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Encyclopedia > Volga river
Volga River (Peка Волга)
Volga in Yaroslavl (autumn morning)
Country Russia
Major cities Astrakhan, Volgograd, Samara, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl
Length 3,692 km (2,294 mi)
Watershed 1,380,000 km² (532,821 mi²)
Discharge at Volgograd
 - average 8,060 /s (284,636 ft³/s)
Source
 - location Valdai Hills, Tver Oblast
 - elevation 225 m (738 ft)
Mouth Caspian Sea
 - elevation -28 m (-92 ft)
Major tributaries
 - left Kama River
 - right Oka River
Map of the Volga watershed

The Volga (Russian: Волга, Tatar Cyrillic: Идел, Latin: İdel) is the largest river in Europe in terms of length, discharge, and watershed. It flows through the western part of Russia, and is widely viewed as the national river of Russia. In fact, eleven out of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including its capital Moscow, are situated in the Volga basin. Some of the largest reservoirs in the world can be found along the Volga. The name Volga can refer to a number of different things: The Volga River (Волга, Rha, İtil, İdel) in western Russia is the longest river in Europe. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 479 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Volga River List of rivers of Europe List of European rivers with alternative names Template talk:Infobox River... Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Astrakhan coat of arms features the Khans crown and a sabre Astrakhan (Russian: ; Tatar: Ästerxan), a major city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast. ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... Samara (Russian: ) (from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev ()) is the sixth-largest city in Russia. ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny, is the fourth largest city in Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Thousand Cubic Feet be merged into this article or section. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Valdai Hills (Russian: Валда́йская возвы́шенность or Валда́й, Latvian: Valdaja augstiene) are an upland region in north-west of central Russia running north-south, about midway between St. ... Tver Oblast (Russian: Тверска́я о́бласть) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... Oka (Russian: Ока́) is a great river in Russia, the biggest right confluent of the Volga. ... Image File history File links Volgarivermap. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Two versions of the Tatar alphabet are currently used for the Tatar language. ... Two versions of the Tatar alphabet are currently used for the Tatar language. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... In hydrology, the discharge of a river is the volume of water transported by it in a certain amount of time. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with population over 50,000, grouped by federal subject and sorted by population. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... ...

Contents

Nomenclature

The Russian hydronym "Волга" is akin to the Slavic word for "wetness", "humidity" (влага, волога). The Russian name is transliterated as Volga in English and Wolga in German. The river is usually called by the Russians as "Mother Volga". Another possibility is that the river's name has Finnic roots derived from Karelian Valkia / Valgia (White) River. Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ...


The Turkic peoples living along the river formerly referred to it as Itil or Atil (probably the origin of Attila's name). In modern Turkic languages, the Volga is known as İdel (Идел) in Tatar, Атăл (Atăl) in Chuvash and İdil in Turkish. Another version of the same root is represented by Mari Юл (Jul). Under the Mongols, the river was known by its other Turkic name Sarı-su ("yellow water") but Mongols used also their own name Shar mörön ("yellow river"). This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Atil, also spelled Itil (Turkic for Big River), was a name of the Volga River and of the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until towards the end of the 10th century. ... Atil, also spelled Itil (literally meaning Big River), was the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until the end of the 10th century. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чăвашла, ČăvaÅ¡la, IPA: ; also known as Căvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash or ÇuaÅŸ) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... The Mari language (Mari: марий йылме, Russian марийский язык), spoken by more than 600,000 people, belongs to the Finno-Ugric language group and is part of the Volgaic subgroup of the Finnic languages together with Mordvin (though this relationship is contested; see Klima 2004 for discussion). ...


