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Encyclopedia > Voronezh
Coat of Arms

Voronezh (Russian: Воро́неж) is a large city in southwestern Russia, not far from Ukraine. It is located on the Voronezh River, twelve kilometers away from the spot where the Voronezh River empties into the Don. Voronezh is the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast. It is an important railway junction (with lines to Moscow, Rostov-on-Don, Kiev), as well as the center of Federal Route M4 "Kavkaz" (MoscowRostov-on-Don). Geographical location 51°43′N 39°16′E. Population: 848,752 (2002 Census); 660,000 (1970); 447,000 (1959); 344,000 (1939); 120,000 (1926). The city is divided into six administrative districts: Kominternovsky, Leninsky, Levoberezhny, Sovetsky, Tsentralny, and Zheleznodorozhny. A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Voronezh. ... Voronezh (Воро́неж in Russian) is a river in Tambov, Lipetsk, and Voronezh Oblasts in Russia, a left tributary of the Don. ... Voronezh (Воро́неж in Russian) is a river in Tambov, Lipetsk, and Voronezh Oblasts in Russia, a left tributary of the Don. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Voronezh Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Central market and Church in Rostov. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kyiv highlighted. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Central market and Church in Rostov. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ...


History

The Voronezh River was first mentioned in Hypatian Codex of 1177; the town was founded in 1585 by Tsar Feodor I as a fortress protecting the Russian state from the raids of Crimean and Nogay Tatars. However, settlements had been present here since the Stone Age. The Hypatian Codex (Hypatian Chronicle, Ipatiev Chronicle, Russian: ) is a compendium of three chronicles: Primary Chronicle, Kiev Chronicle, and Halych-Volhynian Chronicle. ... Feodor presents a golden chain to Boris Godunov. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ...

View of Voronezh in the 18th century.
View of Voronezh in the 18th century.

In the 17th century, Voronezh became a considerable commercial and handicrafts centre. In 1648, an antifeudal insurrection took place in Voronezh. In 1695–1696 Tsar Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh, where Azov fleet was under construction for the Azov campaign. During his reign Voronezh became the largest city in southern Russia and the administrative centre of the large southern region. Since 1711 Voronezh had been a centre of Azov province, since 1725 - Voronezh province, since 1779 - Voronezh namestnichestvo, since 1824 - Voronezh province. In the 18th–19th centuries Voronezh was a centre of the chernozem agricultural region. Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting, butter-making, soap, leather and other works) as well as bread, cattle, suet, and the hair trade developed in the town. In XIX century a railway connected Voronezh with Rostov-on-Don (1868) and Moscow (1871). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x608, 108 KB)View of Voronezh at the turn of the 18th century. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x608, 108 KB)View of Voronezh at the turn of the 18th century. ... Peter was a tall figure, with an extremely striking build of 2. ... Chernozem, or Black Earth (from Polish czarnoziem which means black soil), a kind of soil. ...


Today Voronezh is the economical, industrial, cultural and scientific center of the so-called Black Earth Region. In the city there are 7 theaters, 12 cinemas, 19 high schools; it is also home to Voronezh State University. The city's large student population includes many foreigners as foreign students in Russia usually take one year of Russian language in Voronezh before moving on to universities elsewhere. This has led in the past to tension between foreign students and the indigenous population. Central Black Earth Region or Central Chernozem Region (Центрально-черноземная область, центральная че&#1088... Voronezh State University is one of the main universities in Central Russia. ... Russian (Russian: ,  ) is the most widely spoken language of Eurasia and the most widespread of the Slavonic languages. ...

Smolensk Cathedral in Voronezh, 19th century
Smolensk Cathedral in Voronezh, 19th century

As an industrial centre, Voronezh was integral to the Soviet aircraft construction industry, including the so-called Concordski Tupolev Tu-144. Image File history File links Voronezh_SmolenskCathedral. ... Image File history File links Voronezh_SmolenskCathedral. ... The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO reporting name: Charger) was a supersonic airliner constructed under management of the Soviet Tupolev design bureau headed by Alexei Tupolev (1925–2001). ...


