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Encyclopedia > Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
1937 flag of the Volga German ASSR
1937 flag of the Volga German ASSR
Coat of Arms of the Volga German ASSR
Coat of Arms of the Volga German ASSR
Volga German ASSR location map
Volga German ASSR location map
Volga German ASSR (Autonome Sozialistische Sowjet-Republik der Wolga-Deutschen) outline map
Volga German ASSR (Autonome Sozialistische Sowjet-Republik der Wolga-Deutschen) outline map
Volga German ASSR (yellow) in 1940
Volga German ASSR (yellow) in 1940

The Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (German: Autonome Sozialistische Sowjetrepublik der Wolgadeutschen, abbreviated A.S.S.R.W.D.; Russian: Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика Немцев Поволжья) was an autonomous republic established in Soviet Russia, with its capital at the Volga port of Engels (until 1931 known as Pokrovsk) in 1918 following the Russian Revolution, by October 29 Decree of the Soviet government. It occupied the area of compact settlement of the large Volga German minority in Russia, which numbered almost 1.8 million by 1897. The republic was declared on January 6, 1924. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Volga_German. ... Image File history File links Volga_German. ... Image File history File links Volga_German03. ... Image File history File links Volga_German03. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... Engels (Russian: ) is a city in Saratov Oblast, Russia. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Decrees (Russian: ) were legislative acts of the highest Soviet institutions, primarily of the Council of Peoples Commissars (the highest executive body) and of the Supreme Soviet or VTsIK (the highest legislative body), [1] issued between 1917 and 1924. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Volga German pioneer family commemorative statue in Victoria, Kansas, USA. The Volga Germans (German: or Russlanddeutsche) were ethnic Germans living near the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia around Saratov and to the south, maintaining German culture, language, traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutheranism, Reformed and Roman Catholicism... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ...


The A.S.S.R. was divided into fourteen cantons: Fjodorowka, Krasny-Kut, Tonkoschurowka, Krasnojar, Pokrowsk, Kukkus, Staraja Poltawka, Pallasowka, Kamenka, Solotoje, Marxstadt, Frank, Seelmann, and Balzer.


After the Russian Revolution the deeply religious Volga Germans, 76%[citation needed]of whom were Christians of the Lutheran faith, immediately came into conflict with the anti-religious Bolshevik revolutionaries. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... For other uses, see Conflict (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Bolshevik faction in the RSDLP 1903-1912. ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ...


As of 1919, pastors were labelled counterrevolutionary propagandists and sent to gulags in Siberia.[citation needed] Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A pastor is an... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


During the Russian Civil War some Volga Germans enlisted with the White Army and, as a result, fierce attacks by the Red Army on Volga German communities took place. In the aftermath of the war, the famine that swept the U.S.S.R. took the lives of 1/3rd of the Volga German population.[citation needed] Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


To the moment of declaration of the autonomy an amnesty was announced. However it eventually was applied to a small number of people. According to the politics of korenizatsiya, carried out in 1920s in the Soviet Union, usage of German language was promoted in official documents and Germans were encouraged to occupy management positions. According to the 1939 census, there were 605,500 Germans in the autonomy. Korenizatsiya (Russian: ) sometimes also called korenization, meaning nativization or indigenization, literally putting down roots, was the early Soviet nationalities policy promoted mostly in the 1920s but with a continuing legacy in later years. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...


The German invasion of the Soviet Union (known in the former U.S.S.R. as the Great Patriotic War, 1941-1945) marked the end of the Volga German A.S.S.R. The Soviet government declared all Germans to be enemies of the state[citation needed], which increased the persecution and fear of the Volga Germans among the general Russian populace. On August 28, 1941, Joseph Stalin issued a formal Decree of Banishment, which abolished the A.S.S.R. and exiled all Volga Germans to the Kazakh S.S.R. and Siberia. Many were interned in labor camps merely due to their heritage. Original German plan Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which commenced on June 22, 1941. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... Enemy of the State is a 1998 film written by David Marconi, directed by Tony Scott, and starring Will Smith, Gene Hackman, Jon Voight, Lisa Bonet and Regina King. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ...


After the war, they were forced to sign contracts that promised they would never return to the Volga area.[citation needed] A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ...


Following the death of Stalin in 1953, the situation for Volga Germans improved dramatically, and in 1964 a second decree was issued. It openly admitted the government's guilt in pressing charges against innocent people, and urged the Soviet citizens to give the Volga Germans every assistance possible in support of their "economic and cultural expansion". In 1965 the Decree of Banishment was officially made null and void, though the Volga German A.S.S.R. was never reestablished.[citation needed] The land area is now part of Saratov Oblast. Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... “Guilty” redirects here. ... In the common law legal system, an indictment (IPA: ) is a formal accusation of having committed a criminal offense. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Look up null in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In law, void means of no legal effect. ... Saratov Oblast (Russian: , Saratovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the Volga Federal District. ...


