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Encyclopedia > Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин
Vladimir Putin

Taking office
8 May 2008
President Dmitry Medvedev
Succeeding Viktor Zubkov

In office
7 May 2000 – 7 May 2008
Acting: 31 December 19997 May 2000
Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov
Viktor Khristenko (Acting)
Mikhail Fradkov
Viktor Zubkov
Preceded by Boris Yeltsin
Succeeded by Dmitry Medvedev

In office
8 August 1999 – 7 May 2000
President Boris Yeltsin
Preceded by Sergei Stepashin
Succeeded by Mikhail Kasyanov

Born 7 October 1952 (1952-10-07) (age 55)
Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (now St. Petersburg, Russia)
Political party CPSU (prior 1991)
Non-partisan (since 1991)
United Russia
(Chairman non-member)[1]
Spouse Lyudmila Putina[2]
Children Mariya (1985), Katerina (1986)
Alma mater Saint Petersburg State University
Religion Russian Orthodox
Signature Vladimir Putin's signature

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: [vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr vlɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ ˈputʲɪn]) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. He became acting President on December 31, 1999, succeeding Boris Yeltsin, and then won the 2000 presidential election. In 2004, he was re-elected for a second term lasting until May 7, 2008. Russian Constitution does not allow serving more than two consecutive presidential terms. Putin is a chairman of United Russia, a party that has 70 percent of the seats in the State Duma, the lower house. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 615 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1362 × 1327 pixel, file size: 175 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Cropped from File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Prime Minister of Russia is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (Russian: ; Russian pronunciation: ; born 14 September 1965) is the current President of Russia, inaugurated on May 7, 2008. ... Viktor Alekseyevich Zubkov (Russian: ; b. ... The President of Russia (Russian: , President of the Russian Federation, Russian: ) (before December 25, 1991: Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... An Acting president is a person who temporarily fills the role of an organizations president, either when the real president is unavailable (for example ill or on vacation) or when the post is vacant (for example because of death, injury, resignation, or dismissal). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Mikhail Mikhailovitch Kasyanov (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Касья́нов) (born 8 December 1957) was the Prime Minister of Russia from January 2000 to February 2004. ... Viktor Khristenko (Russian: ) (born August 28, 1957 in Chelyabinsk[1]) was the acting prime minister of Russia from 24 February to 5 March, 2004. ... Mikhail Yefimovich Fradkov (Russian: ) (born September 1, 1950) is a Russian politician who has been the Prime Minister of Russia since March 2004. ... Viktor Alekseyevich Zubkov (Russian: ; b. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (Russian: ; Russian pronunciation: ; born 14 September 1965) is the current President of Russia, inaugurated on May 7, 2008. ... The Prime Minister of Russia is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... Sergei Vadimovich Stepashin (Серге́й Вади́мович Степа́шин) (born March 2, 1952, in Port Arthur, China) is a Russian politician. ... Mikhail Mikhailovitch Kasyanov (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Касья́нов) (born 8 December 1957) was the Prime Minister of Russia from January 2000 to February 2004. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total ( 1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Not to be confused with Independent Party or Independence Party. ... United Russia (Yedinaya Rossiya, Russian Единая Россия; the more correct translation is Unified Russia) is a political party in the Russian Federation which usually labels itself centrist. ... Bella Kocharian, Laura Bush, Lyudmila Putina and Zorka Purvanova – first ladies of Armenia, the United States, Russia and Bulgaria respectively in 2003. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg State University (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) is one of the oldest educational institutions in Russia, situated in the city of Saint Petersburg. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Image File history File links Putin_signature. ... Image:Ru-Putin. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... CCCP redirects here. ... The President of Russia (ru: Президент России) is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... An Acting president is a person who temporarily fills the role of an organizations president, either when the real president is unavailable (for example ill or on vacation) or when the post is vacant (for example because of death, injury, resignation, or dismissal). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... Presidential elections were held in the Russian Federation on March 26, 2000. ... Years in politics: 2002-2003-2004-2005-2006 - list of years in politics Events January January 1- Adnan Pachachi becomes president of the Iraq Interim Governing Council and will serve for the duration of the month. ... Presidential elections were held in the Russian Federation on March 14, 2004. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... United Russia (Yedinaya Rossiya, Russian Единая Россия; the more correct translation is Unified Russia) is a political party in the Russian Federation which usually labels itself centrist. ... For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ...


