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Encyclopedia > Volcanism in Canada
The north face of Mount Garibaldi rises above The Table and Garibaldi Lake
Black Tusk viewed from the southeast
Mount Fee as seen from its north side
Mount Edziza in the Stikine Volcanic Belt as seen from the Stewart-Cassiar Highway
Mount Cayley as seen from its southeast slopes

Canada has examples of almost every type of volcano found on earth, including stratovolcanoes, calderas, cinder cones, shield volcanoes, maars and tuyas. Most of Canada's volcanoes are located in British Columbia. Several mountains that many British Columbians look at every day are active (but "sleeping") volcanoes. Most of them have erupted during the Pleistocene, Holocene, and others have the potential to erupt in the near future. Mount Garibaldi is a stratovolcano in the British Columbia part of the Cascade Range. ... The Table is a 300 m high flow-dominated tuya or volcanic plateau near Mount Garibaldi, British Columbia. ... Garibaldi Lake is a group of nine small andesitic stratovolcanoes and basaltic-andesite vents in the scenic Garibaldi Lake area immediately north of Mount Garibaldi was formed during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. ... The Black Tusk is a remarkably abrupt pinnacle of volcanic rock located in Garibaldi Provincial Park. ... Mount Fee is a volcanic neck located in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 644 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stikine Volcanic Belt... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 644 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stikine Volcanic Belt... Mount Edziza is a volcanic complex located in British Columbia, Canada. ... The Stikine Volcanic Belt (also called the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province) lies in northern British Columbia and continues to the Alaskian border and is Canadas most active volcanic region and has more than 100 volcanoes. ... British Columbia provincial highway 37, the Cassiar Highway, is the northwesternmost highway in the province, and it is very scenic, passing through some of the most isolated areas of B.C. The highway first gained its 37 designation in 1975, and at that time, its southern terminus was at the... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 633 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken in Squamish, BC on March 12th 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 633 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken in Squamish, BC on March 12th 2005. ... Mount Garibaldi is a stratovolcano in the British Columbia part of the Cascade Range. ... The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is a north-south range of volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia. ... A squamish is a strong and often violent wind occurring in many of the fjord of British Columbia, akin to the Williwaw of the Alaska Panhandle. ... Mount Cayley is a eroded stratovolcano in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southwestern British Columbia, which last erupted during the Pleistocene. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount Damavand, a stratovolcano in Māzandarān, Iran Mount St. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Cinder Cone is a cinder cone volcano in Lassen Volcanic National Park. ... Shield volcano A shield volcano is a large volcano with shallowly-sloping sides. ... Ukinrek Maars, Alaska; the result of a 10-day eruption in 1977. ... A tuya is a flat-topped, steep-sided volcano, which has been built up on the surface of a plateau. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ...


Canada is considered a weak link in a ring of more than 160 active volcanoes called the Pacific Ring of Fire - or so people think. New compilations by the Smithsonian Institution, a few red dots are beginning to show, scattered along western Canada, connecting the Cascade volcanoes to the south and the Aleutians to the north. However, Mount Garibaldi is still the only Canadian volcano that consistently shows up on international compilations. The Pacific Ring of Fire The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions encircling the basin of the Pacific Ocean. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Mount Garibaldi is a stratovolcano in the British Columbia part of the Cascade Range. ...

