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Encyclopedia > Voortrekker Monument
The Monument from the front
The Monument from the front

The Voortrekker Monument is a monument situated in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. The massive granite structure, built to honour the Voortrekkers (Pioneers)[1] who left the Cape Colony in the thousands between 1835 and 1854, was designed by the architect Gerard Moerdijk who had the ideal to design a "monument that would stand a thousands of years to describe the history and the meaning of the Great Trek to its descendants"[2]. It can be seen from almost any location in the city, as it is seated on top of a hill. Photo of the Voortrekker monument File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo of the Voortrekker monument File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans for pioneers, literally those who move ahead or first/forward traveler) were white Afrikaner farmers, then known as Boers, who in the 1830s and 1840s emigrated during a series of mass movements of a number of separate trekking contingents under different leaders in what is called the... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Gerard Leendert Pieter Moerdijk (born 4 March 1890 on the farm Zwaershoek near Nylstroom and died on 29 March 1958 in Nylstroom) was a South African architect most well-known for designing the Voortrekker Monument. ...

Contents

History

The idea to build a monument in honour of the Voortrekkers was first mooted on 16 December 1888, when President Paul Kruger of the South African Republic attended the Day of the Covenant celebrations at Blood River in Natal. However, the movement to actually build such a monument only started in 1931 when the Sentrale Volksmonumentekomitee (SVK) (Central People's Monuments Committee) was formed to bring this idea to fruition. The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans for pioneers, literally those who move ahead or first/forward traveler) were white Afrikaner farmers, then known as Boers, who in the 1830s and 1840s emigrated during a series of mass movements of a number of separate trekking contingents under different leaders in what is called the... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ... Anthem Transvaalse Volkslied Location of the Transvaal in pre-1994 South Afica Capital Pretoria Language(s) Dutch, English, Afrikaans Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1857-1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius  - 1883-1902 Paul Kruger  - 1900-1902 Schalk Willem Burger (acting) History  - Established June 27, 1857  - British annexation 1877-1881... The Day of the Vow was a public holiday held in South Africa before 1994. ... Combatants Voortrekkers Zulu Commanders Andries Pretorius Dambuza Ndlela kaSompisi Strength about 470 men between 10,000 and 20,000 men Casualties 3 wounded 3,000 dead The Battle of Blood River (Afrikaans: Slag van Bloedrivier) was fought on 16 December 1838 on the banks of the Blood River (Bloedrivier) in... KwaZulu-Natal, often referred to as KZN, is a province of South Africa. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Construction started on 13 July 1937 with a sod turning ceremony performed by chairman of the SVK, Advocate E.G.Jansen, on what later became known as Monument Hill. On 16 December 1938 the cornerstone was laid by three descendants of some of the Voortrekker leaders: Mrs. J.C. Muller (granddaughter of Andries Pretorius), Mrs. K.F. Ackerman (great-granddaughter of Hendrik Potgieter) and Mrs. J.C. Preller (great-granddaughter of Piet Retief). is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andries Pretorius Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (November 27, 1798 – 23 July 1853) was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the Transvaal Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic in present-day South Africa. ... Andries Hendrik Potgieter (19 December 1792 - 16 December 1852) was a Voortrekker leader. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Monument was inaugurated on 16 December 1949. The total construction cost of the Monument was about £ 360,000, most of which was contributed by the South African government. is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For details of notes and coins, see British coinage and British banknotes. ...


A large amphitheatre, which seats approximately 20,000 people, was erected to the north-east of the Monument in 1949. The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ...


Main features

Physically, the Voortrekker Monument is 40 metres high, with a base of 40 metres by 40 metres. The building has strong architectural resemblance to German monuments, in particular the Völkerschlachtdenkmal in Leipzig. The two main points of interest inside the building are the Historical Frieze and the Cenotaph. Völkerschlachtdenkmal (with visitors on the top, at the bottom right etc. ...

Window and Frieze
Window and Frieze

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 312 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 312 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...

Historical Frieze

The main entrance of the building leads into the domed Hall of Heroes. This massive space, flanked by four huge arched windows made from yellow Belgian glass, contains the unique marble Historical Frieze which is an intrinsic part of the design of the monument. The frieze consists of 27 bas-relief panels depicting the history of the Great Trek as well as the every day life, work methods, religious beliefs and way of life of the Voortrekkers. In the middle of the Hall of Heroes is a large circular opening through which the Cenotaph Hall can be viewed. For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... Trekboers in the Karoo. ...

The Cenotaph
The Cenotaph

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 321 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 321 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Cenotaph

The Cenotaph, situated in the centre of the Cenotaph Hall, is the central focus of the monument. In addition to being viewable from the Hall of Heroes it can also be seen from the dome at the top of the building, from where the whole interior of the monument can be viewed. Through an opening in this dome the sun shines at twelve o'clock on 16 December each year onto the middle of the Cenotaph and the words 'Ons vir Jou, Suid-Afrika' (Afrikaans for 'We for Thee, South Africa'). The ray of sunshine is said to symbolise God's blessing on the lives and endeavours of the Voortrekkers. December 16, 1838 was the date of the Battle of Blood River, commemorated in Apartheid-era South Africa as the Day of the Vow. The Cenotaph, London. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Combatants Voortrekkers Zulu Commanders Andries Pretorius Dambuza Ndlela kaSompisi Strength about 470 men between 10,000 and 20,000 men Casualties 3 wounded 3,000 dead The Battle of Blood River (Afrikaans: Slag van Bloedrivier) was fought on 16 December 1838 on the banks of the Blood River (Bloedrivier) in... The Day of the Vow was a public holiday held in South Africa before 1994. ...