The ancient and modern Mordvin name for the Volga, Рав (Rav) Erza (Rava) Moksha comes from Merdi (Russian Mordva) mythology where Rav / Rava is the named fairy of the Great Water. Some western cources have suggested that the name reflect the ancient Scythian hydronym *Rhā, supposedly cognate with the ancient Avestan and Sanskrit names Rañha and Rasah for a mythical river supposed to flow around the earth[1]. These words are all connected in their primary meaning of "dew, liquid, moisture." The Mordvin language is a term, mistakenly used for Erzya language and Moksha language (both are related, but different languages). ... Moksha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Yasna 28. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Description

The Volga belongs to the closed basin of the Caspian Sea. Rising in the Valdai Hills 225 meters (738.2 ft) above sea level north-west of Moscow and about 320 kilometers (199 mi) south-east of Saint Petersburg, the Volga heads east past Lake Sterzh, Tver, Dubna, Rybinsk, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, and Kazan. From there it turns south, flows past Ulyanovsk, Tolyatti, Samara, Saratov and Volgograd, and discharges into the Caspian Sea below Astrakhan at 28 meters (91.9 ft) below sea level. At its most strategic point, it bends toward the Don ("the big bend"). Volgograd, formerly Stalingrad, is located there. The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water (either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or permeable material). ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... The Valdai Hills (Russian: Валда́йская возвы́шенность or Валда́й, Latvian: Valdaja augstiene) are an upland region in north-west of central Russia running north-south, about midway between St. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Lake Sterzh, as photographed ca. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Dubna is a small city located in central Russia, in the Taldomsky district of Moscow Oblast, approximately 125 km north of Moscow, on the banks of the Volga river. ... Rybinsk (Ры́бинск), with population exceding 250,000, is the second largest city of the Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia. ... Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny, is the fourth largest city in Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... Ulyanovsk (Russian: ), formerly Simbirsk (), is a city on the Volga River in Russia, 893 km east from Moscow. ... Vasily Tatishchev monument in Toliatti Tolyatti (Толья́тти) is a city in Samara Oblast, Russia. ... Samara (Russian: ) (from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev ()) is the sixth-largest city in Russia. ... Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in Russia. ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... Astrakhan coat of arms features the Khans crown and a sabre Astrakhan (Russian: ; Tatar: Ästerxan), a major city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ...


The Volga has many tributaries, most importantly the Kama, the Oka, the Vetluga, and the Sura rivers. The Volga and its tributaries form the Volga river system, which drains an area of about 1.35 million square kilometres in the most heavily populated part of Russia. The Volga Delta has a length of about 160 kilometres and includes as many as 500 channels and smaller rivers. The largest estuary in Europe, it is the only place in Russia where pelicans, flamingoes, and lotuses may be found. The Volga freezes for most of its length during three months of each year. A tributary (or affluent or confluent) is a contributory stream, a river that does not reach the sea, but joins another major river (a parent river), to which it contributes its waters, swelling its discharge. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... Oka (Russian: Ока́) is a great river in Russia, the biggest right confluent of the Volga. ... Vetluga (Russian: Ветлу́га) is a river in the Mari El Republic and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast of Russia. ... Sura (Сура́) is a river in Russia, right tributary of Volga. ... Volga Delta and northwestern Caspian Sea Lotus plant—The Volga Delta is the only place in Russia where pelicans, flamingoes, and lotuses may be found. ... For other uses, see Pelican (disambiguation). ... Flamingos ( ) are gregarious wading birds in the genus Phoenicopterus and family Phoenicopteridae. ... Binomial name Gaertn. ...


The Volga drains most of Western Russia. Its many large reservoirs provide irrigation and hydroelectric power. The Moscow Canal, the Volga-Don Canal, and the Volga-Baltic Waterway form navigable waterways connecting Moscow to the White Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. High levels of chemical pollution currently give cause for environmental concern. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Moscow Canal (Russian: Канал имени Москвы; former name - Moscow-Volga Canal (until 1947)) is a canal that connects the Moskva River with the main transportation artery of European Russia - the Volga. ... The Lenin Volga-Don Shipping Canal (In Russian Волго-Донской судоходный канал имени Ð’. И. Ленина) is a canal, which connects the Volga River and the Don River in a closest location between them. ... Volga-Baltic Waterway, formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System, is a series of canals and rivers in Russia which link the Volga River with the Baltic Sea. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


The fertile river valley provides large quantities of wheat, and also has many mineral riches. A substantial petroleum industry centres on the Volga valley. Other minerals include natural gas, salt, and potash. The Volga Delta and the nearby Caspian Sea offer superb fishing grounds. Astrakhan, at the delta, is the centre of the caviar industry. The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Astrakhan coat of arms features the Khans crown and a sabre Astrakhan (Russian: ; Tatar: Ästerxan), a major city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast. ... For the band of the same name, see Caviar (band). ...


