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Encyclopedia > Volga Bulgaria
The Little Minaret in Bolghar
The Little Minaret in Bolghar
For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation).

Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now Russia. Today, both the Republics of Tatarstan and Chuvashia are considered to be descendants of Volga Bulgaria in terms of territory and ethnicity. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tatarstan Volga Bulgaria Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tatarstan Volga Bulgaria Metadata This file... The term Bulgaria can reffer to: Bulgaria, a souvereign state in the Balkans Great Bulgaria, a historical country just northeastern from the Black Sea Volga Bulgaria, a historical country on the river Volga Bulgaria, Byzantine theme, which included parts of Macedonia, Serbia and a smaller part from todays Bulgaria... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Capital Cheboksary Area - total - % water 81st - 18,300 km² - N/A Population - Total - Density 41st - est. ...

Contents

Origin

History of Russia
East Slavs
Rus' Khaganate
Khazars
Kievan Rus'
Vladimir-Suzdal
Novgorod Republic
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Muscovy
Khanate of Kazan
Tsardom of Russia
Russian Empire
  • 1682-1796
  • 1796-1855
  • 1855-1892
  • 1892-1920
Russian Revolution
Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian Federation
History of Tatarstan
Great Bulgaria
Khazars
Volga Bulgaria
Kipchaks
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Khanate of Kazan
Muscovy
Kazan Governorate
Idel-Ural State
Tatar ASSR
Republic of Tatarstan
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First-hand information on Volga Bulgaria is rather sparse. As no authentic Bulgar records have survived, most of our information comes from contemporary Arabic, Persian, Indian or Russian sources. Some information is provided by excavations. The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... The Rus Khaganate is a poorly-documented period in the history of East Slavs (roughly the late eighth and early to mid ninth centuries CE). ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Coat of arms Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... Coat of arms The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... // Note on naming The territory ruled by the Romanov dynasty was often called Muscovy in Western Europe until well into the eighteenth century. ... // Catherine II died in 1796, and her son Paul (r. ... // Economic development The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia. ... // Radical revolutionary parties During the 1890s, Russias industrial development led to a significant increase in the size of the urban bourgeoisie and the working class, setting the stage for a more dynamic political atmosphere and the development of radical parties. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Combatants Red Army Latvian Riflemen White Army (Monarchists) Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Czechoslovak Legion Allied intervention Other anti-Bolshevik forces Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Sergei Kamenev, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Frunze Alexander Antonov, Anton Denikin, Alexander Kolchak, Lavr Kornilov, Pyotr Wrangel... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In 632, Khan Kubrat united the Bulgars and formed a confederation of tribes, known as Great Bulgaria, or Bulgaria Magna, with a capital at the ancient city of Fanagoria. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Map of Asia and Europe circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Chinese: 欽察/钦察, QÄ«nchá, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Zilant, Coat of arms of Kazan Governorate Kazan Governorate (Russian: ; Tatar: Qazan gubernası/Казан губернасы; Chuvash: Хусан кěперниě) used to be one of the Governorates (guberniyas) of Imperial Russia in 1708–1920, with the city of Kazan as its capital. ... Idel-Ural literally means Volga-Ural in Tatar. ... Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (TASSR) was part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. ... A new page based on the new template is being worked on at Tatarstan/Temp, please make any changes you want to make on that page. ... For the people of Central Asia see Bulgars Bulgar language is an extinct language commonly considered Turkic but more recently Indo-Iranian Bulgar, or bulgarish is Yiddish word for Romanian dance bugarească (means Bulgarian cf. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Motto (official) Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (national) Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān 2 Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Establishment  -  Proto-Elamite Period 8000 BCE   -  Middle...


It is thought that the territory of Volga Bulgaria was originally settled by Finno-Ugric peoples. The Turkic[1][2] Bulgars moved into the area in about AD 660, commanded by Kotrag Khan, Kubrat's son. Some Bulgar tribes, however, continued westward and after many adventures settled along the Danube River, in what is now known as Bulgaria proper, where they merged with or were assimilated by the Slavs, adopting a South Slavic tongue and the Eastern Orthodox faith. Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Events Childeric II proclaimed king of Austrasia. ... Kotrag Khan was the founder of Volga Bulgaria. ... Kubrats Great Bulgaria and adjacent regions, c. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


Most scholars agree that the Volga Bulgarians were subject to the great Khazarian Empire. Sometime in the late 9th century unification processes started, and the capital was established at Bolğar (also spelled Bulgar) city, 160 km south from modern Kazan. Most scholars doubt, however, that the state could assert independence from the Khazars until the latter were annihilated by Svyatoslav of Rus in 965. The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... The Little Minaret of Bolghar. ... Kazan (Russian: ; Tatar: Qazan, Казан) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russias largest cities. ... Kniaz Sviatoslav I, Prince of Kiev (c. ... March 1 - Pope Leo VIII is restored in place of Pope Benedict V October 1 - Pope John XIII succeeds Pope Leo VIII as the 133rd pope. ...

