VNO of an aircraft is the V speed which refers to the velocity of normal operation. VNO is specified as the high end of a green arc on many airspeed indicators. This speed is specific to the aircraft model. Airbus A380 An aircraft is any machine capable of atmospheric flight. ... V speeds are speeds that define certain performance and limiting characteristics of an aircraft. ... The velocity of an object is simply its speed in a particular direction. ... Airspeed Indicator The airspeed indicator is an instrument used in an aircraft to display the crafts airspeed, typically in knots, to the pilot. ...
VNO is also called the maximum structural cruising speed or the maximum speed to be used in turbulent conditions. The range above VNO is marked on the airspeed indicator as a yellow arc from VNO to the VNE. The yellow arc is a caution, as speeds in this region may add dangerous stress to the aircraft, and are only to be used in smooth air when no turbulence or abrupt control inputs are expected. Airspeed Indicator The airspeed indicator is an instrument used in an aircraft to display the crafts airspeed, typically in knots, to the pilot. ... An aircrafts Vne is the velocity that should never be exceeded. ... Figure 1 Stress tensor In physics, stress is a measure of the internal distribution of force per unit area within a body that balances and reacts to the loads applied to it. ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ... In the early days of flying, pilots realised that their aircraft could be used as part of a flying circus to entertain people or impress others by performing aerobatics. ...
In mammals, pheromones are primarily detected in a distinct olfactory structure apposed to the ventral nasal septum, the vomeronasal organ (VNO).
This led us to propose a model of pheromone information processing in which the VNO acts as a sensor for a variety of chemical cues and the AOB mitral cells function as coincidence detectors to ensure the pheromone response is specific to the species, the sex, and the individual.
The population recording of VNO neurons provides a powerful tool to investigate the complex sensory recognition involved in the pheromone-evoked response: the discrimination of the species, the sex, the familial status, or the individual differences among animals.
Photomicrographs of VNO sensory epithelium and VNO sensory neurons.
VNO neurons showed a remarkable sensitivity to small current injections, firing repetitive action potentials with injections of 1-2 pA. This sensitivity was also observed in cell-attached patch-clamp recordings, in which we were routinely able to elicit action potentials in response to depolarization of the patch.
Response of VNO and olfactory neurons to cyclic nucleotides.
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