Confluents (downstream to upstream)

Rzhev is the uppermost town situated on the Volga (early part of 20th century).
Rzhev is the uppermost town situated on the Volga (early part of 20th century).
The Saratov Bridge, running across the Volga, used to be the longest in Europe.
The Saratov Bridge, running across the Volga, used to be the longest in Europe.

Image File history File links Rzhev. ... Image File history File links Rzhev. ... Rzhev is the uppermost town situated on the Volga river. ... The Akhtuba River (Russian: ); also transliterated Achtuba on some maps) is a left distributary of the Volga River. ... Volzhsky (Russian: ) is an industrial city in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... distributary in Else and Hase at Melle A seasonal Distributary of the Kaveri river on the Kaveri delta, near Nannilam, India. ... Сама́ра Length  ? km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed  ? km² Origin  ? Mouth Volga River Basin countries Russia Samara (Сама́ра) is a river in Russia, left tributary of Volga. ... Samara (Russian: ) (from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev ()) is the sixth-largest city in Russia. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... Kazanka (Tatar: Qazansu, Russian: Каза́нка) is a river in Tatarstan, Russia, a left tributary of the Volga. ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... The Sviyaga River (Свияга in Russian), a river in the Ulyanovsk Oblast and Tatarstan, a tributary of the Volga River. ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... Vetluga (Russian: Ветлу́га) is a river in the Mari El Republic and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast of Russia. ... Kozmodemyansk (Russian: ) is a town in the Mari El Republic, Russia. ... Sura (Сура́) is a river in Russia, right tributary of Volga. ... Vasilsursk (Russian: ) is an urban settlement in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. ... Kerzhenets River (Керженец in Russian) is a river in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Russia. ... Lyskovo (Russian: ) is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. ... Oka (Russian: Ока́) is a great river in Russia, the biggest right confluent of the Volga. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny, is the fourth largest city in Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... Uzola River, also spelled as Usola River (Узола, Усола in Russian) is a river in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Russia. ... Balakhna (Балахна in Russian) is a town in the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Russia. ... The Unzha River (Унжа in Russian), a river in the Vologda Oblast and Kostroma Oblast in Russia, a tributary of the Volga River. ... Central Place in Yuryevets (photo 1904) Yuryevets (Russian: ) is a town in Ivanovo Oblast, Russia. ... Kostroma (Кострома́) is a river in Russia, left tributary of Volga. ... Fire-observation watchtower in Kostroma (1825-28). ... Kotorosl, or Kotorost River (Ко́торосль) is a right tributary of the Volga in the Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia. ... Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Sheksna (Шексна́) — (former) river in Russia, left tributary of Volga. ... Restored Church of the Nativity (1789) Cherepovets (Russian: ) is the biggest city in Vologda Oblast, Russia. ... Mologa River (Молога in Russian) is a river in Tver, Novgorod and Vologda Oblasts in Russia. ... Vesyegonsk (Весьего́нск) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia. ... Kashinka River Kashinka (Russian: ) is a river in Tver Oblast, Russia, a left tributary of the Volga River (joining the Volga at the Uglich Reservoir, near the town of Kalyazin). ... Kalyazin (Russian: ) is a small town in Tver Oblast, Russia. ... The Nerl River (Russian: Category: ... Medveditsa (Russian: ) is a river in Tver Oblast, Russia, a left tributary of the Volga River (joining the Volga at the Uglich Reservoir). ... Kimry (Russian: Кимры) is a town in Tver Oblast in Russia, located on the Volga River, at its confluence with the Kimerka River. ... Dubna River (Дубна in Russian) is a river in the Vladimir and Moscow Oblasts in Russia, a right tributary of the Volga. ... Dubna is a small city located in central Russia, in the Taldomsky district of Moscow Oblast, approximately 125 km north of Moscow, on the banks of the Volga river. ... Shosha River (Russian: ) is a river in Tver and partially Moscow Oblasts in Russia, a right tributary of the Volga River. ... Konakovo (Russian: ) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia. ... Tvertsa River (Тверца in Russian) is a river in the Tver Oblast in Russia. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Vazuza (Russian: ) is a river in Smolensk Oblast and Tver Oblast, Russia, a right tributary of the Volga River. ... The town of Zubtsov as photographed by Prokudin-Gorskii. ... Selizharovka (Russian: ) is a river in Tver Oblast, Russia, a left tributary of the Volga River. ... Selizharovo (Russian: ) is an urban-type settlement in Tver Oblast, Russia, the administrative centre of Selizharovsky District. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Saratovbridge. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Saratovbridge. ... Saratov bridge used to be the longest in Europe. ...