After graduating from law school in 1975, he served in the KGB for 15 years, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel. From 1990 to 1996 he held several posts in the Leningrad (from 1991, St. Petersburg) city government. Moving to Moscow and the national government in 1996, he held high staff positions in the Yeltsin administration and in 1998 became head of the Federal Security Service (FSB), the KGB's successor. Putin was chosen by Yeltsin to succeed Sergei Stepashin as prime minister in August, 1999. Putin quickly became popular in Russia for his september 1999 Invasion of Chechnya in response to the War in Dagestan followed by the Russian apartment bombings. After parties aligned with Putin won solid support in the December 1999 parliamentary elections, Yeltsin resigned, and Putin became acting president. In the elections of March 2000, he bested ten other candidates to become Russia's president. This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... FSB may refer to: In technology: Front side bus, a data bus that carries information between the CPU and components Finite State Buffer, a computing term Other: Federalnaya sluzhba bezopasnosti (Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation) The Fuqua School of Business, the business school of Duke University in Durham... Sergei Vadimovich Stepashin (Серге́й Вади́мович Степа́шин) (born March 2, 1952, in Port Arthur, China) is a Russian politician. ... Belligerents Russian Federation Chechen loyalists Chechen separatists Caucasian separatists Foreign Mujahideen Commanders Vladimir Putin Gennady Troshev Alexander Baranov Valentin Korabelnikov Akhmad Kadyrov Ramzan Kadyrov Dzabrail Yamadayev Sulim Yamadayev Said-Magomed Kakiyev Aslan Maskhadov Sheikh Abdul Halim Dokka Umarov Hamzat Gelayev Shamil Basayev Akhmed Yevloyev Khattab Abu al-Walid Abu Hafs... Combatants Russian Federation Daghestani militia Chechen rebels Shura of Dagestan Commanders Viktor Kazantsev Shamil Basayev Ibn al-Khattab Strength 17,000 2000 Casualties At least 279 dead and 987 wounded 1000 killed, wounded or captured The War in Dagestan (in Russia called by the name Chechen invasion of Dagestan) began... The Russian apartment bombings were a series of bombings in Russia that killed nearly 300 people and led the country into the Second Chechen War. ... Legislative elections were held in the Russian Federation on December 19, 1999. ... Presidential elections were held in the Russian Federation on March 26, 2000. ...


Putin is commonly credited in the media with having restored order to the country after the chaos of the Yeltsin years.[3][4][5] During his eight years in office, the economy bounced back from crisis seeing nominal GDP increase six-fold,[6] poverty more than halve[7][8][9] and average monthly salaries increase eight-fold.[6] According to the Federal State Statistics Service, the middle class grew from 8 million to 55 million between 2000 - 2006.[10] During his presidency, some human rights activists, western opinion-makers and some of Russia's liberals expressed their concerns about the state of democracy, media freedom and human rights in Russia. This was seen by the Kremlin as a series of anti-Russian propaganda attacks orchestrated by western opponents and exiled oligarchs.[11] During his first term in office, he moved to curb the political ambitions of some of the Yeltsin-era oligarchs such as former Kremlin insider Boris Berezovsky, who had "helped Mr Putin enter the family, and funded the party that formed Mr Putin's parliamentary base."[12][13] A new group of business magnates controlling significant swathes of Russia's economy, such as Gennady Timchenko, Vladimir Yakunin, Yuriy Kovalchuk, Sergey Chemezov, with close personal ties to Putin, emerged.[14][15][16][17][18][19] Corruption grew by the magnitude of several times and assumed "systemic and institutionalised" form, according to a report by Boris Nemtsov as well as other sources.[20][21][22][23][24][25] GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Since the early 1990s, a number of Russian reporters who have covered the situation in Chechnya , contentious stories on organized crime, state and administrative officials, and large businesses have been killed. ... // The rights and liberties of the citizens of the Russian Federation are granted by the 2nd Chapter of the Constitution adopted in 1993. ... Business oligarch, a synonym of business magnate, describes wealthy people that significantly influence the life of a state. ... This article is about the Russian businessman. ... At the very beginning of his presidency, Vladimir Putin announced that he was going to consolidate political powers in Russia into the so-called power vertical. ... Vladimir Yakunin Vladimir Ivanovich Yakunin (Russian: Владимир Иванович Якунин; born June 30, 1948 in Vladimir region), is a Russian official, head of state-run Russian Railways company. ... Yury Valentinovich Kovalchuk (Russian: Юрий Валентинович Ковальчук, born July 25, 1951, Leningrad, Soviet Union) is a Russian businessman. ... Boris Nemtsov Boris Efimovich Nemtsov (Борис Ефимович Немцов) (born October 9, 1959) is one of the leading members of the liberal Union of Right Forces political party in Russia. ...


Following the success of his preferred successor, Dmitry Medvedev, in the 2008 presidential elections, Putin is expected to become Prime Minister. As of early May 2008, he remained the most popular politician in Russia, according to opinion polls. On the eve of his stepping down as president the FT editorialised: "Mr Putin will remain Russia’s real ruler for some time to come. And the ex-KGB men he promoted will stay close to the seat of power."[26] Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (Russian: ; Russian pronunciation: ; born 14 September 1965) is the current President of Russia, inaugurated on May 7, 2008. ... The Russian Presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on March 2, 2008[1] is widely expected to be a race between a Kremlin-backed candidate supported by incumbent president Vladimir Putin, the candidates of the Communists and right-wing opposition, and nominees from the liberal opposition. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ...

