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Encyclopedia > Vomiting
Symptom/Sign: Vomiting
Classifications and external resources
ICD-10 R11.
ICD-9 787

Vomiting (also called throwing up, puking and emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. Vomiting may result from many causes, ranging from gastritis or poisoning to brain tumors, or elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). The feeling that one is about to vomit is called nausea. It usually precedes, but does not always lead to vomiting. Antiemetics are sometimes necessary to suppress nausea and vomiting, and, in severe cases where dehydration develops, intravenous fluid may need to be administered to replace fluid volume. In mechanics, degrees of freedom (DOF) are the set of independent displacements that specify completely the displaced or deformed position of the body or system. ... The District of Pukë (Albanian: Rrethi i Pukës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Puke is the debut EP by the Huntington Beach, California punk rock band Guttermouth, released in 1991 by Dr. Strange Records. ... A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ... In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... Gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or... Intracranial pressure, (ICP), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains circulating blood volume. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...

14th century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis
14th century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis

The medical branch investigating vomiting, emetics and antiemetics is called emetology. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1109, 293 KB) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1109, 293 KB) Tacuina sanitatis (XIV century) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... The Tacuinum (sometimes Taccuinum) Sanitatis is a medieval handbook on wellness, based on the Taqwin al‑sihha (Tables of Health), an Arab medical treatise by Ibn Butlan; it exists in several variant Latin versions, the manuscripts of which are profusely illustrated. ...


Vomiting is different from regurgitation, although the two terms are often used interchangeably. Regurgitation is the return of undigested food (that has not yet reached the stomach) back up the esophagus to the mouth. The causes of vomiting and regurgitation are generally different. The esophagus or oesophagus (see American and British English spelling differences), sometimes known as the gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Mechanism

Vomiting center

Vomiting is coordinated in the vomiting center in the lateral medullary reticular formation in the pons. Receptors on the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain represent a chemoreceptor trigger zone, stimulation of which can lead to vomiting. The chemoreceptor zone lies outside the blood-brain barrier, and can therefore be stimulated by blood-borne drugs that can stimulate vomiting, or inhibit it. The reticular formation is a part of the brain which is involved in stereotypical actions, such as walking, sleeping, and lying down. ... For other uses, see Pons (disambiguation). ... The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... The Chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the brain which receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with the Vomit Centre, to initiate vomiting. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... Heaving redirects here. ... Heaving redirects here. ...


There are various sources of input to the vomiting center:

The dopamine receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors with dopamine as their endogenous ligand. ... In the field of neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. 5-HT receptors are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals and mediate the effects of serotonin... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... In neuroscience, Substance P is a neuropeptide: a short-chain polypeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. ... The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves, and also known as the auditory nerve. ... For the album by Bright Eyes, see Motion Sickness. ... Amanita muscaria from which muscarine was isolated Acetylcholine - natural agonist of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. ... The histamine receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors with histamine as their endogenous ligand. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an interdependent part of the autonomic nervous system. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ...

Vomiting act

The vomiting act encompasses three types of outputs initiated by the chemoreceptor trigger zone: Motor, parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), and sympathetic nervous system (SNS). They are as follows: Autonomic nervous system innervation, showing the sympathetic and parasympathetic (craniosacral) systems, in red and blue, respectively The parasympathetic nervous system is one of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ...

  • Increased salivation to protect the enamel of teeth from stomach acids (excessive vomiting leads to dental erosion). This is part of the PNS output.
  • Retroperistalsis, starting from the middle of the small intestine, sweeping up the contents of the digestive tract into the stomach, through the relaxed pyloric sphincter.
  • A lowering of intrathoracic pressure (by inspiration against a closed glottis), coupled with an increase in abdominal pressure as the abdominal muscles contract, propels stomach contents into the esophagus as the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes. The stomach itself does not contract in the process of vomiting, nor is there any retroperistalsis in the esophagus.
  • Vomiting is ordinarily preceded by retching.
  • Vomiting also initiates an SNS response causing both sweating and increased heart rate.