Reservoirs (downstream to upstream)

A number of large hydroelectric reservoirs were constructed on the Volga during the Soviet rule. They are: Soviet redirects here. ...

Ivankovo Reservoir or Ivankovskoye Reservoir (Russian: ), also known as the Moscow Sea, is the uppermost reservoir on the Volga River, in Moscow and Tver Oblasts of Russia, located some 130 km north of Moscow. ... Uglich Reservoir or Uglichskoye Reservoir (Russian: ) is an artificial lake in the upper part of the Volga River formed by a hydroelectric dam built in 1939 in the town of Uglich. ... The Rybinsk Reservoir, informally called the Rybinsk Sea (Rybinskoye vodokhranilishche), is a vast water reservoir on Volga River and its tributaries Sheksna and Mologa. ... Gorky Reservoir (Russian: ) is an artificial lake in the central part of the Volga River formed by a hydroelectric dam of Gorky Hydroelectric Station (now called Nizhny Novgorod Hydroelectric Station) built in 1955 in the town of Gorodets and filled in 1955 – 1957. ... Kuybyshev Reservoir or Kuybyshevskoye Reservoir (Russian: ), sometimes called Samara Reservoir is a reservoir of the middle Volga and lower Kama in the Chuvash Republic, Mari El Republic, Republic of Tatarstan, Samara Oblast and Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia. ... Saratov Reservoir (Russian: ) is an artificial lake in the lower part of the Volga River in Russia formed by a the dam of the Saratov Hydroelectric Station situated in the city of Balakovo. ...

Human history

Many Orthodox shrines and monasteries are strewn along the banks of the Volga
Many Orthodox shrines and monasteries are strewn along the banks of the Volga

The ancient scholar Ptolemy of Alexandria mentions the lower Volga in his Geography (Book 5, Chapter 8, 2nd Map of Asia). He calls it the Rha, which was the Scythian name for the river. Ptolemy believed the Don and the Volga shared the same upper branch, which flowed from the Hyperborean Mountains. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (818x310, 80 KB) Volga River opposite Tolga Monastery, as photographed by User:Ghirlandajo from his own house in 2003. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (818x310, 80 KB) Volga River opposite Tolga Monastery, as photographed by User:Ghirlandajo from his own house in 2003. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... In Greek mythology, according to tradition, the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived to the far north of Greece. ...


The downstream of the Volga, widely believed to have been a cradle of the Proto-Indo-European civilization, was settled by Huns and other Turkic peoples in the first millennium AD, replacing Scythians. Proto-Indo-European (PIE) may refer to: Proto-Indo-European language the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages Proto-Indo-Europeans, the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European roots, A list of reconstructed Proto-Indo-European roots Categories: | ... The Scythians (also Scyths, from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[1], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ...


Subsequently the river basin played an important role in the movements of peoples from Asia to Europe. A powerful polity of Volga Bulgaria once flourished where the Kama river joins the Volga, while Khazaria controlled the lower stretches of the river. Such Volga cities as Atil, Saqsin, or Sarai were among the largest in the medieval world. The river served as an important trade route connecting Scandinavia, Rus', and Volga Bulgaria with Khazaria and Persia. The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Atil, also spelled Itil (literally meaning Big River), was the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until the end of the 10th century. ... Location Saqsin was a medieval city that flourished from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries. ... Sarai Batu (Old Sarai, Sarai-al-Maqrus) was a capital city of the Golden Horde. ... In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // In England the Viking Age began dramatically on June 8, 793 when heathen Norsemen destroyed the Abbey church on Lindisfarne, a centre of learning famous across the continent. ... Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... Motto Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (introduced 1979) Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE...

