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Encyclopedia > Volcanic cone
Puʻu ʻŌʻō, a cinder-and-spatter cone on Kīlauea, Hawaiʻi

Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcano formations in the world. They are built by fragments (called ejecta) thrown up (ejected) from a volcanic vent, piling up around the vent in the shape of a cone with a central crater. Volcanic cones are of different types, depending upon the nature and size of the fragments ejected during the eruption. Types typically differentiated are spatter cone, cinder cone, ash cone, and tuff cone. Download high resolution version (845x578, 94 KB)Cropped version of Image:Puu_oo. ... Download high resolution version (845x578, 94 KB)Cropped version of Image:Puu_oo. ... Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō (which means Hill of the ‘Ō‘ō Bird in Hawaiian, is often written as Puu Oo, and is pronounced Poo-oo Oh-oh or in the IPA) is a cinder/spatter cone in the eastern rift zone of the KÄ«lauea volcano of the Hawaiian Islands. ... KÄ«lauea (pronounced KEEL ah WAY ah) is an active volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five shield volcanoes that together form the Island of Hawaii. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geometric object, for other uses see Cone. ...

Contents

Spatter cone

A spatter. cone is formed of molten lava ejected from a vent somewhat like taffy. Expanding gases in the lava fountains tear the liquid rock into irregular gobs that fall back to earth, forming a heap around the vent. The still partly liquid rock splashed down and over the sides of the developing mound is called spatter. Because spatter is not fully solid when it lands, the individual deposits are very irregular in shape and weld together as they cool, and in this way particularly differ from cinder and ash. Spatter cones are typical of volcanoes with highly fluid magma, such as those found in the Hawaiian Islands. Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ...


Ash cone

An ash cone is composed of particles of [[silt to sand size. Explosive eruptions from a vent where the magma is interacting with groundwater or the sea (as in an eruption off the coast) produce steam and are called phreatic. The interaction between the magma, expanding steam, and volcanic gases results in the ejection of mostly small particles called ash. Fallen ash has the consistency of flour. The unconsolidated ash forms an ash cone which becomes a tuff cone or tuff ring once the ash consolidates(see also tuff). For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ... This article is about the body of water. ... Ash plume from Mt Cleveland, a stratovolcano Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash consists of very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... A tuff ring is a wide, low-rimmed, well-bedded accumulation of debris built around a volcanic vent located in a lake, coastal zone, marsh or an area of abundant groundwater. ... Welded tuff at Golden Gate in Yellowstone National Park Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. ...


An example of a tuff cone is Diamond Head at Waikīkī in Hawaiʻi. For other uses, see Diamond Head (disambiguation). ... WaikÄ«kÄ« seen from the top of Diamond Head or LÄ“ahi. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ...


Cinder cone

Main article: Cinder cone
Cinder cone

A cinder cone is a volcanic cone built almost entirely of loose volcanic fragments called cinders (pumice, pyroclastics, or tephra). They are built from particles and blobs of congealed lava ejected from a single vent. As the gas-charged lava is blown violently into the air, it breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as cinders around the vent to form a circular or oval cone. Most cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit. Cinder Cone is a cinder cone volcano in Lassen Volcanic National Park. ... Structure of a cinder cone volcano. ... Structure of a cinder cone volcano. ... Specimen of highly porous pumice from Teide volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands. ... Pyroclastic rocks are formed from lavas which are ejected into the air, as occur in pyroclastic flows or Plinian eruptions. ... Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Craters on Mount Cameroon Perhaps the most conspicuous part of a volcano is the crater, a basin of a roughly circular form within which occurs a vent (or vents) from which magma erupts as gases, lava, and ejecta. ...


Cinder cones rarely rise more than 500-750 m or so above their surroundings, and, being unconsolidated, tend to erode rapidly unless further eruptions occur. Cinder cones are numerous in western North America as well as throughout other volcanic terrains of the world. Parícutin, the Mexican cinder cone which was born in a cornfield in February 20 1943, and Sunset Crater in Northern Arizona in the US Southwest are classic examples of cinder cones. Parícutin (or Volcán de Parícutin, commonly also accented Paricutín or spelled unaccented as Paricutin) is a volcano in the Mexican state of Michoacán, close to a lava-covered village of the same name. ... Sunset Crater is a cinder cone located north of Flagstaff, Arizona in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ...


References

  • Glossary

  Results from FactBites:
 
Global Volcanism Program | Volcanic Activity Reports | SI / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report (3341 words)
Pyroclastic cones are located along the NW and southern coasts, and fumarolic activity occurs from two uneroded scoria cones at the summit.
Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.
The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees.
Volcanic and Geologic Terms (0 words)
Hot Spot: A volcanic center, 60 to 120 miles (100 to 200 km) across and persistent for at least a few tens of million of years, that is thought to be the surface expression of a persistent rising plume of hot mantle material.
Volcanic Cone: A mound of loose material that was ejected ballistically.
Volcanic Neck: A massive pillar of rock more resistant to erosion than the lavas and pyroclastic rocks of a volcanic cone.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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