The Cenotaph Hall is decorated with the flags of the different Voortrekker Republics and contains wall tapestries depicting the Voortrekkers as well as several display cases with artefacts from the Great Trek. Against the northern wall of the hall is a nave with a lantern in which a flame has been kept burning ever since 1938. It was in that year that the Symbolic Ox Wagon Trek, which started in Cape Town and ended at Monument Hill where the Monument's foundation stone was laid, took place. The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent self-governed republics created by the Dutch-speaking (proto Afrikaans) inhabitants of the Cape of Good Hope and their descendants (variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers) in mainly the northern and eastern parts of what is now the... For other uses, see Lantern (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - Total 2,499 km² (964. ...

The Laager
The Laager

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 317 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 317 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Other

Visitors to the monument enter through a black wrought iron gate with an assegai (spear) motif. A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... An Askari guards an Allied air training school at Waterkloof, Pretoria, South Africa. ...


After passing through the gate one finds oneself inside a big laager consisting of 64 ox-wagons made out of decorative granite. The same number of wagons were used at the Battle of Blood River to form the laager. A laager is a defensive formation of vehicles. ... The Ox-wagon (Afrikaans: Ossewa) was a traditional form of transport, especially in Southern Africa. ... Combatants Voortrekkers Zulu Commanders Andries Pretorius Dambuza Ndlela kaSompisi Strength about 470 men between 10,000 and 20,000 men Casualties 3 wounded 3,000 dead The Battle of Blood River (Afrikaans: Slag van Bloedrivier) was fought on 16 December 1838 on the banks of the Blood River (Bloedrivier) in...

Voortrekker Vrou
Voortrekker Vrou
Statue of Piet Retief
Statue of Piet Retief

At the foot of the Monument stands Anton van Wouw's bronze sculpture of a Voortrekker woman and her two children, paying homage to the strength and courage of the Voortrekker women. On both sides of this sculpture black wildebeest are chiselled into the walls of the Monument. The wildebeest symbolically depicts the dangers of Africa and their symbolic flight implies that the woman, carrier of Western civilisation, is triumphant. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 318 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 318 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 313 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 313 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Anton van Wouw was born in Driebergen, Netherlands in 1862. ... Species Connochaetes gnou Connochaetes taurinus The wildebeest (plural, wildebeest or wildebeests), also called the gnu (pronounced or ), is an antelope of the genus Connochaetes. ...


On each outside corner of the Monument there is a statue, respectively representing Piet Retief, Andries Pretorius, Hendrik Potgieter and an "unknown" leader (representative of all the other Voortrekker leaders). Each statue weighs approximately 6 tons. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Andries Pretorius Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (November 27, 1798 – 23 July 1853) was a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the Transvaal Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic in present-day South Africa. ... Andries Hendrik Potgieter (19 December 1792 - 16 December 1852) was a Voortrekker leader. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


At the eastern corner of the monument, on the same level as its entrance, is the foundation stone.


Monument complex

In the years following its construction, the monument complex was expanded several times and now includes:

  • An indigenous garden that surrounds the monument.
  • Fort Schanskop, a nearby fort built in 1897 by the government of the South African Republic after the Jameson Raid and now a museum.
  • The Schanskop open-air amphitheatre with seating for 357 people that was officially opened on 30 January 2001.
  • A garden of remembrance.
  • A nature reserve was declared on 3.41 km² around the Monument in 1992. Game found on the reserve include Zebras, Blesbuck, Mountain Reedbuck, Springbuck and Impala.

Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Anthem Transvaalse Volkslied Location of the Transvaal in pre-1994 South Afica Capital Pretoria Language(s) Dutch, English, Afrikaans Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1857-1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius  - 1883-1902 Paul Kruger  - 1900-1902 Schalk Willem Burger (acting) History  - Established June 27, 1857  - British annexation 1877-1881... The Jameson Raid (December 29, 1895 - January 2, 1896) was a raid on Paul Krugers Transvaal Republic carried out by Sir Leander Starr Jameson and his Rhodesian and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895-96. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Damaliscus The Blesbok, or Blesbuck, (Damaliscus albifrons) is a subspecies of the Bontebok and it is purplish antelope with a distinctive white face and forehead. ... Binomial name Redunca fulvorufula (Boddaert, 1785) The Mountain Reedbuck (Redunca fulvorufula) is an antelope, found in north-eastern South Africa. ... Binomial name Antidorcas marsupialis (Zimmermann, 1780) The Springbok (Afrikaans: spring = jump; bok = antelope, deer, or goat) (Antidorcas marsupialis) is a small brown and white antelope that stands about 75 cm high. ... For other uses, see Impala (disambiguation). ...

External links

  • History of the Voortrekker monument (in English) - Official Site
  • History of the Voortrekker monument (in Afrikaans) - Official Site
  • Google Map

Coordinates: 25°46′35″S, 28°10′33″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


A comprehensive documentary about the history of the monument has been posted in four parts on YouTube.com


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hjWHDumFTcg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QnpghpfVg3Q http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lw02p5UqBYY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LbMe49rtwSY


 
 

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