Several old towns, including Kalyazin and Mologa, were flooded by Soviet authorities in the 1940s.
Several old towns, including Kalyazin and Mologa, were flooded by Soviet authorities in the 1940s.

Khazars were replaced by Kipchaks, Kimeks and Mongols, who founded the Golden Horde in the lower stream of Volga. Later the Empire broke into the Khanate of Kazan and Khanate of Astrakhan; subsequently they were conquered by Russians in the 16th century. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Kalyazin (Russian: ) is a small town in Tver Oblast, Russia. ... Mologa (Моло́га) — river in Russia, left tributary of Volga. ... Kipchaks in EurAsia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Chinese: 欽察/钦察, QÄ«nchá, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium... Kmek or Kimak was a nomadic tribe lived in modern Astrakhan Oblast of Russia in 9th-13th century. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... The Astrakhan Khanate was a predominantly Turkic ( Tatar) state which existed in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in the area adjacent to the mouth of the Volga, where the contemporary city of Astrakhan is now located. ...


In modern times, the city on the big bend of the Volga, currently known as Volgograd, witnessed the Battle of Stalingrad, the bloodiest battle in human history. The Russian people's deep feeling for the Volga often finds echoes in their songs and literature (see The Volga Boatmen's Song for one conspicuous example). Combatants Germany Romania Italy Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B: German Sixth Army # German Fourth Panzer... The Song of the Volga Boatmen is a well-known traditional Russian song. ...


Ethnic groups

The indigenous population of Upper course of Volga were Finnic (Valtai, Rehevä and Tihveri) Karelians, known also by the Russians as Wild Forest and Tver Karielas followed by Meri Russian Merya, that were later partly assimilated to Russians. Other Finnic ethnic groups are Maris and Mirdes / Merdis Russian Mordvins of middle Volga. Turkic populations appeared in the 600s and assimilated some Finnic and Indo-European population at the middle and lower Volga, later they were transformed to Christian Chuvash and Muslim Tatars; also to Nogais, which were supplanted to Daghestan later. Mongolian Buddhists Kalmyks resettled to Volga in the 17th century. The Karelians is a name used to denote two related, yet different ethnic groups of Finnic-language speakers. ... In the mythology of the Bororo people of Brazil, Meri is a folk hero and sun-god. ... The Meryas were a probably Finno-Ugric tribe which lived in the region of Moscow, Rostov, Kostroma, Jaroslavl and Vladimir. ... The Mari (also known as Cheremis in Russian and ÇirmeÅŸ in Tatar) are a Volga-Finnic people in the Volga area, the natives of Mari El, Russia. ... The Mordvins (Mordva) are a people who speak languages of the Finno-Permic branch of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... Centuries: 6th century 7th century 8th century Decades: 550s - 560s - 570s - 580s - 590s - 600s - 610s - 620s - 630s - 640s - 650s Years: 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 World population grows to about 208 million. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... The Republic of Dagestan (Russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Republic of Kalmykia ( Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


The Volga region is home to a German minority group, the Volga Germans. Catherine the Great had issued a Manifesto in 1763 inviting all foreigners to come and populate the region, offering them numerous incentives to do so. This was partly to develop the region but also to provide a buffer zone between the Russians and the Mongol hordes to the east. Because of conditions in German territories, the Germans responded in the largest numbers. Under the Soviet Union a slice of the region was turned into the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to house many of the Volga Germans. Others were executed or dispersed throughout the Soviet Union prior to and after World War II. The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... 1937 flag of the Volga German ASSR Coat of Arms of the Volga German ASSR Volga German ASSR location map Volga German ASSR map The Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (German: Autonome Sozialistische Sowjetrepublik der Wolgadeutschen, Russian: Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика Немцев Поволжья) was an autonomous republic established in the Soviet Union, with its capital...


