmits again, "I feel very good. Give me your data on the flight!" Vostok 1 passes out of VHF range of the Khabarovsk ground station and contact is lost.
  • 06:37 UTC Vostok 1 continues on its journey as the Sun sets over the North Pacific. Gagarin crosses into night, northwest of the Hawaiian Islands. Out of VHF range with ground stations, communications must now take place via HF radio.
  • 06:46 UTC Khabarovsk ground station sends the message "KK" via telegraph (morse) code on HF radio to Vostok 1. This message means, "Report the monitoring of commands". They were asking Gagarin to report when the spacecraft automated descent system had received its instructions from the ground control. Gagarin reported back at 06:48 UTC.
  • 06:48 UTC Vostok 1 crosses the equator at about 170° West, traveling in a south east direction and begins crossing the South Pacific. Gagarin transmits over HF radio, "I am transmitting the regular report message: 9 hours 48 minutes (Moscow Time), the flight is proceeding successfully. Spusk-1 is operating normally. The mobile index of the descent mode monitor is moving. Pressure in the cockpit is 1; humidity 65; temperature 20; pressure in the compartment 1.2 .... Manual 150; First automatic 155; second automatic 155; retro rocket system tanks 320 atmospheres. I feel fine...".
  • 06:49 UTC Gagarin reports he is on the night side of the Earth.
  • 06:51 UTC Gagarin reports the sun-seeking attitude control system had been switched on. The sun-seeking attitude control system is used to orient Vostok 1 for retrofire. The automated orientation system consisted of two redundant systems: an automatic/solar orientation system and a manual/visual orientation system. Either system could operate the two redundant cold nitrogen gas thruster systems, each with 10 kg of gas.
  • 06:53 UTC The Khabarovsk ground station sends Gagarin the following message via HF radio, "By order of No.33 (General Nikolai Kamanin) the transmitters have been switched on, and we are transmitting this: the flight is proceeding as planned and the orbit is as calculated." They are telling Gagarin that Vostok 1 is in a stable orbit. He acknowledges the message.
  • 06:57 UTC Vostok 1 is over the South Pacific between New Zealand and Chile when Gagarin sends this message, "....I'm continuing the flight, and I'm over America. I transmitted the telegraph signal "ON".
  • 07:04 UTC Gagarin sends spacecraft status message, similar to the one sent at 06:48. The message is not received by ground stations.
  • 07:09 UTC Gagarin sends spacecraft status message, the message is not received by ground stations.
  • 07:10 UTC Passing over the South Atlantic, the Sun rises and Vostok 1 is in daylight again. Vostok 1 is 15 minutes from retrofire.
  • 07:13 UTC Gagarin sends spacecraft status message, similar to the one sent at 06:48. Moscow picks up this partial message from Gagarin, "I read you well. The flight is going...".
  • 07:18 UTC Gagarin sends spacecraft status message, the message is not received by ground stations.
  • 07:23 UTC Gagarin sends spacecraft status message, the message is not received by ground stations.
  • 07:25 UTC Vostok 1 is in retrofire attitude. The retros are fired for about 42 seconds as the spacecraft nears Angola on the west coast of Africa. Retrofire takes place about 8,000 km from the planned landing point in Russia.
  • 07:25 to 07:35 UTC Ten seconds after retrofire, commands are sent to separate the Vostok service module from the reentry module. One bundle of wires fails to release and the two sections of the spacecraft remain attached for another 10 minutes. Vostok 1 crosses the west coast of Africa and continues over central Africa heading toward Egypt.
  • 07:35 UTC The two halves of the spacecraft begin reentry and go through wild gyrations as Vostok 1 nears Egypt. Finally, the wire bundle burns through and releases the reentry module. Gagarin telegraphs "Everything is OK" despite continuing gyrations; he later reported that he did not want to "make noise" as he had (correctly) reasoned that the gyrations did not endanger the mission (apparently due to the spherical shape of the reentry module).
  • 07:35 to 07:55 UTC Reentry continues over Egypt and out over the Mediterranean, near the west coast of Cyprus and then central Turkey. Continuing to drop lower, Vostok 1 crosses back into the Soviet Union on the Black Sea coast near Krasnodar. Gagarin experiences 8 g's (Gagarin's own report states "over 10 g's") during reentry but remains conscious.
The Vostok 1 capsule on display at the RKK Energiya museum.
The Vostok 1 capsule on display at the RKK Energiya museum.
  • 07:55 UTC Vostok 1 is still 7 km from the ground. The hatch is released and two seconds later Gagarin ejects from Vostok 1. At 2.5 km altitude, the main parachute is deployed from the Vostok spacecraft. Both he and the spacecraft land via parachute 26 km south west of Engels, in the Saratov region at 51° N 46° E, 1 hour and 48 minutes after liftoff. The Vostok 1 lands at 07:55 UTC. Gagarin, because his parachute opened at a much higher altitude than Vostok 1 (7 km vs. 2.5 km), lands at about 08:05 UTC. Two schoolgirls witness the Vostok landing and described the scene, "It was a huge ball, about two or three metres high. It fell, then it bounced and then it fell again. There was a huge hole where it hit the first time." A farmer and her daughter observed the strange scene of a figure in a bright orange suit with a large white helmet landing near them by parachute. Gagarin later recalled, "When they saw me in my space suit and the parachute dragging alongside as I walked, they started to back away in fear. I told them, don't be afraid, I am a Soviet like you, who has descended from space and I must find a telephone to call Moscow!" .

