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Encyclopedia > Volcanoes of Java
Mt. Semeru and Mt. Bromo in East Java
Mt. Semeru and Mt. Bromo in East Java

Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin, and contains no less than thirty-eight mountains of that conical form which indicates their having at one time or other been active volcanoes. Only a few of them, however, have been in activity in more recent times. Image File history File links Semeru_Bromo_Temple. ... Image File history File links Semeru_Bromo_Temple. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ...

Contents


Papandayan

The most remarkable eruption was that of the mountain named Papandayan, which occurred in 1772. During this convulsion the greater part of the mountain, which was formerly one of the largest in the island, was completely swallowed up in some great underground gulf. Catherine IIs soldiers in the Russo-Turkish War, by Alexandre Benois. ...


On the night between the 11th and 12th of August of that year, the mountain appeared to be wholly enveloped in a remarkable luminous cloud. The inhabitants fled in consternation; but before they could all escape, the mountain began to totter, and the greater part of it tumbled down and disappeared. The crash with which it fell was dreadful, the noise resembling the discharge of volleys of artillery. Besides that part of the mountain which thus fell in, a large extent of ground in its neighbourhood was engulfed. The space measured fifteen miles in length and six in breadth. The ground for many miles round this space was covered with immense quantities of ashes, stones, cinders, and other substances thrown out by the volcano. These were, on many parts of the surface, accumulated to the height of three feet; and even at the end of six weeks, the layers thus deposited retained so much heat as to render the mountain inaccessible. By this dreadful occurrence forty villages were destroyed, some engulfed with the ground on which they stood, others buried under the loose materials which had been ejected. Not far short of three thousand of the inhabitants perished.


Galunggung—Destructive eruption

Another of the volcanoes of Java, called Galunggung, burst into eruption in 1822, commencing with a terrible explosion of stones and ashes, followed by a stream of hot mud, which overspread a large tract of ground. This eruption proved still more fatal to human life, about four thousand persons having been destroyed. Galunggung (Galoen-gong, Gunung Galunggung) is a stratovolcano on Java, Indonesia. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Mount Merapia

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Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page.

In September 1849, Mount Merapia, which had been thought extinct, erupted. The eruption, which lasted three days and caused immense property damage, was accompanied by a violent hurricane. One riverbed was filled by matter thrown out of the crater. Fortunately, no one was killed. However, a second eruption in January 1864, killed 350 people. Mount Merapi is a mountain in Central Java, Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Stop_hand. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


In May 2006 lava started flowing from this volcano again, prompting an evacuation and fears of a eruption. [1]. 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mud volcano

Java likewise contains a remarkable mud volcano. When viewed from a distance, there are seen to rise from it large volumes of vapour, like the spray from the billows dashing against a rocky shore, and there is heard a loud noise like distant thunder. On a nearer approach, the source of these phenomena is seen to be a hemispherical mound of black earth mixed with water, about sixteen feet in diameter, and which at intervals of a few seconds is pushed upwards by a force acting from beneath to a height of between twenty and thirty feet. It then suddenly explodes with a loud noise, scattering in every direction a quantity of black mud, which has a strong pungent smell resembling that of coal-tar, and is considerably warmer than the air. With the mud thus thrown out there has been formed around the mound a large perfectly level and nearly circular plain, about half a mile in circumference. The water mixed with the mud is salt, and the salt is separated from it by evaporation for economical purposes. During the rainy season the action of this mud volcano becomes more violent, the explosions are louder, and the mud is thrown to a greater height.


Crater of Tangkuban Prahu

The crater of Tangkuban-Prahu, another of the volcanoes of Java, presents a remarkable appearance. On approaching its edge, nothing is seen but an abyss, from which dense clouds of vapour continually arise, with hideous sounds, like the steam rushing from the open valves of hundreds of steam-engines. This great abyss consists really of two craters, separated the one from the other by a narrow ridge of rock, to which it is possible to descend and view them both. Each of them is elliptical in form, and surrounded by a crater-wall. That of the western, which the natives call the poison-crater, is a rapid slope nearly a thousand feet in depth, and is densely covered with brushwood almost to the bottom. The flat floor of this deep basin is continually sending out vapours, and in its centre is a pool of boiling water of a sulphur yellow colour. The floor itself is nothing but a crust of sulphur full of rents and holes, whence vapours constantly arise. This crust covers a surface of boiling hot bitter water, and by breaking it beautiful crystals of sulphur may be obtained. Tangkuban Perahu is an active volcano at 6. ...


The eastern is called by the natives the king's-crater; its walls are only between five and six hundred feet in depth, and are perfectly bare from top to bottom. The surfaces of the rocks composing them are grayish white, an effect produced upon them by the action of the vapours, to which they are continually exposed. The bottom of this crater consists of mud mixed with sulphur; but round the edges are some stones and hard masses. These are the remnants of an eruption which took place from this crater in 1846, when there was thrown up a great mass of sulphurous boiling mud, accompanied by quantities of sand and stones. This mountain, therefore, seems to be also more of the nature of a mud volcano, than of one which throws out burning lava.


Mount Bromo

Even though it is not a very big volcano, it is a very popular touristic location, especially due to an annual ceremony held at the crater. View into the Mount Bromo crater Mount Bromo (also known as Tengger Caldera) is one of the most popular tourist attractions in East Java, Indonesia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Volcanoes of Java - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1046 words)
Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin, and contains no less than thirty-eight mountains of that conical form which indicates their having at one time or other been active volcanoes.
Another of the volcanoes of Java, called Galunggung, burst into eruption in 1822, commencing with a terrible explosion of stones and ashes, followed by a stream of hot mud, which overspread a large tract of ground.
The water mixed with the mud is salt, and the salt is separated from it by evaporation for economical purposes.
Java (island) - definition of Java (island) in Encyclopedia (1268 words)
Java is located in a chain of islands with Sumatra to the northwest, Bali to the east, Borneo to the northeast and Christmas Island to the south.
Java is also the most densely populated island in Indonesia, with nearly half of the overall population of the country residing on Java and Bali.
Jakarta was made the capital of Indonesia upon her indepence, and an overwhelming majority of the figures of Indonesian independence are from Java as a result of the ethical policy from the beginning of the 20th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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