Contents

Volcanism in British Columbia and Yukon

There are over 200 young potentially-active volcanic centers that stretches northward from the Cascades, many of which have been active in the past two million years. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt was formed by the subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate and contains the most explosive young volcanoes in Canada. It is a north-south range of volcanoes and is the northern extension of the Cascade Volcanic Arc in the United States. The eruption styles within the belt range from effusive to explosive, with compositions from basalt to rhyolite. A major catastrophic eruption occurred in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt about 2,350 years ago at a complex volcano, known as Mount Meager. The eruption produced a ash column at least 20 km high into the stratosphere and dammed the Lillooet River with breccia. North of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is an east-west belt of volcanoes called the Anahim Volcanic Belt. These volcanoes probably formed when the North American Plate moved over a hotspot, similar to the one feeding the Hawaiian Islands called the Anahim hotspot and was last active about 7000 years ago. North of the Anahim Volcanic Belt is a volcanic province called Stikine Volcanic Belt. It is the most active volcanic region in Canada. It formed as the result of faulting, cracking, rifting and the interaction between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is a north-south range of volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ... A map of the Juan de Fuca Plate The Juan de Fuca Plate, named after the explorer, is a tectonic plate arising from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and subducting under the northerly portion of the western side of the North American Plate. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Effusive eruptions are a volcanic phenomenom; in some ways the opposite of explosive eruptions. ... An explosive eruption is a volcanic term to describe a violent, explosive type of eruption. ... Basalt Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black extrusive volcanic rock. ... Rhyolite This page is about a volcanic rock. ... Homa Mountain, Kenya in 1994 Mount Edziza, British Columbia, Canada as seen from Stewart-Cassiar Highway An eruption of Pacaya, Guatemala in 1976 Mt. ... Mount Meager is a dormant stratovolcano with at least 8 vents, located 150 km north of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Eruption column over Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines An eruption column consists of hot volcanic ash emitted during an explosive volcanic eruption. ... Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Lillooet River is a major river of the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. ... Breccia, derived from the Latin word for broken, is a sedimentary rock composed of angular fragments in a matrix that may be of a similar or a different material. ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ... The Anahim Volcanic Belt is a range of volcanoes in British Columbia, stretching from just north of Vancouver Island to near Quesnel, British Columbia. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ... In geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earths surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... The Anahim hotspot is a hotspot which is partly responsible for the volcanic activity which forms the volcanoes in central British Columbia, Canada. ... The Stikine Volcanic Belt (also called the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province) lies in northern British Columbia and continues to the Alaskian border and is Canadas most active volcanic region and has more than 100 volcanoes. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... Cracking-divides a group’s voters into other districts, where they will be ineffective minorities; and kidnapping places two incumbents from the same party in the same district. ... In geology, a rift is a place where the Earths lithosphere is expanding. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...


Ten to fifteen million years ago, floods of basaltic lava erupted on a gently undulating topography with relief of about 7000 m (2,000 ft) and built up flat-lying plateaus in central British Columbia and Yukon Territory covering more than 39,000 km (1500 sq mi). Image:NONE Monte Roraima In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat rural area. ...


Numerous shield volcanoes developed during the Tertiary period in north-central British Columbia and some were active intermittently to recent times. Mount Edziza and Level Mountain are most spectacular examples. Mount Edziza is a stratovolcano consisting of a basal shield of basaltic flows surmounted by a central vent and flanked by numerous satellite cones, ash beds and blocky lavas. The complex has a long history of volcanic eruption that began about 10 million years ago and ended about 1300 years ago. Shield volcano A shield volcano is a large volcano with shallowly-sloping sides. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... Mount Edziza is a volcanic complex located in British Columbia, Canada. ... Level Mountain is the most voluminous and most persistent eruptive center of the Stikine Volcanic Belt in Northwestern British Columbia. ... Basalt Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black extrusive volcanic rock. ...


Monitoring Canadian volcanoes

Volcano monitoring in Canada is a lower priority than other hazards, such as earthquakes, tsunamis and landslides. Most of our volcanoes are located in remote locations, even though some volcanoes pose a significant threat to local population. However, as for earthquake monitoring, future eruptions in Canada are expected and could have a large effect on people that live in the region. Over the past 50 years, the Geological Survey of Canada has known past activity at our volcanoes. However, there is still not enough knowledge about the occurrence of their eruptions to expect which volcanoes will possibly erupt next and what their effects will be. Volcano monitoring in Canada is continuing, but none of our volcanoes are being satisfactorily monitored to let scientists verify how active their magma chambers and systems are. If a Canadian volcano turns highly tense, the seismic monitoring system will possibly sense the growing of movement at the volcanoes. For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... To monitor or monitoring may mean: to observe a situation for any changes which may occur over time, using a monitor or measuring device of some sort: Baby monitor, medical monitor, Heart rate monitor Biomonitoring Condition monitoring Network monitoring Election monitoring to observe the behaviour or communications of individuals or... An earthquake is the result from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ... Landslide of soil and regolith in Pakistan A landslide is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. ... An earthquake is the result from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... The Geological Survey of Canada or GSC is part of the Earth Sciences Sector of Natural Resources Canada. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further. ... The term network monitoring describes the use of a system that constantly monitors a computer network for slow or failing systems and that notifies the network administrator in case of outages via email, pager or other alarms. ...


A scenario of an eruption at Mount Cayley shows how western Canada is vulnerable to an eruption. The scenario is based on past activity in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt and involves both effusive and explosive eruptions. The scenario impact is largely a result of the concentration of vulnerable infrastructure in valleys. Mount Cayley is a eroded stratovolcano in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southwestern British Columbia, which last erupted during the Pleistocene. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley A valley or a low area between two hills dale (in Scotland, a glen) is a landform, which can range from a few square kilometres to hundreds or even thousands of square kilometres in area. ...


