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Encyclopedia > Vocational education
A blacksmith is a traditional trade.
A blacksmith is a traditional trade.

Vocational education (or Vocational Education and Training (VET), also called Career and Technical Education (CTE)) prepares learners for careers that are based in manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic and totally related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation, hence the term, in which the learner participates. It is sometimes referred to as technical education, as the learner directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Image File history File links Donetsk_park_kovanih_figur_02. ... Image File history File links Donetsk_park_kovanih_figur_02. ... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... This article is about work. ... A vocation is an occupation, either professional or voluntary, that is seen to those who carry it out as offering more than simply financial reward. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...

Generally, vocation and career are used interchangeably. Vocational education might be contrasted with education in a usually broader scientific field, which might concentrate on theory and abstract conceptual knowledge, characteristic of tertiary education. Vocational education can be at the secondary or post-secondary level and can interact with the apprenticeship system. Increasingly, vocational education can be recognised in terms of recognition of prior learning and partial academic credit towards tertiary education (e.g., at a university) as credit; however, it is rarely considered in its own form to fall under the traditional definition of a higher education. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... Recognition of Prior Learning, Prior Learning Assessment, or Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition, describes the set of standards and procedures put in place by educational institutions to assign advanced standing to prospective students. ... A credit is a unit that gives weighting to the value, level or time requirements of an academic course. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ...

Up until the end of the twentieth century, vocational education focused on specific trades such as for example, an automobile mechanic or welder, and was therefore associated with the activities of lower social classes. As a consequence, it attracted a level of stigma. Vocational education is related to the age-old apprenticeship system of learning. Look up Mechanic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A welder is a tradesman who specialises in welding materials together. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ...

However, as the labor market becomes more specialized and economies demand higher levels of skill, governments and businesses are increasingly investing in the future of vocational education through publicly funded training organizations and subsidized apprenticeship or traineeship initiatives for businesses. At the post-secondary level vocational education is typically provided by an institute of technology, or by a local community college. Institute of Technology is also the name of a vocational school in California. ... A community college is a type of educational institution. ...

Vocational education has diversified over the 20th century and now exists in industries such as retail, tourism, information technology, funeral services and cosmetics, as well as in the traditional crafts and cottage industries. A drawing of a self-service store Retailing consists of the sale of goods/merchandise for personal or household consumption either from a fixed location such as a department store or kiosk, or away from a fixed location and related subordinated services (Definition of the WTO (last page). ... Tourist redirects here. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... Make-up redirects here. ... The use of the term has expanded, and is used to refer to any event which allows a large number of people to lalalawork part time. ...


VET internationally


In Australia vocational education and training is mostly post-secondary and provided through the Vocational Education and Training (VET) system by Registered Training Organisations. This system encompasses both public and private providers in a national training framework consisting of the Australian Quality Training Framework, Australian Qualifications Framework and Industry Training Packages which define the assessment standards for the different vocational qualifications. In Australia, particularly in vocational education, a registered training organisation (RTO) is an organisation that provides students with training that results in qualifications and statements of attainment that are recognised and accepted by industry and other educational institutions throughout Australia. ... The Australian Qualifications Framework provides the hierarchy of educational qualifications in Australia. ...

Since the states and territories are responsible for most public delivery and all regulation of providers, a central concept of the system is "national recognition" whereby the assessments and awards of any one registered training organisation must be recognised by all others and the decisions of any state or territory training authority must be recognised by the other states and territories. This allows national portability of qualifications and units of competency.

A crucial feature of the Training Package system (which accounts for about 60% of publicly-funded training and almost all apprenticeship training) is that the content of the vocational qualifications is theoretically defined by industry and not by government or training providers. A Training Package is "owned" by one of ten Industries Skills Councils which are responsible for developing and reviewing the qualifications.

The National Centre for Vocational Education Research or NCVER [1] is a not-for-profit company owned by the federal, state and territory ministers responsible for training. It is responsible for collecting, managing, analysing, evaluating and communicating research and statistics about vocational education and training (VET).

Commonwealth of Independent States

The largest and the most unified system of vocational education was created in the Soviet Union with the Professional`no-tehnicheskoye uchilische and, Tehnikum. But it became less effective with the transition of the economies of post-Soviet countries to a market economy. Vocational Technical School (Russian: профессиона́льно-техни́ческое учи́лище) – ;;Professionalno-tehnicheskoye uchilishche (acronym: PTU; ПТУ, пэ-тэ-у́) is a Soviet vocational education facility aimed to train qualified industrial workers and servicemen. ... Tekhnikum (Russian: те́хникум) was a Soviet mass-education facility of medium special education category similar to PTU, but aimed to train low-level industrial managers (foremen, technical supervisors etc. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ...


There are two kinds of vocational education, secondary and post-secondary. Secondary education at a vocational school (ammattikoulu) is usually taken immediately after primary school, at ages of 16-21. Some programmes, however, require a secondary academic degree (ylioppilastutkinto, or matriculation examination). The education is primarily vocational, and little academic general education is given. Abitur is the word commonly used in Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ...