Contents

Early years and KGB career

Putin was born in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) on October 7, 1952.[27] A quasi-autobiographical book, От Первого Лица[28] (Romanization: Ot Pervovo Litsa; the English-language title: First Person[29], the meaning of the Russian phrase being more polysemantic), based on his interviews, translated into English in 2000 and paid for by his election campaign, speaks of humble beginnings, including early years in a communal apartment. According to him, in his youth, he was eager to emulate the intelligence officer characters played on the Soviet screen by actors such as Vyacheslav Tikhonov and Georgiy Zhzhonov. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Soviet Cinema should not be used as a synonym for Russian Cinema. Although Russian language films predominated, several of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union contributed films reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, although sometimes censored by the Central Government. ... Vyacheslav Tikhonov (February 8, 1928) is a famous Soviet actor, a recipient of numerous state awards. ... Georgiy S. Zhzhonov Georgiy Stepanovich Zhzhonov (born March 22, 1915) is a Russian actor and writer. ...


His mother, Maria Ivanovna Putina, was a factory worker and his father, Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin, was conscripted into the Soviet Navy, where he served in the submarine fleet in the early 1930s. His father subsequently served with the NKVD in a sabotage group[30] during the Second World War. Two elder brothers were born in the mid-1930s; one died within a few months of birth; the second succumbed to diphtheria during the siege of Leningrad. His paternal grandfather, Spiridon Putin, had been Vladimir Lenin's and Joseph Stalin's personal cook.[31] Putin's surname translates "man of path" into English. The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Emblem of the NKVD The NKVD (Russian: ,  ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repression during the Stalinist era. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents Nazi Germany Finland[1][2][3] Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Carl Gustaf Mannerheim[4][5][6] Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Leonid Govorov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties and losses Wehrmacht (est. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


Putin graduated from the International Law branch of the Law Department of the Leningrad State University in 1975. His final thesis was on an international law theme—Russian: «Принцип наиболее благоприятствуемой нации»[32]. ["The principle of most favored nation"]. Saint Petersburg State University (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) is one of the oldest educational institutions in Russia, situated in the city of Saint Petersburg. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Thereafter he was recruited to the KGB. At the University he also became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and remained a member until the party was dissolved in December 1991.[33][34] This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ...


He worked in the Leningrad and Leningrad region Fifth Directorate of the KGB, which combated the political dissent in the Soviet Union. He became acquainted with Sergei Ivanov there.[35] Individual rights Free speech, free press Soap box, Speakers corner (Hyde Park), blog (weblog) prior restraint, censorship, self-censorship, censor Right to assembly Gay rights, Stonewall Feminism, ERA, equal pay, Title IX Famous political dissenters Gandhi Steve Biko Nelson Mandela Martin Luther King, Jr. ... For other people known as Sergei Ivanov, see Ivanov. ...


In 1976 he completed the KGB retraining course in Okhta, Leningrad. The available information about his first years at the KGB is somewhat contradictory; according to some sources,[36] he completed the other retraining course at the Dzerzhinsky KGB Higher School in Moscow and then in 1985—the Red Banner Yuri Andropov KGB Institute in Moscow (now the Academy of Foreign Intelligence), whereupon (or earlier) he joined the KGB First Chief Directorate (Foreign intelligence branch). This article is about the year. ... The First Chief Directorate (Russian: Первое Главное Управление) [or-PGU] of the Committee for State Security (KGB), was the organization responsible for foreign operations and intelligence collection activities by the training and management of covert agents, intelligence collection management, and the collection of political, scientific and technical intelligence. ...


From 1985 to 1990 the KGB stationed Putin in Dresden, East Germany,[37] in what he regards as a minor position. Following the collapse of the East German regime, Putin was recalled to the Soviet Union and returned to Leningrad, where in June 1991 he assumed a position with the International Affairs section of Leningrad State University, reporting to Vice-Rector Yuriy Molchanov. In his new position, Putin grew reacquainted with Anatoly Sobchak, then mayor of Leningrad. Sobchak served as an Assistant Professor during Putin's university years and was one of Putin's lecturers. Putin formally resigned from the state security services on August 20, 1991, during the KGB-supported abortive putsch against Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. This article is about the city in Germany. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Yury Vyacheslavovich Molchanov (Russian: Юрий Вячеславович Молчанов) (born July 19, 1952, in Kolomna, Moscow Oblast, Soviet Union) is a Russian businessman and politician. ... Official photography of Anatoly Sobchack as Mayor of Saint Petersburg Anatoly Alexandrovich Sobchak (Russian: , August 10, 1937 - February 20, 2000) was a Russian politician, co-author of Constitution of the Russian Federation, first democratically-elected Mayor of Saint-Petersburg and mentor of Vladimir Putin. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