The neurotransmitters that regulate vomiting are poorly understood, but inhibitors of dopamine, histamine, and serotonin are all used to suppress vomiting, suggesting that these play a role in the initiation or maintenance of a vomiting cycle. Vasopressin and neurokinin may also participate. For the band, see Saliva (band). ... Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body,[1] and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major tissues which make up the tooth. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... Erosion is the loss of tooth structure due to chemical dissolution by acids not of bacterial origin. ... Retroperistalsis is the reverse of the involuntary smooth muscle contractions of peristalsis. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and comprises the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ... The abdomen in a human and an ant. ... The esophagus or oesophagus (see American and British English spelling differences), sometimes known as the gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... This article is about the cardia in the human body. ... Retching is a process in the human body where gastric (and sometimes duodenal) contents are forced into the esophagus, but do not enter the pharynx. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone found in most mammals, including humans. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into tachykinin receptor. ...


Content

Gastric secretions and likewise vomit are highly acidic. Recent food intake will be reflected in the gastric vomit. Irrespective of the content, vomit tends to be malodorous. Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... Aroma redirects here. ...


The content of the vomitus (vomit) may be of medical interest. Fresh blood in the vomit is termed hematemesis ("blood vomiting"). Altered blood bears resemblance to coffee grounds (as the iron in the blood is oxidized), and, when this matter is identified, the term "coffee ground vomiting" is used. Bile can enter the vomit during subsequent heaves due to duodenal contraction if the vomiting is severe. Fecal vomiting is often a consequence of intestinal obstruction or a gastro-colic fistula, and is treated as a warning sign of this potentially serious problem ("signum mali ominis"); such vomiting is sometimes called "miserere." For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Hematemesis or haematemesis is the vomiting of fresh red blood. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Coffee ground vomiting refers to a particular appearance of vomit. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... Bowel obstruction is mechanical blockage of the intestines, preventing the normal transit of the products of digestion. ...


If the vomiting reflex continues for an extended period of time with no appreciable vomitus, the condition is known as non-productive emesis or dry heaves, which can be painful and debilitating.


Complications

Aspiration of vomit

Vomiting can be very dangerous if the gastric content gets into the respiratory tract. Under normal circumstances the gag reflex and coughing will prevent this from occurring, however these protective reflexes are compromised in persons under narcotic influences such as alcohol or anesthesia. The individual may choke and asphyxiate or suffer an aspiration pneumonia. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cough is also the name of a band, see Cough (band) A cough is a sudden, often repetitive, spasmodic contraction of the thoracic cavity, resulting in violent release of air from the lungs, and usually accompanied by a distinctive sound. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... Aspiration pneumonia is a specific form of lung infection (pneumonia) that develops when oral or gastric contents (including food, saliva, or nasal secretions) enter the bronchial tree. ...


Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance

Prolonged and excessive vomiting will deplete the body of water (dehydration) and may alter the electrolyte status. The loss of acids leads to metabolic alkalosis (increased blood pH), and the electrolyte imbalance shows hypokalemia (potassium depletion) and hypochloremia (chlorine depletion). The hypokalemia is an indirect result of the kidney compensating for the loss of acid. With the loss of intake of food the individual will become cachectic. Metabolic alkalosis results from altered metabolism. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Hypokalemia is a potentially fatal condition in which the body fails to retain sufficient potassium to maintain health. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Hypochloremia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally depleted level of the chloride ion in the blood. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Cachexia is loss of weight, muscle wasting, fatigue, weakness and anorexia (not anorexia nervosa) in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight. ...


Mallory-Weiss tear

Repeated or profuse vomiting may cause erosions to the esophagus or small tears in the esophageal mucosa (Mallory-Weiss tear). This may become apparent if fresh blood is admixed with vomit after several episodes. The esophagus or oesophagus (see American and British English spelling differences), sometimes known as the gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ...


Dental

Recurrent vomiting, such as observed in bulimia nervosa, may lead to destruction of the tooth enamel due to the acidity of the vomit. Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by recurrent binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors, referred to as purging.[1] The most common form—practised more than 75% of people with bulimia nervosa—is self-induced vomiting; fasting, the use of laxatives, enemas, diuretics, and overexercising are also common. ... Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body,[1] and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major tissues which make up the tooth. ...


Causes

Vomiting may be due to a large number of causes, and protracted vomiting has a long differential diagnosis. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Digestive tract

Causes in the digestive tract: For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and...

Gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Infantile pyloric stenosis is a pediatric condition where there is a congenital narrowing of the pylorus (the opening at the lower end of the stomach). ... Bowel obstruction is a mechanical blockage of the intestines, preventing the normal transit of the products of digestion. ... The term acute abdomen refers to a sudden, severe pain in the abdomen that is less than 24 hours in duration. ... Ileus, formerly called iliac passion, refers to limited or absent intestinal passage. ... Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gall bladder. ... Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. ... Appendicitis (or epityphlitis) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Milk allergy is an immunologically mediated adverse reaction to one or more cows milk proteins. ...