In 1991-2000, the city high in unemployment became a part of the Communist-voting region known as Russia's Red Belt. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Many famous people were born in Voronezh and not far from it. Among them poets and writers Platonov, Bunin, Koltsov, Nikitin, Marshak, Troepolskii; painters Kramskoi, Ge, Kuprin, the physicist Cherenkov; gymnasts Davydova, Tkachyov; the anarchist Voline, etc. Andrei Platonov (Russian: Андрей Плато́нов) (1899-1951) was the pen name of Andrei Platonovich Klimentov, a Russian writer of the Soviet period whose works anticipate existentialism. ... Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin Stanislav Stanisavovich Bunin This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Aleksey Koltsov (Russian: , October 15, 1808 - October 19, 1842) was a Russian poet. ... Aleksander Nikitin, a Russian former submarine officer and nuclear safety inspector turned environmentalist, started to co-operate with Norwegian environmental Bellona Foundation in 1994. ... Samuil Marshak. ... Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi (1837 - 1887) was a Russian painter and the art critic. ... Portrait of Alexei Potechin, painted by Nikolai Ge Nikolai Ge (Russian: ; 1831 – 1894) was a Russian painter. ... Alexander Vasilievich Kuprin (Александр Васильевич Куприн) was a Russian painter, a member of the Jack of Diamond group. ... Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov (Russian Павел Алексеевич Черенков) (July 28, 1904 - January 6, 1990) was a Soviet physicist and Nobel Prize winner. ... Yelena Victorovna Davydova (born August 7, 1961 in Voronezh),a city about 400 miles south of Moscow, is a Russian (former Soviet) gymnast, winner of the Olympic all-around title in 1980 Summer Olympics. ... Alexander Vasilyevich Tkachev (alternate spellings: Alexander Tkachyov or Alexander Tkatchev; Russian:Александр Васильевич Ткачёв) (b. ... Vsevolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum (August 11, 1882 - September 18, 1945), known in later life as Voline (Волин), was a leading Russian anarchist. ...


The Russian poet Osip Mandelstam was exiled to Voronezh after his arrest in 1934 and wrote a series of poems there collected under the title "Voronezh Notebooks". Osip Mandelstam Osip Emilyevich Mandelstam (also spelled Mandelshtam) (Russian: ) (January 15 [O.S. January 3] 1891 – December 27, 1938) was a Jewish Russian poet and essayist, one of the foremost members of the Acmeist school of poets. ...


The famous Russian punk band Sektor Gaza was founded in Voronezh. Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Sektor Gaza (Russian Сектор Газа, or gas sector; also souns as Gaza Strip in Russian) was the name of a well-known rock band from Voronezh, Russia, founded in 1987. ...


Around Voronezh there are a lot of kurgans and other interesting archaeological objects. Kurgan is a Türkic word for tumulus, burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, or a kurgan cenotaph. ...


Nearby Novovoronezh ("New Voronezh") serves nuclear power plants. Novovoronezh is a small town nearby Voronezh (Russia). ...


Chertovitskoye airport is nearby, at Latitude/Longitude: 51.81,39.23


On October 9, 1989, an official news agency in the Soviet Union reported the landing of a UFO in Voronezh. October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A UFO or Unidentified Flying Object is any real or apparent flying object which cannot be identified by the observer and which remains unidentified after investigation. ...


Further reading

Charlotte Hobson's book, "Black Earth City", is an accessible and insightful account of life in Voronezh in the early 1990s. She wrote the book after spending a year in Voronezh as a foreign student in 1991-1992.


Nadezhda Mandelstam's Hope Against Hope, the first volume of her memoirs concerning the dreadful fate of her husband, the poet Osip Mandelstam, provides many details about life and hardship in Voronezh in the 1930s under Stalinist rule. Nadezhda Mandelstam Nadezhda Yakovlevna Mandelstam (Russian: , neé Hazin; 18 October 1899 — 29 December 1980) was a Russian writer and a wife of poet Osip Mandelstam. ... Osip Mandelstam Osip Emilyevich Mandelstam (also spelled Mandelshtam) (Russian: ) (January 15 [O.S. January 3] 1891 – December 27, 1938) was a Jewish Russian poet and essayist, one of the foremost members of the Acmeist school of poets. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ...


External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Voronezh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (612 words)
Voronezh is the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast.
Voronezh River was for the first time mentioned in Hypatian Codex under 1177; the town was founded in 1585 by tsar Feodor I as a fortress protecting the Russian state from the raids of Crimean and Nogay Tatars.
In the 18th–19th centuries Voronezh was a centre of chernozem agricultural region.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Voronezh Oblast (2490 words)
Vladimir Kulakov is the governor of Voronezh Oblast in Russia.
Liskinsky District (Russian:) is a district (raion) of Voronezh Oblast, Russia.
Voronezh is also a capital of the Central Black Earth Region of Russia — a social and economic association comprising Voronezh, Belgorod, Kursk, Lipetsk, Orel and Tambov oblasts with a total population of 10 million.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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