Early political and business career

In May 1990 Putin was appointed Mayor Sobchak's advisor on international affairs. On June 28, 1991, he was appointed head of the Committee for External Relations of the St. Petersburg Mayor's Office, with responsibility for promoting international relations and foreign investments. The Committee was also used to register business ventures in St. Petersburg.[38] During the time Putin led this Committee, Alexei Miller, the current CEO of Gazprom, also served on it from (December 15, 1991–1996), as well as a number of other prominent politicians and businesspeople, and was a deputy head of the Committee from 1992–1996.[39] Less than one year after taking control of the committee, Putin was investigated by a commission of the city legislative council. Commission deputies Marina Salye and Yury Gladkov concluded that Putin understated prices and issued licenses permitting the export of non-ferrous metals valued at a total of $93 million in exchange for food aid from abroad that never came to the city.[40][41][42][43][44][33] The commission recommended Putin be fired, but there were no immediate consequences. Putin remained head of the Committee for External Relations until 1996. While heading the Committee for External Relations, from 1992 to March 2000 Putin was also on the advisory board of the German real estate holding St. Petersburg Immobilien und Beteiligungs AG (SPAG) which has been investigated by German prosecutors for money laundering.[45][46][47][48][49][50][38] is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Saint Petersburg City Administration is the superior executive body of Saint Petersburg (formerly Leningrad), Russian Federation. ... Alexei Borisovich Miller is Deputy Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chairman of the Management Committee (CEO) of Russian energy company Gazprom. ... Chief Executive redirects here. ... Gazprom (LSE: OGZD; Russian: , sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is the largest Russian company and the biggest extractor of natural gas in the world. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... At the very beginning of his presidency, Vladimir Putin announced that he was going to consolidate political powers in Russia into the so-called power vertical. ... Marina Yevgenyevna Salye (Russian: Марина Евгеньевна Салье) (born in 1934) is a Russian geologist and politician, former deputy of the legislative assembly of Leningrad. ... Yury Pavlovich Gladkov (Russian: Юрий Павлович Гладков, born January 22, 1949, Leningrad, Soviet Union) is a Saint Petersburg politician. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ...


From 1994 to 1997, Putin was appointed to additional positions in the St. Petersburg political arena. In March 1994 he became first deputy head of the administration of the city of Saint Petersburg. In 1995 (through June 1997) Putin led the St. Petersburg branch of the pro-government Our Home Is Russia political party.[51][33] During this same period from 1995 through June 1997 he was also the head of the Advisory Board of the JSC Newspaper Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti.[38][51] Our Home is Russia (Наш Дом Россия, Nash Dom Rossiya), abbreviated as NDR, was a Russian political party between 1995 and early 2000. ... The Vedomosti, June 28, 1711. ...


In 1996 Anatoly Sobchak lost the St. Petersburg mayoral election to Vladimir Yakovlev. Putin was called to Moscow and in June 1996 assumed position of a Deputy Chief of the Presidential Property Management Department headed by Pavel Borodin. He occupied this position until March 1997. On March 26, 1997 President Boris Yeltsin appointed Putin deputy chief of Presidential Staff, which he remained until May 1998, and chief of the Main Control Directorate of the Presidential Property Management Department (until June 1998). Vladimir Anatolyevich Yakovlev (Russian: Владимир Анатольевич Яковлев) (born November 25, 1944, in Olyokminsk, Yakutia, Soviet Union) is a Russian politician. ... Pavel Pavlovich Borodin (Russian: Павел Павлович Бородин) (born October 25, 1946) is a Russian official and politician. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... The Russian presidential administration (also known as Staff of Russia’s president, Presidential Executive Office, in Russian: Администрация Президента Российской Федерации)) is the executive office of Russias president created by a decree of Boris Yeltsin on July 19, 1991 as an institution supporting the activity of the president (then Yeltsin) and vice-president...


On June 27, 1997, at the Saint Petersburg Mining Institute Putin defended his Candidate of Science dissertation in economics titled "The Strategic Planning of Regional Resources Under the Formation of Market Relations".[52] According to Clifford G Gaddy, a senior fellow at The Brookings Institute, 16 of the 20 pages that open a key section of Putin’s work were copied either word for word or with minute alterations from a management study, Strategic Planning and Policy, written by US professors William King and David Cleland and translated into Russian by a KGB-related institute in the early 1990s.[53] 6 diagrams and tables were also copied.[54] is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Famous Mining Institute located in St. ... Kandidat (Russian: кандидат) or Candidate of Science (кандидат наук) is a holder of first post-graduate scientific degree in former USSR since 1934 and in some post-Soviet states, awarded on dissertation (the Doctor of Science is the next higher degree). ... The Brookings Institution is one of the oldest and best known think tanks in the United States. ...