Sensory system and brain

Causes in the sensory system: The human eye is the first element of a sensory system: in this case, vision, for the visual system. ...

  • Movement: motion sickness (which is caused by overstimulation of the labyrinthine canals of the ear)
  • Ménière's disease

Causes in the brain: For the album by Bright Eyes, see Motion Sickness. ... Ménières disease is a disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance. ...

Metabolic disturbances (these may irritate both the stomach and the parts of the brain that coordinate vomiting): Cerebral Concussion redirects here. ... A intracranial hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or... This article is actively undergoing a major edit. ...

Pregnancy: Hypercalcaemia is an elevated calcium level in the blood. ... Calcium (Ca2+) plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. ... Uremia is a toxic condition resulting from renal failure, when kidney function is compromised and urea, a waste product normally excreted in the urine, is retained in the blood. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Renal failure or kidney failure is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately. ... In medicine, adrenal insufficiency (or hypocortisolism) is the inability of the adrenal gland to produce adequate amounts of cortisol in response to stress. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ...

Drug reaction (vomiting may occur as an acute somatic response to): Hyperemesis gravidarum (from the Latin for extreme vomiting of the pregnant woman) is a severe form of morning sickness. ... Morning sickness, also called nausea, vomiting of pregnancy (emesis gravidarum or NVP), or pregnancy sickness, affects between 50[1] and 95 percent of all pregnant women as well as some women who use hormonal contraception or hormone replacement therapy. ... The term somatic refers to the body, as distinct from some other entity, such as the mind. ...

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini Drunkenness is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of alcohol to a degree that mental and physical facilities are noticeably impaired. ... For other uses, see Hangover (disambiguation). ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants. ... Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ... This entry covers entheogens as psychoactive substances used in a religious or shamanic context. ... Binomial name (Lem. ... Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ...

Other

  • Self-induced
    • Eating disorders (anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa)
    • Sexual fetish (emetophilia)
    • To remove a poison in case such has been ingested (some poisons should not be vomited as they may be more toxic when inhaled or aspirated; it is, in general, considered better to ask for help before inducing vomiting)
    • Some people who are engaged in binge drinking will induce vomiting in order to make room in their stomachs for further alcohol consumption. In the United Kingdom, this practice is known as tactical chundering, or hitting the reset button. In the United States, it is known as boot and rally or pulling the trigger.
  • After surgery (postoperative nausea and vomiting)
  • Disagreeable sights, smells or thoughts (such as decayed matter, others' vomit, thinking of vomiting), etc.
  • Extreme pain, such as intense headache or myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  • Violent emotions (including laughing)
  • Cyclic vomiting syndrome (a poorly-understood condition with attacks of vomiting)
  • High doses of ionizing radiation will sometimes trigger a vomit reflex in the victim
  • Violent fits of coughing or hiccups
  • Nervousness

For other uses, see Anorexia. ... Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by recurrent binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors, referred to as purging.[1] The most common form—practised more than 75% of people with bulimia nervosa—is self-induced vomiting; fasting, the use of laxatives, enemas, diuretics, and overexercising are also common. ... Sexual fetishism, first described as such by Sigmund Freud though the concept and certainly the activity is quite ancient, is a form of paraphilia where the object of affection is a specific inanimate object or part of a persons body. ... Emetophilia is a sexual fetish in which an individual is aroused by vomiting or observing others vomit. ... Drinking too much alcohol may qualify as binge drinking if it leads to at least two days of inebriation and the drinker neglects usual responsibilities The British Medical Association states that there is no consensus on the definition of binge drinking. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Postoperative nausea and vomiting is an unpleasant complication affecting about a third of the 10% of the population undergoing general anaesthesia each year. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... // Cyclic vomiting syndrome (US English) or cyclical vomiting syndrome (UK English) (CVS) is a condition whose symptoms are recurring attacks of intense nausea, vomiting and sometimes abdominal pain and/or headaches or migraines. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ... Cough is also the name of a band, see Cough (band) A cough is a sudden, often repetitive, spasmodic contraction of the thoracic cavity, resulting in violent release of air from the lungs, and usually accompanied by a distinctive sound. ... A hiccup is an involuntary spasm of the diaphragm. ... Anxiety is a complex combination of the feeling of fear, apprehension and worry often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ...