Recent activity

The most recent volcanic activity was in the Stikine Volcanic Belt in British Columbia, about 150 years ago. It produced a 22.5 km long lava flow, which destroyed the Nisga'a villages and resulted in the death of approximately 2000 Nisga'a people by poisonous smoke and gases. The lava flows traveled south 5 km where they crossed the border into Alaska and dammed the Blue River. However, there have been 10 Canadian volcanoes that have been based on recent seismic activity, including: Castle Rock, Mount Edziza, Mount Cayley, Hoodoo Mountain, Lava Fork Valley, Crow Lagoon, Mount Silverthrone, Mount Meager, Wells Gray-Clearwater Volcanic Field and Mount Garibaldi. The Stikine Volcanic Belt (also called the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province) lies in northern British Columbia and continues to the Alaskian border and is Canadas most active volcanic region and has more than 100 volcanoes. ... In computer programming jargon, lava flow is a problem in which computer code, usually written under less than optimal conditions, is put into production and then built on when still in a developmental state. ... Nisgaa flag Mask with open eyes, worn during winter halait ceremonies, 18th–early 19th century The Nisaa (pronounced Nis-gah) are of the First Nations of Canada. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Volcanic gases include a variety of substances given off by active (or, at times, by dormant) volcanos. ... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Blue River may refer to: The Blue River, a tributary of the Ohio River in Indiana in the United States. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... Mount Edziza is a volcanic complex located in British Columbia, Canada. ... Mount Cayley is a eroded stratovolcano in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southwestern British Columbia, which last erupted during the Pleistocene. ... Hoodoo Mountain is a flat-topped stratovolcano located in northwestern British Columbia, Canada. ... Lava Fork Valley is a valley in the Iskut volcanic field in northern British Columbia, Canada and is probably the youngest volcanic area in Canada. ... Mount Silverthrone is a deeply dissected caldera complex in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains of British Columbia, located at the northern end of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt containing rhyolitic, dacitic and andesitic lava domes, lava flows and breccia. ... Mount Meager is a dormant stratovolcano with at least 8 vents, located 150 km north of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... The Wells Gray-Clearwater Volcanic Field is a field of volcanoes located in southeastern British Columbia. ... Mount Garibaldi is a stratovolcano in the British Columbia part of the Cascade Range. ...


Volcanism outside British Columbia and Yukon

Volcanism has occurred in other regions, apart from British Columbia and the Yukon. The Canadian Shield contains some of the most ancient volcanoes in Canada and on earth. It has over 150 volcanic belts (now deformed and eroded down to nearly flat plains) that range from 600 to 2800 million years old. Each belt probably grew by the coalescence of accumulations erupted from numerous vents, making the tally of volcanoes in the hundreds. Many of Canada's major ore deposits are associated with Precambrian volcanoes. Pillow lavas in the Northwest Territories are about 2600 million years old and are preserved in the Cameron River Volcanic Belt. The pillow lavas in rocks over 2 billion years old in the Canadian Shield signify that great oceanic volcanoes existed during the early stages of the formation of the Earth's crust. Ancient volcanoes play an important role in estimating Canada's mineral potential. Many volcanic belts bear ore deposits that are related to the volcanism. Consequently geologists study volcanic belts to understand the volcanoes and the environment in which they erupted, and to provide a working model for mineral exploration. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield— also called the Precambrian Shield, Laurentian Shield, Bouclier Canadien (French), or Laurentian Plateau— is a large shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American craton. ... Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield— also called the Precambrian Shield, Laurentian Shield, Bouclier Canadien (French), or Laurentian Plateau— is a large shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American craton. ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motto: none Capital Yellowknife Largest city Yellowknife Official languages Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, Tłįchǫ [1] Government - Commissioner Tony Whitford - Premier Joe Handley (Consensus government (no party affiliations)) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 - Senate seats 1 Confederation 1870... The Cameron River Volcanic Belt is a Neoarchean volcanic belt near the Cameron River in the Northwest Territories, Canada. ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ... the are cool The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ...


Some of the most ancient geological remnants of basaltic plains lie in Canada's Precambrian Shield. The Keweenawan basalts in Ontario and Quebec are some 900 to 1100 million years old. Eruption of plateau lavas near the Coppermine River southwest of Coronation Gulf in the Arctic, built an extensive plateau about 1200 million years ago with an area of about 170,000 km² (65,000 sq mi) representing a volume of lavas of at least 500,000 cu km (120,000 cu mi) formed 20 to 30 million years ago. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water... Coppermine River is a river in Fort Smith and Kitikmeot regions of Nunavut in Canada. ... Coronation Gulf separates mainland Canadas Nunavut Territory from Victoria Island. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ...