On May 25, 1998 Vladimir Putin was appointed First Deputy Chief of Presidential Staff for regions, (replacing Viktoriya Mitina), and on July 15 of the same year—the Head of the Commission for the preparation of agreements on the delimitation of power of regions and the federal center attached to the President (replacing Sergey Shakhray). After Putin's appointment, the commission completed no such agreements, although during Shakhray's term as the Head of the Commission there were 46 agreements signed.[55] is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The Russian presidential administration (also known as Staff of Russia’s president, Presidential Executive Office, in Russian: Администрация Президента Российской Федерации)) is the executive office of Russias president created by a decree of Boris Yeltsin on July 19, 1991 as an institution supporting the activity of the president (then Yeltsin) and vice-president... Viktoria Alexandrovna Mitina (Russian: Виктория Александровна Митина) is a Russian politician. ... Sergey Mikhaylovich Shakhray (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Шахрай) (born April 30, 1956, in Simferopol, Crimea, Soviet Union) is a Russian politician. ...


On July 25, 1998 Yeltsin appointed Vladimir Putin head of the FSB (one of the successor agencies to the KGB), the position Putin occupied until August 1999. He became a permanent member of the Security Council of the Russian Federation on October 1, 1998 and its Secretary on March 29, 1999. In April 1999, FSB Chief Vladimir Putin and Interior Minister Sergei Stepashin held a televised press conference in which they discussed a video that had aired nationwide March 17 on the state-controlled Russia TV channel which showed a naked man very similar to the Prosecutor General of Russia, Yury Skuratov, in bed with two young women. Putin claimed that expert FSB analysis proved the man on the tape to be Skuratov and that the orgy had been paid for by persons investigated for criminal offences.[56][57] Skuratov had been adversarial toward President Yeltsin and had been aggressively investigating government corruption[58]. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The FSB (ФСБ) is a state security organisation in Russia. ... The Security Council of the Russian Federation (SCRF)is an executive-level branch of the Russian that acts as a consulative body on national security affairs (Russian: Совет Безопасности РФ; Soviet Bezopasnosti). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Sergei Vadimovich Stepashin (Серге́й Вади́мович Степа́шин) (born March 2, 1952, in Port Arthur, China) is a Russian politician. ... The Russia TV Channel (Russian: ), previously known as RTR (Russian: ), is a state-owned Russian television channel founded in 1991. ... Coat of Arms of the Prosecutor General of Russia The Prosecutor General of Russia (also Attorney General of Russia, Russian: ) heads the system of official prosecution in courts known as the Office of the Prosecutor General of Russian Federation (Генеральная прокуратура Российской Федерации). The Office of the Prosecutor General is entrusted with: prosecution in... Yury Ilyich Skuratov (Russian: Юрий Ильич Скуратов) (born July 3, 1952, in Ulan-Ude) is a Russian lawyer and politician. ...


On June 15, 2000, The Times reported that Spanish police discovered that Putin had secretly visited a villa in Spain belonging to the oligarch Boris Berezovsky on up to five different occasions in 1999.[59] is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... This article is about the Russian businessman. ...


Prime Minister

On August 9, 1999, Vladimir Putin was appointed one of three First Deputy Prime Ministers, which enabled him later on that day, as the previous government led by Sergei Stepashin had been sacked, to be appointed acting Prime Minister of the Government of the Russian Federation by President Boris Yeltsin.[60] Yeltsin also announced that he wanted to see Putin as his successor. Later, that same day, Putin agreed to run for the presidency.[61] On August 16, the State Duma approved his appointment as Prime Minister with 233 votes in favour (vs. 84 against, 17 abstained),[62] while a simple majority of 226 was required, making him Russia's fifth PM in less than eighteen months. On his appointment, few expected Putin, virtually unknown to the general public, to last any longer than his predecessors. Yeltsin's main opponents and would-be successors, Moscow Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov and former Chairman of the Russian Government Yevgeniy Primakov, were already campaigning to replace the ailing president, and they fought hard to prevent Putin's emergence as a potential successor. Putin's law-and-order image and his unrelenting approach to the renewed crisis in Chechnya soon combined to raise his popularity and allowed him to overtake all rivals. is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Sergei Vadimovich Stepashin (Серге́й Вади́мович Степа́шин) (born March 2, 1952, in Port Arthur, China) is a Russian politician. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ... Yuriy Mikhailovich Luzhkov. ... Yevgeny Maksimovich Primakov (born October 29, 1929) is a former prime minister of Russia. ... In politics, law and order refers to a political platform which supports a strict criminal justice system, especially in relation to violent crime and property crimes, through harsher criminal penalties. ... Belligerents Russian Federation Chechen loyalists Chechen separatists Caucasian separatists Foreign Mujahideen Commanders Vladimir Putin Gennady Troshev Alexander Baranov Valentin Korabelnikov Akhmad Kadyrov Ramzan Kadyrov Dzabrail Yamadayev Sulim Yamadayev Said-Magomed Kakiyev Aslan Maskhadov Sheikh Abdul Halim Dokka Umarov Hamzat Gelayev Shamil Basayev Akhmed Yevloyev Khattab Abu al-Walid Abu Hafs...