With academic or vocational secondary education one can enter higher vocational schools (ammattikorkeakoulu, or AMK). AMK degrees take 3,5-4,5 years. Legally, they are not university degrees in Finland, although in foreign countries similar degrees may be called "university level". This is reflected by some Finnish schools giving English titles such as Bachelor of Science, with no Finnish translation.

German language areas

Vocational education is an important part of the education systems in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland (including the French speaking part of the country).

For example, in Germany a law (the Berufsausbildungsgesetz) was passed in 1969 which regulated and unified the vocational training system and codified the shared responsibility of the state, the unions, associations and chambers of trade and industry. The system is very popular in modern Germany: in 2001, two thirds of young people aged under 22 began an apprenticeship, and 78% of them completed it, meaning that approximately 51% of all young people under 22 have completed an apprenticeship. One in three companies offered apprenticeships in 2003; in 2004 the government signed a pledge with industrial unions that all companies except very small ones must take on apprentices.

The vocational education systems in the other German speaking countries are very similar to the German system and a vocational qualification from one country is generally also recognized in the other states within this area.

Additionally there is the Fachhochschule (FH) since the 1970s in West Germany and since the 1990s in Austria, former East Germany, Liechtenstein and in Switzerland. Historically, Fachhochschulen were meant as a way of academic qualification for people who went through an apprenticeship, especially in technical professions. This is called Zweiter Bildungsweg (rough literal translation: second educational path), i.e., an alternative to the classical academic career path from Gymnasium (school) to a university. However, nowadays Fachhochschule have become a fixture in German higher education and a considerably percentage of the FH studentes do not have an apprenticeship, but rather enter the FH straight after secondary school. Until recently, Fachhochschulen only offered Diplom (FH) degrees (e.g., a diploma in engineering of social work) in programs which stretched over 7 or 8 semesters, and typically include one semester or so of industrial internship. More recently, many Fachhochschulen switched to a system where they offer Bachelor's and Master's degrees. A Fachhochschule (plural: Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland is a university specialized in certain topical areas (e. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... Diplom (from Greek Δίπλωμα diploma) is an academic degree in some European countries including Germany, Austria, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Estonia, Croatia, Serbia and Greece. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

New Zealand

New Zealand is served by 41 Industry Training Organsiations(ITO). The unique element is that ITOs purchase training as well as set standards and aggregate industry opinion about skills in the labour market. Industry Training, as organised by ITOs, has expanded from apprenticeships to a more true life long learning situation with, for example, over 10% of trainees aged 50 or over. Moreover much of the training is generic. This challenges the prevailing idea of vocational education and the standard layperson view that it focuses on apprenticeships.

The best source for information in New Zealand is through the Industry Training Federation.[2]

Polytechnics, Private Training Establishments, Wananga and others also deliver vocational training, amongst other areas.

United States

In the United States, the approach is varied from state to state. Most of the technical and vocational courses are offered by Community Colleges, though several states have their own institutes of technology which are on an equal accreditational footing with other state universities. In Canada and the United States, a community college, sometimes called a junior college, is an educational institution providing post-secondary education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and associates degrees. ...

Historically, junior high schools and high schools have offered vocational courses such as home economics, wood and metal shop, typing, business courses, drafting and auto repair, though schools have put more emphasis on academics for all students because of standards based education reform. School to Work is a series of federal and state initiatives to link academics to work, sometimes including spending time during the day on a job site without pay. Family and consumer sciences, or home economics, is an academic discipline concerning consumer science, nutrition, cooking, parenting, interior decoration, textiles, gardening, and other subjects related to home management. ... Outcomes Based Education, also known as OBE, is a form of educational reform which is currently being introduced in Western Australia and South Africa. ...

Federal involvement is principally carried out through the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act. Accountability requirements tied to the receipt of federal funds under this Act help provide some overall leadership. The Office of Vocational and Adult Education within the US Department of Education also supervises activities funded by the Act. Carl Dewey Perkins (October 15, 1912 - August 3, 1984), a Democrat, was a politician and member of the United States House of Representatives from the state of Kentucky. ... The Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE) is a subdivision of the United States Department of Education. ... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building[1]) , ED headquarters in Washington, DC A construction project to repair and update the building facade at the Department of Education Headquarters building in 2002 resulted in the installation of structures at all of the entrances to protect employees and visitors from...

The Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE) is the largest private association dedicated to the advancement of education that prepares youth and adults for careers. Its members include CTE teachers, administrators, and researchers. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Vocational training in India is provided on a full time as well as part time basis. Full time programs are generally offered through industrial training institutes. Part time programs are offered through state technical education boards or universities who also offer full-time courses. Vocational training has been successful in India only in industrial training institutes and that too in engineering trades. There are many private institutes in India which offer courses in vocational training and finishing, but most of them have not been recognized by the Government of India. India is a pioneer in vocational training in Film & Television, and Information Technology.AAFT Industrial Training Institute (ITIs) are training institute which provide training in technical field in India. ... The Asian Academy of Film & Television is the pioneer most Film school in this part of the world. ...