The Back River volcanic complex is an Archean stratovolcano, located 480 km northwest of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. It constitutes the Back Group of the Yellowknife Supergroup and is somewhat anomalous in the Slave craton because it has undergone only a low degree of deformation and is subhorizontal. The southern half of the complex is exposed at the crest of a small dome. This is the eroded portion of the stratovolcano that has been preserved in an upright position. The complex comprises four volcanic sedimentary sequences (Innerring, Thlewyco, Boucher-Regan, Kelsh) that correspond to the phases of growth and destruction of this stratovolcano. The Archean is a geologic eon; it is a somewhat antiquated term for the time span between 2500 million years before the present and 3800 million years before the present. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount Damavand, a stratovolcano in Māzandarān, Iran Mount St. ... Motto: Multum In Parvo (Much In Little) Coordinates: Country Canada Territory Northwest Territories Region North Slave Region Established 1936/1937 Government  - City Mayor Gordon Van Tighem  - Governing Body Consensus government  - Legislature List of Yellowknife MPs and MLAs Area  - City 105. ... North America cratons and basement rock. ...

The Mount Meager volcanic complex as seen from the east near Pemberton, BC. Summits left to right are Capricorn Mountain, Mount Meager, and Plinth Peak.

Mount Meager is a dormant stratovolcano with at least 8 vents, located 150 km north of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ...

Major volcanoes in Canada

Mount Edziza is a volcanic complex located in British Columbia, Canada. ... Mount Meager is a dormant stratovolcano with at least 8 vents, located 150 km north of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... The Ilgachuz Range is one of the three eroded, major shield volcanoes in the Anahim Volcanic Belt in British Columbia, Canada, located 20 miles (30 km) north of Anahim Lake. ... The Itcha Range is one of the several eroded, major shield volcanoes that form the Anahim Volcanic Belt in the Chilcotin District of the West-Central Interior of British Columbia, Canada. ... The Rainbow Range is on the western edge of the Chilcotin Plateau, adjoining the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains to the south, and the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains to the north. ... The Bennett Lake Caldera is a huge 50 million year old extinct caldera complex that spans across the BC-Yukon border in Canada. ... Level Mountain is the most voluminous and most persistent eruptive center of the Stikine Volcanic Belt in Northwestern British Columbia. ... Mount Garibaldi is a stratovolcano in the British Columbia part of the Cascade Range. ... Mount Cayley is a eroded stratovolcano in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southwestern British Columbia, which last erupted during the Pleistocene. ... Mount Silverthrone is a deeply dissected caldera complex in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains of British Columbia, located at the northern end of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt containing rhyolitic, dacitic and andesitic lava domes, lava flows and breccia. ...

See also

// Main article: List of terrestrial volcanoes Western Canada is commonly thought to occupy a gap in the Pacific Ring of Fire, although that is not actually true, British Columbia and the Yukon Territory is home of more than 100 separate volcanic centers that have been active during the Quaternary, sush... Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield— also called the Precambrian Shield, Laurentian Shield, Bouclier Canadien (French), or Laurentian Plateau— is a large shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American craton. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Continent North America Subregion Northern America Geographic coordinates Area  - Total  - Water Ranked 2nd 9,984,670 km² 891,163 km² (8. ... The Pacific Northwest region of the United States is still geologically active. ...

Major eruptions

Eruption date Volcano Cessation date VEI Characteristics Flood Tephra volume
2350 BP Mount Meager Unknown 5 pf, lf,lm, pl,ld yes N/A
50 million BP Bennett Lake Caldera Unknown 7 pf, cc no 850 km³

Notes: pf=pyroclastic flows, lf=lava flows, lm=lahar mudflows, pl=Plinian eruption ld=lava dome collapse, cc=caldera collapse, fl=Flood. VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ... Picture of flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... Mount Meager is a dormant stratovolcano with at least 8 vents, located 150 km north of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... The Bennett Lake Caldera is a huge 50 million year old extinct caldera complex that spans across the BC-Yukon border in Canada. ... Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... In computer programming jargon, lava flow is a problem in which computer code, usually written under less than optimal conditions, is put into production and then built on when still in a developmental state. ... Lahar from a March 1982 eruption of Mount St. ... A mudflow or mudslide is the most rapid (up to 80 km/h) and fluid type of downhill mass wasting. ... Eruption of Vesuvius in 1822. ... One of the Mono Craters, an example of a rhyolite dome. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Picture of flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ...


References

  • Volcanoes of Canada - Introduction
  • CVO Website - Canada Volcanoes and Volcanics
  • Volcanism in Canada
  • The Vulnerability of Canada to Volcanic Hazards

 
 

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