Putin's rise to public office in August 1999 coincided with an aggressive resurgence of the near-dormant conflict in the North Caucasus, when a number of Chechens invaded neighboring Dagestan, see War in Dagestan. Both in Russia and abroad, Putin's public image was forged by his tough handling of the war. On assuming the role of acting President on December 31, 1999, Putin went on a previously scheduled visit to Russian troops in Chechnya. In recent years, Putin has distanced himself from the management of the continuing conflict. In 2003, a controversial referendum was held in Chechnya adopting a new constitution which declares the Republic as a part of Russia. Chechnya has been gradually stabilized with the parliamentary elections and the establishment of a regional government.[63][64] Throughout the war Russia has severely disabled the Chechen rebel movement, although sporadic violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.[65] The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Combatants Russian Federation Daghestani militia Chechen rebels Shura of Dagestan Commanders Viktor Kazantsev Shamil Basayev Ibn al-Khattab Strength 17,000 2000 Casualties At least 279 dead and 987 wounded 1000 killed, wounded or captured The War in Dagestan (in Russia called by the name Chechen invasion of Dagestan) began... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...


While not formally associated with any party, Putin pledged his support to the newly formed Unity Party,[66] which won the second largest percentage of the popular vote (23,32%) in the December 1999 Duma elections, and in turn he was supported by it. Putin appeared to be ideally positioned to win the presidency in elections due the following summer. Unity (In Russian: Единство, Yedinstvo) was a Russian political party that was created as an interregional group in September 1999 and registered on October 15, supported by Russia’s President Boris Yeltsin, PM Vladimir Putin and some tens of Russian governors to counter the threat which the Kremlin perceived from the... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ...


President

See also: Vladimir Putin legislation and program

During his presidency Vladimir Putin proposed 227 legislative acts of the Russian Federation (as of January 18, 2007). ...

First term

President Putin receives Donald Rumsfeld at the Kremlin in November 2001.
President Putin receives Donald Rumsfeld at the Kremlin in November 2001.

His rise to Russia's highest office ended up being even more rapid: on December 31, 1999, Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned and, according to the constitution, Putin became (acting) President of the Russian Federation. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (2995 × 2005 pixel, file size: 819 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (2995 × 2005 pixel, file size: 819 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... In law, when someone is said to be acting in a position it can mean one of three things. ...


The first Decree that Putin signed December 31, 1999, was the one "On guarantees for former president of the Russian Federation and members of his family".[67][68] This ensured that "corruption charges against the outgoing President and his relatives" would not be pursued, although this claim is not strictly verifiable.[69] Later on February 12, 2001 Putin signed a federal law on guarantees for former presidents and their families (See Vladimir Putin legislation and program), which replaced the similar decree. In 1999, Yeltsin and his family were under scrutiny for charges related to money-laundering by the Russian and Swiss authorities.[70] is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... During his presidency Vladimir Putin proposed 227 legislative acts of the Russian Federation (as of January 18, 2007). ...


While his opponents had been preparing for an election in June 2000, Yeltsin's resignation resulted in the elections being held within three months, in March. This put all of his opponents at a disadvantage, giving him the element of surprise and an eventual victory. Presidential elections were held on March 26, 2000; Putin won in the first round. Presidential elections were held in the Russian Federation on March 26, 2000. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Vladimir Putin was inaugurated president on May 7, 2000. He appointed Financial minister Mikhail Kasyanov as his Prime minister. Having announced his intention to consolidate power in the country into a strict vertical, in May 2000 he issued a decree dividing 89 federal subjects of Russia between 7 federal districts overseen by representatives of him in order to facilitate federal administration. In July 2000, according to a law proposed by him and approved by the Russian parliament, Putin also gained the right to dismiss heads of the federal subjects. is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Mikhail Mikhailovitch Kasyanov (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Касья́нов) (born 8 December 1957) was the Prime Minister of Russia from January 2000 to February 2004. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Federal Assembly of Russia (Федеральное Собрание) is the name of the parliament of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation, 1993. ...