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The Volga has a rocky right bank
The Volga has a rocky right bank

The Volga is of great importance to inland shipping and transport in Russia: all the dams in the river have been equipped with large (double) ship locks, so that vessels of considerable dimensions can actually travel from the Caspian Sea almost to the upstream end of the river. Connections with the Don River and the Black Sea are possible through the Volga-Don Canal. Connections with the lakes of the north (Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega), Saint Petersburg and the Baltic Sea are possible through the Volga-Baltic Waterway; and a liaison with Moscow has been realised by the Moscow Canal connecting the Volga and the Moskva rivers. This infrastructure has been designed for vessels of a relatively large scale (lock dimensions of 290 x 30 meters on the Volga, slightly smaller on some of the other rivers and canals) and it spans many thousands of kilometers. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1488x1984, 590 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Volga River Tatarstan Kuybyshev Reservoir Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1488x1984, 590 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Volga River Tatarstan Kuybyshev Reservoir Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Canal locks in England. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Lenin Volga-Don Shipping Canal (In Russian Волго-Донской судоходный канал имени Ð’. И. Ленина) is a canal, which connects the Volga River and the Don River in a closest location between them. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Volga-Baltic Waterway, formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System, is a series of canals and rivers in Russia which link the Volga River with the Baltic Sea. ... Moscow Canal (Russian: Канал имени Москвы; former name - Moscow-Volga Canal (until 1947)) is a canal that connects the Moskva River with the main transportation artery of European Russia - the Volga. ... Moskva River near the Moscow Kremlin in 19th century. ...


Until recently access to the Russian waterways was only granted on a very limited scale. The increasing contacts between the European Union and Russia have led to new policies with regard to the access to the Russian inland waterways. It is expected that vessels of other nations will be allowed on the Russian rivers soon. (Source: NoorderSoft Waterways Database)


See also

Notable rivers of Russia in Europe are the Volga, Don, Kama, Oka and the Northern Dvina, while several other rivers originate in Russia but flow into other countries, such as the Dniepr and the Western Dvina. ... The Song of the Volga Boatmen is a well-known traditional Russian song. ... Volga Delta and northwestern Caspian Sea Lotus plant—The Volga Delta is the only place in Russia where pelicans, flamingoes, and lotuses may be found. ...

References

  1. ^ Lebedynsky, Iaroslav. Les Sarmates : Amazones et lanciers cuirassés entre Oural et Danube. Paris: Editions Errance, 2002.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Volga River
Map of the drainage basin of the Volga.
Tributaries: Selizharovka • Vazuza • TvertsaShoshaDubnaMedveditsaNerlKashinkaMologaSheksnaKotoroslKostromaUnzhaUzolaOkaKerzhenetsSuraVetluga • Rutka • Great Kokshaga • Little Kokshaga • Ilet • SviyagaKazankaKama • Cheremshan • Sok • Samara • Chapayevka • Little Irgiz • Irgiz • Yeruslan • Akhtuba (distributary)
Reservoirs: Volgo Lake • IvankovoUglichRybinsk • Gorky • Cheboksary • Kuybyshev • Saratov • Volgograd
Hydroelectric stations: Ivankovo • Uglich • Rybinsk • Nizhny Novgorod • Cheboksary • Zhigulyov • Saratov • Volga

  Results from FactBites:
 
Volga River (379 words)
Volga river, the largest river system in Europe, has its source is in the Valdia Hills 225 m (740 ft) above sea level northwest of Moscow and about 320 kilometres southeast of St. Petersburg.
The Volga River is the longest river in Europe.
The Volga Delta and the nearby Caspian Sea are superb fishing grounds.
Volga River Basin - UNEP/DEWA~Europe > Publication > Freshwater in Europe (491 words)
The source of the river is in the Valdaj hills north of Moscow at a height of 228 m above sea level.
The Volga Basin comprises four geographical zones: the dense, marshy forests; the forest steppes; the steppes; and the semi-desert lowlands.
The course of the Volga is divided into three parts: the upper; the middle; and the lower Volga.
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