Unusual Types of Vomiting

Fecal vomiting or antiperistalsis is a kind of emesis in which fecal matter is expelled from the intestines into the stomach, by spasmodic contractions of the gastric muscles, and then subsequently forcefully expelled from the stomach up into the esophagus and out through the mouth and sometimes nasal passages. Alternative medical terms for fecal vomiting are copremesis and stercoraceous vomiting[2]. It was also referred to as miserere in medieval times.[citation needed] Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Feces (also spelled faeces in British English, or fæces) are semi-solid waste products from the digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... The esophagus or oesophagus (see American and British English spelling differences), sometimes known as the gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Related medication

Emetics

An emetic, such as Syrup of Ipecac, is a substance that induces vomiting when administered orally or by injection. An emetic is used medically where a substance has been ingested and must be expelled from the body immediately. Inducing vomiting can remove the substance before it is absorbed into the body. Ipecac abuse can lead to detrimental health effects. Syrup of Ipecac (derived from the dried rhizome and roots of the Ipecacuanha plant), is an emetic—a substance used to induce vomiting. ...


Antiemetics

An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. Antiemetics are typically used to treat motion sickness and the side-effects of some opioid analgesics and chemotherapy directed against cancer. An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... For the album by Bright Eyes, see Motion Sickness. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Antiemetics act by inhibiting the receptor sites associated with emesis. Hence, anticholinergics, antihistamines, dopamine antagonists, serotonin antagonists, and cannabinoids are used as anti-emetics.


Social implications

Nausea inducement in groups

It is quite common that, when one person vomits, others nearby will become nauseated, particularly when smelling the vomit of others, often to the point of vomiting themselves. It is believed that this is an evolved trait among primates. Many primates in the wild will tend to browse for food in small groups. Should one member of the party react adversely to some ingested food, it may be advantageous (in a survival sense) for other members of the party also to vomit. This tendency in human populations has been observed at drinking parties, where excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages may result in a number of party members vomiting nearly simultaneously, this being triggered by the initial vomiting of a single member of the party. This phenomenon has been touched on in popular culture: Notorious instances appear in the films Monty Python's The Meaning of Life (1983) and Stand By Me (1986), while, in the computer game Theme Hospital, it is referred to as a 'vomit wave' and can spread through the hospital quickly. This article is about evolution in biology. ... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Monty Pythons The Meaning of Life is a musical film comedy made in 1983 by the Monty Python comedy team. ... For other uses, see Stand by Me. ... Theme Hospital is a simulation computer game developed by Bullfrog Productions and published by Electronic Arts in 1997, in which the player designs and operates a hospital. ...


Intense vomiting in ayahuasca ceremonies is a common phenomenon. However, people who experience "la purga" after drinking ayahuasca, in general, regard the practice as both a physical and spiritual cleanse and often come to welcome it. [3] It has been suggested that the consistent emetic effects of ayahuasca — in addition to its many other therapeutic properties — was of medicinal benefit to indigenous peoples of the Amazon, in helping to clear parasites from the gastrointestinal system. [4] Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ... Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ...


There have also been documented cases of a single ill and vomiting individual inadvertently causing others to vomit, when they are especially fearful of also becoming ill, through a form of mass hysteria. Mass hysteria, also called collective hysteria or collective obsessional behavior, is the sociopsychological phenomenon of the manifestation of the same or similar hysterical symptoms by more than one person. ...


Context

Most people try to contain their vomit by vomiting into a sink, toilet, or trash can, as both the act and the vomit itself are widely considered embarrassing; vomit is also difficult to clean. On airplanes and boats, special bags are supplied for sick passengers to vomit into. A special disposable bag containing absorbent material that solidifies the vomit quickly is available, also, making it convenient and safe to keep (leakproof, puncture-resistant, odorless) until there is an opportunity to dispose of it conveniently.


People who vomit chronically (e.g., as part of an eating disorder such as bulimia nervosa) may devise various ways to hide this disorder. Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by recurrent binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors, referred to as purging.[1] The most common form—practised more than 75% of people with bulimia nervosa—is self-induced vomiting; fasting, the use of laxatives, enemas, diuretics, and overexercising are also common. ...


Sound

According to an online study of 30 traditionally bad sounds, the sound of vomiting is the worst sound in the world.[5] Professor Cox of the University of Salford's Acoustic Research Centre said that "We are pre-programmed to be repulsed by horrible things such as vomiting, as it is fundamental to staying alive to avoid nasty stuff". It is thought that the thought of disgust is triggered by the sound of vomiting to protect food from those possibly diseased nearby[6]. Mascot: Lion Affiliations: University Alliance Association of Commonwealth Universities Northern Consortium United Kingdom North West Universities Association Website: http://www. ...