During his first term in office, he moved to curb the political ambitions of some of the Yeltsin-era oligarchs such as former Kremlin insider Boris Berezovsky, who had "helped Mr Putin enter the family, and funded the party that formed Mr Putin's parliamentary base."[71][72] A new group of business magnates, such as Gennady Timchenko, Vladimir Yakunin, Yuriy Kovalchuk, Sergey Chemezov, with close personal ties to Putin, emerged.[14][73][74][75][76] Corruption grew by the magnitude of several times and assumed "systemic and institutionalised" form, according to a report by Boris Nemtsov as well as other sources.[77][78][79][80][81][82] Business oligarch, a synonym of business magnate, describes wealthy people that significantly influence the life of a state. ... This article is about the Russian businessman. ... At the very beginning of his presidency, Vladimir Putin announced that he was going to consolidate political powers in Russia into the so-called power vertical. ... Vladimir Yakunin Vladimir Ivanovich Yakunin (Russian: Владимир Иванович Якунин; born June 30, 1948 in Vladimir region), is a Russian official, head of state-run Russian Railways company. ... Yury Valentinovich Kovalchuk (Russian: Юрий Валентинович Ковальчук, born July 25, 1951, Leningrad, Soviet Union) is a Russian businessman. ... Boris Nemtsov Boris Efimovich Nemtsov (Борис Ефимович Немцов) (born October 9, 1959) is one of the leading members of the liberal Union of Right Forces political party in Russia. ...


In December 2000, Putin sanctioned the law to change the National Anthem of Russia. At the time the Anthem had music by Glinka and no words. The change was to restore (with a minor modification) the music of the post-1944 Soviet anthem by Alexandrov, while the new text was composed by Mikhalkov.[83][84] Flag of the Russian Federation The Hymn of the Russian Federation (, Gosudarstvenny Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the national anthem of Russia. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Mihail Ivanovič Glinka) (June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20] - February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3]), was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian classical music. ... Alexander Vasilyevich Alexandrov (Александр Васильевич Александров) (1883-1946) was a Russian composer who created the musical score to the national anthem of both the Soviet Union and, when it was restored with new lyrics in 2001, the Russian Federation. ... Sergey Vladimirovich Mikhalkov (born March 13, 1913) is a Russian lyricist and author of childrens books who has had the opportunity to write his countrys national anthem on two different occasions. ...

Vladimir Putin and George Bush signing SORT
Vladimir Putin and George Bush signing SORT

The arrest in early July 2003 of Platon Lebedev, a Mikhail Khodorkovsky partner and second largest shareholder in Yukos, on suspicion of illegally acquiring a stake in a state-owned fertiliser firm, Apatit, in 1994, foreshadowed what by the end of the year became a full-fledged prosecution of Yukos and its management for fraud, embezzlement and tax evasion. Image File history File linksMetadata Bush_and_Putin_signing_SORT.jpg Summary President of Russia Vladimir Putin and President of the United States George W. Bush sign the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty in Moscow on 24 May 2002. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bush_and_Putin_signing_SORT.jpg Summary President of Russia Vladimir Putin and President of the United States George W. Bush sign the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty in Moscow on 24 May 2002. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT), better known as the Moscow Treaty, is a 2002 treaty between Russia and the United States limiting their nuclear arsenal to 1700-2200 operationally deployed warheads each. ... For other uses, see Arrest (disambiguation). ... Lebedev Platon Leonidovich (Russian: Лебедев Платон Леонидович) is a former CEO of Group Menatep, and is best known as the business partner of the embattled oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky. ... Khodorkovsky speaking at a conference shortly before his arrest Mikhail Borisovich Khodorkovsky (Russian: ; born June 26, 1963) is a Russian businessman, a former Komsomol activist who became one of Russias oligarchs at a very early age. ... Yukos Oil Company (ОАО НК ЮКОС) is a petroleum company in Russia which, until recently, was controlled by Russian billionaire Mikhail Khodorkovsky and a number of prominent Russian businessmen. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... Phosagro is a Russian company producing fertilizer, phosphates and feed phosphates. ...


A few month before the elections, Putin fired Kasyanov's cabinet and appointed relatively obscure Mikhail Fradkov to his place. Sergey Ivanov became the first civilian in Russia to take Defence Minister position. Mikhail Yefimovich Fradkov (Russian: ) (born September 1, 1950) is a Russian politician who has been the Prime Minister of Russia since March 2004. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Second term

See also: National Priority Projects

On March 14, 2004, Putin was re-elected to the presidency for a second term, earning 71 percent of the vote. The National Priority Projects of the Russian Federation is a program of the Russian government set out by Russian President Vladimir Putin in his speech on September 5, 2005. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Presidential elections were held in the Russian Federation on March 14, 2004. ...