United Kingdom

Vocational Training in the United Kingdom has had a new lease of life in the last decade with a shift in emphasis in schools, colleges and businesses towards it. Schools are now beginning to implement vocational programmes, the Government has introduced new funding under the "Train to Gain" contract and the Leitch Review of 2006 made it quite clear that businesses wanting to stay competitive in the global economy would need to improve staff skills through VET.


  • Achilles, C. M.; Lintz, M.N.; and Wayson, W.W. "Observations on Building Public Confidence in Education." EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS 11 no. 3 (1989): 275-284.
  • Banach, Banach, and Cassidy. THE ABC COMPLETE BOOK OF SCHOOL MARKETING. Ray Township, MI: Author, 1996.
  • Brodhead, C. W. "Image 2000: A Vision for Vocational Education." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL 66, no. 1 (January 1991): 22-25.
  • Buzzell, C.H. "Let Our Image Reflect Our Pride." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL 62, no. 8 (November-December 1987): 10.
  • O'Connor, P.J., and Trussell, S.T. "The Marketing of Vocational Education." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL 62, no. 8 (November-December 1987): 31-32.
  • Ries, E. "To 'V' or Not to 'V': for Many the Word 'Vocational' Doesn't Work." TECHNIQUES 72, no. 8 (November-December 1997): 32-36.
  • Ries, A., and Trout, J. THE 22 IMMUTABLE LAWS OF MARKETING. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993.
  • Sharpe, D. "Image Control: Teachers and Staff Have the Power to Shape Positive Thinking." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL 68, no. 1 (January 1993): 26-27.
  • Shields, C.J. "How to Market Vocational Education." CURRICULUM REVIEW (November 1989): 3-5
  • Silberman, H.F. "Improving the Status of High School Vocational Education." EDUCATIONAL HORIZONS 65, no. 1 (Fall 1986): 5-9.
  • Tuttle, F.T. "Let's Get Serious about Image-Building." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL 62, no. 8 (November-December 1987): 11.
  • "What Do People Think of Us?" TECHNIQUES 72, no. 6 (September 1997): 14-15.
  • Asian Academy Of Film & Television

The Asian Academy of Film & Television is the pioneer most Film school in this part of the world. ...

See also

Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... A community college is a type of educational institution. ... For other uses, see Constructivism. ... Family and consumer sciences, human sciences, human ecology or home economics, is an academic discipline which combines aspects of consumer science, nutrition, cooking, parenting and human development, interior decoration, textiles, family economics, housing, apparel design and resource management as well as other related subjects. ... A finishing school is a type of private school for girls that emphasizes cultural studies and prepares students especially for social activities. ... Further education (often abbreviated FE) is post-secondary, post-compulsory education (in addition to that received at secondary school). ... IEK (Greek: Institouto Epagelmatikis Katartisis; Vocational Educational Institute) is a type of vocational education school in Greece. ... Institute of Technology is also the name of a vocational school in California. ... For the Texas educational association, see Texas Association of Future Educators. ... Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also as referred to as a trade school or career college, and school is operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The goal of widening participation in higher education is a major component of government education policy in the United Kingdom. ...

External links

Vocational Guidance

  • Choosing a Career or Vocational School
  • How to Decide Between a 4-Year College and a Trade School
  • Teachers TV Vocational Education Programmes and Resources

Vocational School Examples

ERIC Articles

National and International organisations and agencies

  • Australian Department of Education, Science and Training
  • Australian NCVER listing of web sites, Australian and international, containing vocational education and training (VET) information
  • European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP)
  • European Forum of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (EFVET)
  • German Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB)
  • UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • UK Department for Education and Skills
  • Learning and Skills Network (England)
  • National Institute for Adult and Continuing Education (UK)
  • Scottish Executive Education Department
  • US Dept of Labor of Employment and Training Administration - Office of Apprenticeship Training, Employer and Labor Services (OATELS)
  • US Dept of Education - Office of Vocational and Adult Education
  • U.S. Job Training and Vocational Education Programs
  • Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE)


  • Vocational Education in the United States: Toward the Year 2000 US National Center for Education Statistics

Case studies

  • e-Learning in the Trades: Six case studies of trade skills trainers who are using blended delivery techniques

  Results from FactBites:
vocational education: Information from Answers.com (2067 words)
Vocational education might be contrasted with education in a usually broader scientific field, which might concentrate on theory and abstract conceptual knowledge, characteristic of tertiary education.
Increasingly, vocational education can be recognised in terms of recognition of prior learning and partial academic credit towards tertiary education (e.., at a university) as credit however, it is rarely considered in its own form to fall under the traditional definition of a higher education.
Vocational education has diversified over the 20th century and now exists in industries such as retail, tourism, information technology, funeral services and cosmetics, as well as in the traditional crafts and cottage industries.
Vocational education (435 words)
The purpose of vocational education and training is both to qualify young people to work in a trade and to establish a basis for further education at the same time.
Admission to vocational education and training requires that mandatory basic schooling has been completed in accordance with the Primary School Act, which normally means 9 years of school attendance.
The theoretical part of the education takes place in technical and vocational colleges, while practical training is done on placement in business enterprises, which have to be approved for the purpose.
  More results at FactBites »



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