Vomit phobia

Vomit phobia, or emetophobia, as it is also known, is the sixth-most-common phobia in the world, according to the International Emetophobia Society.[citation needed] In addition to the actual phobia, there are many other disorders and phobias that sufferers may be afflicted with, such as irritable bowel syndrome and agoraphobia. People with emetophobia tend to avoid eating in public, socialising, and going to parties. They may hardly eat at all, and for this reason may be diagnosed as anorexic. Emetophobes will go to extraordinary lengths to avoid vomiting or seeing someone vomit. Some emetophobics have the distinct ability to actually prevent themselves from vomiting, called "vomit continence." They are able to fight the feeling of nausea before the feeling eventually subsides. Emetophobia is an excessive or irrational fear of vomiting or of being around others who are vomiting. ... Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder precipitated by the fear of having a symptom attack or panic attack in a setting from which there is no easy means of escape. ... Anorexia (deriving from the Greek word ανορεξία = without appetite (αν = without + όρεξη = appetite)) is the medical name for loss of appetite. ...


References

  1. ^ Hornby PJ. Central neurocircuitry associated with emesis. Am J Med 2001;111:106S-12S. PMID 11749934.
  2. ^ fecal vomiting - definition of fecal vomiting in the Medical dictionary - by the Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia
  3. ^ Shanon, B. (2002). The antipodes of the mind: Charting the phenomenology of the ayahuasca experience. (2002). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ Andritzky, W. (1989). Sociopsychotherapeutic functions of ayahuasca healing in Amazonia. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 21(1), 77-89.
  5. ^ Acoustics audio video, University of Salford
  6. ^ Sound101.org.

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  • Cyclical Vomiting Syndrome
Hematemesis or haematemesis is the vomiting of fresh red blood. ... In medicine, melena or melaena refers to the black, tarry feces that are associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. ... Gastrointestinal bleeding describes every form of hemorrhage (blood loss) in the gastrointestinal tract, from the pharynx to the rectum. ... Endoscopic image of a posterior wall duodenal ulcer with a clean base, which is a common cause of upper GI hemorrhage. ... Lower gastrointestinal bleeding refers to any form of bleeding in the Lower gastrointestinal tract. ... A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ... In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... Abdominal pain can be one of the symptoms associated with transient disorders or serious disease. ... The term acute abdomen refers to a sudden, severe pain in the abdomen that is less than 24 hours in duration. ... Colic may refer to: Baby colic – a condition, usually in infants, characterized by incessant crying. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Dysphagia () is a medical term defined as difficulty swallowing. ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases in the digestive tract of mammals. ... Abdominal distension (or Distended abdomen) can be a sign of many other conditions, including: diverticulitis lactose intolerance obstructed bowel premenstrual syndrome pregnancy weight gain See also Gastric distension Bloating External links University of Maryland MedlinePlus/NIH Category: ... Bloating is any abnormal general swelling, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. ... Burping, also known as belching, ructus, or eructation involves the release of gas from the digestive tract (mainly esophagus and stomach) through the mouth. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Fecal incontinence is the loss of regular control of the bowels. ... Encopresis is involuntary fecal soiling in children who have usually already been toilet trained. ... Hepatosplenomegaly is the simultaneous enlargement of both the liver (hepatomegaly) and the spleen (splenomegaly). ... Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver. ... Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen, which usually lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the human abdomen. ... Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fecal occult blood is a term for blood present in the feces that is not visibly apparent. ... Halitosis, oral malodor (scientific term), breath odor, foul breath, fetor oris, fetor ex ore, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odors exhaled in breathing – whether the smell is from an oral source or not. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Nausea and vomiting (1083 words)
Sneezing ejects the intruders from the nose, coughing from the lungs and throat, diarrhea from the intestines, and vomiting from the stomach.
Vomiting is a forceful action accomplished by a fierce, downward contraction of the diaphragm.
Vomiting is a complex, coordinated reflex orchestrated by the vomiting center of the brain.
Discovery Health :: Diseases & Conditions :: vomiting (549 words)
Vomiting is when the stomach contents are ejected through the mouth.
For instance, ear infections are a common cause of vomiting in infants.
Sometimes, the cause of vomiting is obvious to the healthcare professional from the history and physical exam.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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