is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ), often transliterated less phonetically as Sergei Korolev[1] (January 12 [O.S. December 30 1906] 1907, Zhytomyr, now Ukraine – January 14, 1966, Moscow), was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the... Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ÄŸarış aylağı; Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur), also called Tyuratam, is the worlds oldest and largest operational space launch facility. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... Yuri Garain in Vostok 1 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Yuri Garain in Vostok 1 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Kamchatka is home to many volcanoes, including Avachinsky shown here. ... Government Country District Krai Russia Far Eastern Federal District Khabarovsk Krai Established 1858 Mayor Alexandr Sokolov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 372 km² Population  - City (2005) 579,000 Coordinates Other Information Postal Code 680xxx Dialing Code +7 4212 Website: www. ... In telecommunication, radio horizon is the locus of points at which direct rays from an antenna are tangential to the surface of the Earth. ... The Sun (Latin: ) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Nikolai Petrovich Kamanin, born 1908 in Milenski, Vladimir, Russia. ... World map exhibiting a common interpretation of Oceania; other interpretations may vary. ... A true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite image, the entire Strait is visible A map of the Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan is a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile, South America and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... 19th century photo depicting Kuban Cossacks obelisk in Krasnodar Krasnodar (Russian: ) is a city in Southern Russia on the Kuban River. ... The term g force or gee force refers to the symbol g, the force of acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface. ... Atmospheric reentry is the process by which vehicles that are outside the atmosphere of a planet can enter that atmosphere and reach the planetary surface intact. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 927 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Vostok 1 capsule as recovered after landing. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1536 pixel, file size: 927 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Vostok 1 capsule as recovered after landing. ... The recovered Vostok 1 capsule on display at the RKK Energiya museum. ... Engels (Russian: ) is a city in Saratov Oblast, Russia. ... Categories: Russia geography stubs | Oblasts of Russia ...

See also

Lost Cosmonauts or Phantom Cosmonauts are cosmonauts that allegedly entered outer space and records of their voyages were kept confidential or destroyed altogether. ... The Vostok (Восток, translated as East) was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Unions space program for human spaceflight. ... The Vostok rocket (Russian Восток, translated as East) was a derivative of the Soviet R-7 ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme but later used for other satellite launches. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vostok (853 words)
Vostok 1 was the first manned spacecraft to complete a full orbit, Vostok 2 the first to spend a full day in space.
Vostok 5 was the first long-duration mission, and Vostok 6 the first to carry a woman.
Vostok 3 and 4 took off from the same launch pad a day apart and were placed in such accurate orbits that the spacecraft passed within 6.5 km of each other.
Encyclopedia4U - Vostok 1 - Encyclopedia Article (178 words)
Vostok 1 was the first manned space mission.
Launched on April 12, 1961, Vostok 1 took Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into space, the first time anyone had ever journeyed beyond the Earth's atmosphere and the first time anyone went into orbit.
Gagarin orbited the Earth one time in 108 minutes and returned unharmed, ejecting from the Vostok capsule 7 km above the ground and parachuting separately to the ground (the capsule's parachute landing was too rough for cosmonauts to risk it at the time).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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