Maps

Volga Bulgaria in the Eurasian world of AD 1200
Volga Bulgaria in the Eurasian world of AD 1200
Detailed map of Volga Bulgaria
Detailed map of Volga Bulgaria

Image File history File links Premongol. ... Image File history File links Premongol. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1208x1113, 265 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Volga Bulgaria ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1208x1113, 265 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Volga Bulgaria ...

Rise

A large part of the region's population was Turkic and included Bulgars, Suars, Barsil, Bilars, Baranjars and part of Burtas (by ibn Rustah). Modern Chuvashes and Kazan Tatars descend from the Volga Bulgars (with more or less significant admixtures of Finno-Ugric and Kipchak Turkic populations, respectively). Another part comprised Finnic and Magyaric (Asagel and Pascatir) tribes, from which Bisermäns and Tatars probably descend. This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... The Suars (also known as Suvar) were a Turkic-speaking people, probably of Hunnish descent, who lived in Eastern Europe in Middle Ages. ... A semi-nomadic Eurasian tribe, probably of Turkic linguistic affiliation. ... Bilars were medieval (10th-13th centuries) Turkic tribes commonwealth in the Middle Volga. ... Baranjars (Balanjars, Belenjers) were a confederacy of Turkic tribes who flourished in the early Middle Ages. ... Burtas or Bortas (plural Bortaslar) were a tribe of uncertain ethnolinguistic affiliation inhabiting the steppe region north of the Caspian in medieval times. ... Ibn Rustah (in Persian: ابن رسته) was a 10th century Persian explorer and geographer born in Rosta district, Isfahan, Persia (See Encyclopaedia Iranica [1]). He wrote a geographical compendium. ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... The term Finno-Ugric people is used to describe a people speaking a Finno-Ugric language. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... Esegels (or Äsägel) were Eurasian nomads, that enjoyed Volga Bulgaria and were assimilated to Bolgars. ... Pascatir is a historical land, corresponding to modern Bashkortostan. ... The Bisermän are a group of Udmurt people. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ...


Islam was adopted as the state religion in the early tenth century. Ibn Fadlan was dispatched by the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir in 922/3 to establish relations and bring qadis and teachers of Islamic law to Volga Bulgaria, as well as help in building a fort and a mosque.[3] Tengriism and other religions, however, continued to be practiced. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Ahmad ibn-al-Abbas ibn Rashid ibn-Hammad ibn-Fadlan (Aḥmad ʿibn alʿAbbās ʿibn Rasẖīd ʿibn ḥammād ʿibn Fadlān أحمد ابن العبا&#1587... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... For main article see: Caliphate Khalif is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Al-Muqtadir (d. ... For the city in Gujarat, India, see Kadi, India. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... A diagram of the Tengriist World view on a Shamans Drum [1] [2]. The World-tree is growing in the centre and connecting the three Worlds Underworld, Middleworld and Upperworld. ...

The Black Chamber in Bolghar.

Commanding the Volga River in its middle course, the state controlled much of trade between Europe and Asia prior to the Crusades (which made other trade routes practicable). The capital, Bolghar, was a thriving city, rivalling in size and wealth with the greatest centres of the Islamic world. Trade partners of Bolghar included from Vikings, Bjarmland, Yugra and Nenets in the north to Baghdad and Constantinople in the south, from Western Europe to China in the East. Other major cities included Bilär, Suar (Suwar), Qaşan (Kashan) and Cükätaw (Juketau). Modern cities Kazan and Yelabuga were founded as Volga Bulgaria's border fortresses. Image File history File links 14th-century mosque, Volga Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links 14th-century mosque, Volga Bulgaria. ... The Little Minaret of Bolghar. ... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ... In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The Little Minaret of Bolghar. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8th–11th century. ... Biarmland (or Bjarmaland) was a territory in Northern Europe, Northern Russia, mentioned by Norse sagas, where Finnic Biarmians lived or rather ruled. ... Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, a territory formerly known as Yugra Yugra (Russian: ) was the name of the lands between the Pechora River and Northern Urals in the Russian annals of the 12th–17th centuries, as well as the name of the Khanty and partly Mansi tribes inhabiting these territories. ... Nenets may refer to: Nenetsia, an administrative region of Russia. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Bilär (Bülär) – Medieval city in Volga Bulgaria in 10th – 13th centuries. ... Suar (Suwar) was a medieval (9th - 14th century) Volga Bulgarian city, the capital of Suar Duchy in 948-975. ... Qashan (Tatar: Qaşan) was a medieval city in Volga Bulgaria, at the right bank of Kama river in 12th-15th centuries. ... Cükätaw or Juketaw (called Zhukotin in Russian chronicles) was a medieval Bolgar city during the 10th to 15th centuries CE. The city was situated on the right bank of Kama, near the modern city of Çístay (Chistopol). ... Kazan (Russian: ; Tatar: Qazan, Казан) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russias largest cities. ... Yelabuga (also spelled Alabuga, Elabuga; Tatar: AlabuÄŸa/Алабуга, Russian: ) is a town in Tatarstan. ...


