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Encyclopedia > Volcanic Explosivity Index
VEI and ejecta volume correlation
VEI and ejecta volume correlation

The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (578x712, 140 KB) Summary Volcanic Explosivity Index volume graph Originally from http://volcanoes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (578x712, 140 KB) Summary Volcanic Explosivity Index volume graph Originally from http://volcanoes. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...


Volume of products, eruption cloud height, and qualitative observations (using terms ranging from "gentle" to "mega-colossal") are used to determine the explosivity value. The scale is open-ended and ranges from 0, for non-explosive eruptions (less than 104 cubic metres of tephra ejected) to 8, for mega-colossal explosive eruptions that can eject 1012 cubic metres of tephra and have a cloud column height of over 25 km. Each interval on the scale represents a ten-fold increase in observed eruption criteria. Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ... Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ...


Note that ash, volcanic bombs, and ignimbrite are all treated alike — this is due to taking into account the vesicularity (gas bubbling) of the volcanic products in question and the DRE (Dense Rock Equivalent) is calculated to give the actual amount of magma erupted. One weakness of the VEI is that it does not take into account the magnitude of power output of an eruption. This, of course, is extremely difficult to detect with prehistoric or unobserved eruptions. Ash plume from Mt Cleveland, a stratovolcano Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash consists of very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... A volcanic bomb is a globule of molten rock (tephra) larger than 2. ... Ignimbrite is a compact volcanic pyroclastic rock typically of rhyolitic composition. ...

Contents

Classification

VEI Classification Description Plume Ejecta volume Frequency Example Occurrences †
0 Hawaiian non-explosive < 100 m > 1000 m³ daily Mauna Loa -
1 Hawaiian/Strombolian gentle 100-1000 m > 10,000 m³ daily Stromboli -
2 Strombolian/Vulcanian explosive 1-5 km > 1,000,000 m³ weekly Galeras (1993) 3477†
3 Vulcanian/Pelean severe 3-15 km > 10,000,000 m³ yearly Nevado del Ruiz (1985) 868
4 Pelean/Plinian cataclysmic 10-25 km > 0.1 km³ ≥ 10 yrs Soufrière Hills (1995) 278
5 Plinian paroxysmal > 25 km > 1 km³ ≥ 50 yrs St. Helens (1980) 84
6 Plinian/Ultra-Plinian colossal > 25 km > 10 km³ ≥ 100 yrs Mount Pinatubo (1991) 39
7 Plinian/Ultra-Plinian super-colossal > 25 km > 100 km³ ≥ 1000 yrs Tambora (1815) 4
8 Plinian/Ultra-Plinian mega-colossal > 25 km > 1,000 km³ ≥ 10,000 yrs Toba (73,000 BP) -

† Count of eruptions in the last 10,000 years based on 1994 figures maintained by the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution Hawaiian eruptions are relatively gentle, low level volcanic eruptions, named for the volcanoes of Hawaii. ... Mauna Loa is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii. ... Strombolian eruptions are relatively low-level volcanic eruptions, named after Stromboli, where such eruptions consist of rhytmical ejection of incandescent cinder, lapilli and lava bombs to altitudes of tens to hundreds of meters. ... Sciara del fuoco For other uses see Stromboli (disambiguation) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Galeras is a volcano in Colombia, near the city of Pasto. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Guiseppe Mercalli witnessed the 1888-1890 eruptions on the island of Vulcano. ... Space radar image of Nevado del Ruiz Nevado del Ruiz 2006 Nevado del Ruiz is a volcano in Caldas Department, Colombia. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soufriere Hills volcano - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eruption of Vesuvius in 1822. ... Mount St. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Mount Pinatubo is an active stratovolcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, at the intersection of the borders of the provinces of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... View of Lake Toba Lake Toba is a large lake, 100km long and 30km wide, in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...