Beginning in the early 1980s and accelerating after the fall of the Soviet Union many Volga Germans have emigrated to Germany by taking advantage of the German Law of return, a policy which grants citizenship to all those who can prove to be a refugee or expellee of German ethnic origin or as the spouse or descendant of such a person.[1] This exodus has occurred despite the fact that many Volga Germans either do not speak German or have a poor grasp of the language. However, especially the older Volga German population can usually still speak the Volga German dialect, which is closely related to the German language. In the late 1990s, however, Germany made it more difficult for Russians of German descent to settle in Germany, especially for those who do not speak some of the Volga dialect of German. A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ... The term Right of return refers to the principle in international law that members of an ethnic or national group have a right to immigration and naturalization into the country that they, the destination country, or both consider to be that groups homeland, independent of prior personal citizenship in... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...

Contents

Population

Ethnic groups of the
Volga German A.S.S.R.

1926 census 1939 census
Germans 379,630 (66.4%) 366,685 (60.5%)
Russians 116,561 (20.4%) 156,027 (25.7%)
Ukrainians 68,561 (12.0%) 58,248 (9.6%)
Kazakhs 1,353 (0.2%) 8,988 (1.5%)
Tatars 2,225 (0.4%) 4,074 (0.7%)
Mordvins 1,429 (0.3%) 3,048 (0.5%)
Belarusians 159 (0.0%) 1,636 (0.3%)
Chinese 5 (0.0%) 1,284 (0.2%)
Jews 152 (0.0%) 1,216 (0.2%)
Poles 216 (0.0%) 756 (0.1%)
Estonians 753 (0.1%) 521 (0.1%)
Others 710 (0.1%) 3,869 (0.6%)
Total 571,754 606,352

Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... This article is about the people. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Barbara Dietz, "German and Jewish migration from the former Soviet Union to Germany: Background, Trends and Implications," Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 26, No. 4(October 2000): 635-652.

See also

Gustav Klinger (1876 – 1937 ?) was a Russian Bolshevik politician. ... Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989 In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... Volga German pioneer family commemorative statue in Victoria, Kansas, USA. The Volga Germans (German: or Russlanddeutsche) were ethnic Germans living near the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia around Saratov and to the south, maintaining German culture, language, traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutheranism, Reformed and Roman Catholicism... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ...

External links

In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... Official languages Abkhaz, with Russian having co-official status and widespread use by government and other institutions Political status De facto independent Capital Sukhumi Capitals coordinates President Sergei Bagapsh Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Georgia  23 July 1992  none Currency Russian ruble Official languages Abkhaz and... The Adjar ASSR, Adzhar ASSR or Adjarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union within the Georgian SSR, established on 16 July 1921. ... The Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the former Soviet Union. ... The Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the former Soviet Union. ... Chechen-Ingush Aautonomous Soviet Socialist Rrepublic, or Chechen-Ingush ASSR (Russian: ) was an autonomous republic within Russian SFSR. Its capital was Grozny. ... The Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the former Soviet Union. ... Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Крымская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) (October 18, 1921—June 30, 1945) was created as part of RSFSR within the Crimean Peninsula, its capital being Simferopol. ... The Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the former Soviet Union. ... Kabardin Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kabardin ASSR) was the name given to Kabardino-Balkar ASSR after deportation of the Balkars. ... The Kabardino-Balkar ASSR was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч; Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Karakalpak ASSR was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... Flag of the KASSR The Karelian ASSR (in Russian: Карельская АССР) was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! Official language None. ... Capital Syktyvkar Area - total - % water Ranked 15th - 415,900 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 54th - est. ... Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz ASSR) was the name of two different national entities within Russian SFSR, in the territories of modern Kazakhstan and Kyrghyzstan. ... Mari Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Mari ASSR) was the successor of Mari Autonomous Oblast. ... Moldavian ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Republic; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous region of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing Transnistria (now in Moldova) and parts which are now in Ukraine. ... The Republic of Mordovia (Russian: ; Moksha: Мордовскяй Республикась; Erzya: Мордовской Республикась) or Mordvinia is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Flag of the Nakhchivan ASSR introduced in 1937 with both Azerbaijani and Armenian text. ... Capital Vladikavkaz Area - total - % water Ranked 84th - 8,000 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 68th - est. ... 1954 version of the flag The coat of arms of the republic Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (TASSR) was part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. ... Map of Soviet Central Asia in 1922 with the Turkestan ASSR and the Kyrgyz ASSR (present-day Kazakhstan). ... The Udmurt Republic (Russian: ; Udmurt: Удмурт Элькун) or Udmurtia (Russian: Удму́ртия) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Yakut ASSR) was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_the_Soviet_Union. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Volga German - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (885 words)
The Volga Germans were ethnic Germans living near the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia around Saratov and to the south, maintaining German culture, language, traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutheranism, Reformed and Roman Catholicism, and Mennonite.
Since the late 1980s, many Volga Germans have emigrated to their ancestral homeland of Germany, taking advantage of the German Law of return, a policy which grants citizenship to all those who can prove to be a refugee or expellee of German ethnic origin or as the spouse or descendant of such a person.
Volga Germans emigrated to the United States and Canada and settled mainly in the Great Plains; Alberta, eastern Colorado, Kansas, Manitoba, Minnesota, eastern Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Saskatchewan, South Dakota, Washington, and often succeeding in dryland farming, a skill learned in Russia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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