Some of the Volga Bulgarian cities still haven't been found, but they are mentioned in Russian sources. They are: Aşlı (Oshel), Tuxçin (Tukhchin), İbrahim (Bryakhimov), Taw İle. Some of them were ruined after and during the Mongol invasion. Ashli or AÅŸlı (Tatar: ; pron. ...


The Russian principalities to the west posed the only tangible military threat. In the 11th century, the country was devastated by several Russian raids. Then, at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, the rulers of Vladimir (notably Andrew the Pious and Vsevolod III), anxious to defend their eastern border, systematically pillaged Bulgarian cities. Under Slavic pressure from the west, the Bulgars had to move their capital from Bolghar to Bilär. Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude Vladimir (Russian: ) is an old city in Russia. ... Andrei Bogolyubsky (Андрей Боголюбский) (ca. ... Vsevolod III Yuriyevich, or Vsevolod the Big Nest (also: Vsevolod the Large Nest) (Всеволод III Юрьевич Большое Гнездо in Russian) (1154-1212), Grand Prince of Kiev... The Little Minaret of Bolghar. ... Bilär (Bülär) – Medieval city in Volga Bulgaria in 10th – 13th centuries. ...


Decline

Devil's Tower in Yelabuga, 12th century.
Devil's Tower in Yelabuga, 12th century.

In September 1223 near Samara an advance guard of Genghis Khan's army under command of Uran, son of Subedei Bahadur, entered Volga Bulgaria but was defeated by Gabdula Chelbir Khan. In 1236, the Mongols returned but it took them five years to subjugate the whole country which at that time was suffering from internal war. Henceforth Volga Bulgaria became a part of the Ulus Jochi, later known as the Golden Horde. It was divided into several principalities; each of them became a vassal of the Golden Horde and received some autonomy. By the 1430s, the Khanate of Kazan was established as the most important of these principalities. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Yelabuga (also spelled Alabuga, Elabuga; Tatar: Alabuğa/Алабуга, Russian: ) is a town in Tatarstan. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Samara (Russian: ) (from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev ()) is the sixth-largest city in Russia. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... Uran (Hindi: उरन, Urdu: اُرن) is a city and a municipal council near Mumbai in the Indian state of Maharashtra. ... Subutai was the primary strategist and good friend of Genghis Khan and Ogedei Khan. ... Baghatur. ... Combatants Volga Bulgaria Mongols Commanders Ghabdulla Chelbir Subede Jebe Strength N/A 50,000 Casualties N/A 4,000 survived The battle of Samara Bend or the battle of Kernek was the first battle between Volga Bulgaria and the Mongols, probably the first major battle the Mongols lost. ... // Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Combatants Volga Bulgaria Mongols Commanders Mir-Ghazi Batu Khan Strength 10,000-50,0001 100,000-150,0002 Casualties all population and defenders N/A 1 Friar Julian 2 only Batus horde The siege of Bilär was a battle for the capital city of the Volga Bulgaria between... Jochi (also spelled Jöchi) (c. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ...


See also

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:
Bulgaria, Eastern

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Capital Cheboksary Area - total - % water 81st - 18,300 km² - N/A Population - Total - Density 41st - est. ... Atil, also spelled Itil (literally meaning Big River), was the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until the end of the 10th century. ...

External links

  • We are Bulgars, not Tatars (Мы болгары, а не татары), Bulgar National Congress (Russian)
  • Volga Bulgars:History and Culture (Волжские Булгары : история и культура) (Russian)

References

  1. ^ The New Cambridge Medieval History — Volga Bulgars
  2. ^ Britannica Online — Bolgar Turkic
  3. ^ Vikings in the East, Amazing Eyewitness Accounts

  Results from FactBites:
 
Volga Bulgaria, Khan Kubrat, Kotragh, by Neytcho Iltchev (615 words)
Volga Bulgaria, Khan Kubrat, Kotragh, by Neytcho Iltchev
The city of Bulgar was the capital city of Volga Bulgaria.
Khan Boris converted Bulgaria to the Christianity, the Volga Bulgaria, guided by Khan Almush, son of Shilki, accepted Islam as the official state religion.
Volga Bulgaria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (752 words)
Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation.
Today, Republics of Tatarstan and Chuvashia are considered to be descendants of Volga Bulgaria in terms of territory and ethnicity.
Henceforth Volga Bulgaria became a part of the Ulus Jochi, later known as the Golden Horde.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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