List of eruptions

VEI Name Year
0 Mauna Loa 1984
Piton de la Fournaise 2004
1 Kilauea 1983 - present
Nyiragongo 2002
2 Mount Hood 1865-1866
Kilauea 1924
Tristan da Cunha 1961
Whakaari/White Island 2001
Mount Usu 2000-2001
3 Mount Vesuvius 1913-1944
Surtsey 1963-1967
Eldfell 1973
Nevado del Ruiz 1985
Mount Etna 2002-2003
4 Mount Pelée 1902
Parícutin 1943-1952
Hekla 1947
Galunggung 1982
Mount Spurr 1992
5 Mount Vesuvius (Pompeii eruption) 79
Mount Agung 1963
Mount St. Helens (1980 eruption) 1980
El Chichón 1982
Mount Hudson 1991
Mount Xitle IV BC
6 Mount Etna 8000 BP?
Mount Vesuvius (Avellino eruption) 1660 BC ± 43 years
Santorini (Minoan eruption) 1620s BC or 1520s BC
Ilopango 450 ± 30 years
Baekdu Mountain (Tianchi eruption) 1000
Kuwae 1452 or 1453
Laki 1783
Krakatoa 1883
Novarupta (1912 eruption) 1912
Mount Meager 2350 BP
Mount Pinatubo 1991
7 Yellowstone (Mesa Falls eruption) 1,300,000 BP
Long Valley Caldera 760,000 BP
Kurile 6440 BC ± 25 years
Crater Lake Oregon (Mount Mazama eruption) 4860 BC
Kikai (Akahoya eruption) 4350 BC
Taupo (Hatepe eruption) 177, 181 or 186
Mount Tambora 1815
8 La Garita Caldera 27 million years BP
Yellowstone (Huckleberry Ridge eruption) 2,200,000 BP
Yellowstone (Lava Creek eruption) 640,000 BP
Toba 73,000 BP
Taupo (Oruanui eruption) 26,500 BP

Note that there have not been any Holocene (within the last 10,000 years) eruptions with a VEI of 8. Lake Taupo's Oruanui eruption is probably the most recent, occurring 26,500 years ago. There is a new theory that the Minoan eruption of Santorini may have been twice as large as originally thought, placing it behind Taupo's Hatepe eruption and Mount Tambora as the third largest eruption in recorded history.[1] Mauna Loa is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Piton de la Fournaise (French peak of the furnace) is a shield volcano on Réunion island (a French territory) in the Indian Ocean. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... KÄ«lauea is an active volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five shield volcanoes that together form the Island of Hawaii. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mount Nyiragongo is a dormant volcano in the Virunga Mountains associated with the Great Rift Valley or East African Rift. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Mount Hood is a stratovolcano in northern Oregon, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... KÄ«lauea is an active volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five shield volcanoes that together form the Island of Hawaii. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Motto: Our faith is our strength Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Edinburgh of the Seven Seas Status Dependency of Saint Helena Official language(s) English Governor Michael Clancy Administrator Mike Hentley Area 201 km² Population ~280 Currency Saint Helenian pound (SHP) at parity with the UK Pound Sterling (GBP... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Location of Whakaari/White Island Whakaari/White Island is situated 48 km from the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand, in the Bay of Plenty. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mount Usu (有珠山, usuzan) is an active volcano in the Shikotsu-Toya National Park, Hokkaido, Japan. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Surtsey, sixteen days after the onset of the eruption Surtsey (Icelandic: Surturs island) is a volcanic island off the southern coast of Iceland. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Lava fountains tower over Heimaey in the early stages of the Eldfell eruption Eldfell is a cinder cone volcano just over 200 metres (650 feet) high on the Icelandic island of Heimaey. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Space radar image of Nevado del Ruiz Nevado del Ruiz 2006 Nevado del Ruiz is a volcano in Caldas Department, Colombia. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mount Etna (also known as Mongibeddu in Sicilian and Mongibello in Italian, a combination of Latin mont- and Arabic jebel, both meaning mountain) is an active volcano on the east coast of Sicily, close to Messina and Catania. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mount Pelée (French: Montagne Pelée, Bald Mountain) is an active volcano on the northern tip of the French overseas département of Martinique in the Caribbean. ... Parícutin (or Volcán de Parícutin, commonly also accented Paricutín) is a volcano in the Mexican state of Michoacán, close to a lava-covered village of the same name. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hekla is a tuya located in the south of Iceland at , with a height of 1,488 m (4,881 ft). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Galunggung (Galoen-gong, Gunung Galunggung) is a stratovolcano on Java, Indonesia. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mount Spurr is a volcano in the Aleutian Volcanic Arc of Alaska, named after United States Geological Survey geologist and explorer Josiah Edward Spurr, who led an expedition to the area in 1898. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the commune of Pompei. ... AD79 Events June 23 - Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as Roman emperor. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Volcanoes of Bali | Mountains of Indonesia ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Mount St. ... (Redirected from 1980 Mount St. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... El Chichón is an active volcano in northwestern Chiapas, Mexico ( ). Its only recorded eruption was in 1982, when it produced a 1km-wide caldera that then filled with an acidic lake. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mount Hudson is a stratovolcano in Chile, and the site of one of the largest eruptions in the twentieth century. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mount Etna (also known as Mongibeddu in Sicilian and Mongibello in Italian, a combination of Latin mont- and Arabic jebel, both meaning mountain) is an active volcano on the east coast of Sicily, close to Messina and Catania. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... The Avellino eruption of Mount Vesuvius (ital. ... Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1690s BC 1680s BC 1670s BC - 1660s BC - 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC Events and trends Significant people Categories: 1660s BC ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Satellite image of Thera The devastating Minoan eruption of Thera in the Bronze Age (dated to 1639-1616 BC via Radiocarbon dating;[1] 1628 BC dendrochronologically;[2] 1530-1500 BC archaeologically[3]) has become the most famous single event in the Aegean Sea before the fall of Troy. ... Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1670s BC 1660s BC 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC - 1620s BC - 1610s BC 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC Events and trends 1628 BC -- Estimated date of the volcanic eruption on Thera which possibly affected the... Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC - 1520s BC - 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC Events and trends 1525 BC - End of Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt. ... Lake Ilopango is a scenic 8x11 km large volcanic caldera in central El Salvador, at . ... Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... Baekdu Mountain is a volcanic mountain on the border between China and North Korea, located at . At 2,750 m, it is the highest mountain of the Changbai Mountains to the north and Baekdudaegan to the south. ... Lake Cheonji/Tianchi. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ... The name Laki has more than one meaning:- A town called Laki in Plovdiv district in Bulgaria. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Krakatoa (Indonesian name: Krakatau, Portuguese name: Krakatao) is a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Novarupta, meaning new eruption, is a volcano located on the Alaska Peninsula in the Katmai area, about 290 miles southwest of Anchorage. ... The 1912 eruption of the Novarupta volcano occurred on June 6, 1912 in what is now Katmai National Park and Preserve in Alaska. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Mount Meager is a dormant stratovolcano with at least 8 vents, located 150 km north of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... Mount Pinatubo is an active stratovolcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, at the intersection of the borders of the provinces of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Yellowstone Caldera, sometimes known as the Yellowstone supervolcano, is a volcanically active region in Yellowstone National Park. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... Long Valley Caldera is a depression in eastern California that is adjacent to Mammoth Mountain. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... Kurile Lake is a large caldera located in the southern part of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. ... During the 7th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from Anatolia to the Balkans. ... Crater Lake National Park is the U.S.s fifth oldest[1] National Park whose most famous feature is Crater Lake. ... Mount Mazama is a destroyed stratovolcano in the Oregon part of the Cascade Range. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ... Kikai Caldera is a massive underwater caldera in the Osumi Islands of Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. ... The 5th millennium BC sees the spread of agriculture from the Middle East throughout southern and central Europe. ... Lake Taupo. ... Events A systematic persecution of Christians begins in Rome under Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. ... Events Antonine Wall is overrun. ... Events Births April 4 - Caracalla, Roman emperor (+ 217) Deaths Categories: 186 ... Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... La Garita Caldera is a large volcanic caldera located in the San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... The Yellowstone Caldera, sometimes known as the Yellowstone supervolcano, is a volcanically active region in Yellowstone National Park. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... The Yellowstone Caldera, sometimes known as the Yellowstone supervolcano, is a volcanically active region in Yellowstone National Park. ... Tuff Cliff showing the Lava Creek Tuff formation. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... View of Lake Toba Lake Toba is a large lake, 100km long and 30km wide, in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... Lake Taupo. ... The Oruanui eruption of the Taupo volcano is the most recent known supervolcanic eruption that reached a VEI of 8 and is the worlds largest known eruption in the past 70,000 years. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ... The Oruanui eruption of the Taupo volcano is the most recent known supervolcanic eruption that reached a VEI of 8 and is the worlds largest known eruption in the past 70,000 years. ... Satellite image of Thera The devastating Minoan eruption of Thera in the Bronze Age (dated to 1639-1616 BC via Radiocarbon dating;[1] 1628 BC dendrochronologically;[2] 1530-1500 BC archaeologically[3]) has become the most famous single event in the Aegean Sea before the fall of Troy. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Lake Taupo. ... Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. ...


See also

A supervolcano refers to a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruption on Earth. ... This article is 250 kilobytes or more in size. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ McCoy, F. W. and Dunn, S., 2002, Modelling the Climatic Effects fo the LBA Eruption of Thera: New Calculations of Tephra Volumes May Suggest a Significantly Larger Eruption than Previously Reported [abst.]; Proceedings of the Chapman Conference on Volcanism and the Earth’s Atmosphere, Am. Geophysical Union, Santorini, Greece: 21-22.

References

  • Christopher G. Newhall and Steve Self (Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 87, p. 1231–1238, 1982)
  • Ben G. Mason; David M. Pyle, and Clive Oppenheimer (2004). "The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth" (PDF). Bulletin of Volcanology 66 (8): 735-748. DOI:10.1007/s00445-004-0355-9. Retrieved on 2006-07-14. 

Journal of Geophysical Research is a publication of the American Geophysical Union. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ...

External links

  • VEI glossary entry from a USGS website
  • How to measure the size of a volcanic eruption, from The Guardian
  • The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth, a 2004 article from the Bulletin of Volcanology
  • List of Large Holocene Eruptions (VEI > 4) from the Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program

 
 

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