On September 13, 2004, following the Beslan school hostage crisis, Putin suggested the creation of a Public Chamber of Russia and launched an initiative to replace the direct election of the governors and presidents of Federal subjects of Russia with a system whereby they would be proposed by the President and approved or disapproved by regional legislatures.[85][86] He also initiated the merger of a number of federal subjects of Russia into larger entities. is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of North Ossetia in Russia The Beslan school hostage crisis (also referred to as the Beslan school siege or Beslan massacre)[2][3][4] began when a group of a attackers demanding an end to the Second Chechen War took more than 1,100 schoolchildren and adults hostage... The Public Chamber (In Russian: Общественная палата) is a state institution with 126 members created in 2005 in Russia to analyze draft legislation and monitor the activities of the parliament, government and other government bodies of Russia and its Federal Subjects. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ...


According to various Russian and western media reports, one of the major domestic issue concerns for President Putin were the problems arising from the ongoing demographic and social trends in Russia, such as the death rate being higher than the birth rate, cyclical poverty, and housing concerns within the Russian Federation. In 2005, four "national projects" were launched in the fields of health care, education, housing and agriculture. In his May 2006 annual speech, Putin proposed increasing maternity benefits and prenatal care for women. Putin was strident about the need to reform the judiciary considering the present federal judiciary "Sovietesque", wherein many of the judges hand down the same verdicts as they would under the old Soviet judiciary structure, and preferring instead a judiciary that interpreted and implemented the code to the current situation. In 2005, responsibility for federal prisons was transferred from the Interior Ministry to the Ministry of Justice. The National Priority Projects of the Russian Federation is a program of the Russian government set out by Russian President Vladimir Putin in his speech on September 5, 2005. ...


One of the most controversial aspects of Putin's second term was the continuation of the criminal prosecution of Russia's richest man, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, President of Yukos oil company, for fraud and tax evasion. While much of the international press saw this as a reaction against Khodorkovsky's funding for political opponents of the Kremlin, both liberal and communist, the Russian government has argued that Khodorkovsky was engaged in corrupting a large segment of the Duma to prevent changes in the tax code aimed at taxing windfall profits and closing offshore tax evasion vehicles. Khodorkovsky's arrest was met positively by the Russian public, who see the oligarchs as thieves who were unjustly enriched and robbed the country of its natural wealth.[87] Many of the initial privatizations, including that of Yukos, are widely believed to have been fraudulent (Yukos, valued at some $30bn in 2004, had been privatized for $110 million), and like other oligarchic groups, the Yukos-Menatep name has been frequently tarred with accusations of links to criminal organizations. Tim Osborne of GML (the majority owner of Yukos) said in February 2008: "Despite claims by President Vladimir Putin that the Kremlin had no interest in bankrupting Yukos, the company's assets were auctioned at below-market value. In addition, new debts suddenly emerged out of nowhere, preventing the company from surviving. The main beneficiary of these tactics was Rosneft. It is clearer now than ever that the expropriation of Yukos was a ploy to put key elements of the energy sector in the hands of Putin's retinue. Moreover, the Yukos affair marked a turning point in Russia's commitment to domestic property rights and the rule of law."[88] The fate of Yukos was seen by western media as a sign of a broader shift toward a system normally described as state capitalism,[89][90][14] where "the entirety of state-owned and controlled enterprises are run by and for the benefit of the cabal around Putin — a collection of former KGB colleagues, St. Petersburg lawyers, and other political cronies." [91] Against the backdrop of the Yukos saga, questions were raised about the actual destination of $13.1 billion[92] remitted in October 2005 by the state-run Gazprom as payment for 75,7% stake in Sibneft to Millhouse-controlled offshore accounts,[93] after a series of generous dividend payouts and another $3 billion received from Yukos in a failed merger in 2003.[94] In 1996 Roman Abramovich and Boris Berezovsky had acquired the controlling interest in Sibneft for $100 million within the controversial loans-for-shares program.[95] Some prominent Yeltsin-era billionaires are reported to continue to enjoy close relationship with Putin's Kremlin.[96] Yukos Oil Company (ОАО НК ЮКОС) is a petroleum company in Russia which, until recently, was controlled by Russian billionaire Mikhail Khodorkovsky and a number of prominent Russian businessmen. ... There are multiple definitions of the term state capitalism. ... Gazprom (LSE: OGZD; Russian: , sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is the largest Russian company and the biggest extractor of natural gas in the world. ... Sibneft (Сибне́фть in Russian) is Russias fifth largest oil producing and refining company. ... An offshore bank account is a bank located outside the country of residence of the depositor, typically in a low tax jurisdiction (or tax haven) that provides financial and legal advantages. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Roman Arkadyevich Abramovich (IPA: ; Russian: ; born on 24 October 1966 in Saratov, Russian SFSR, USSR) earned his money after taking investment advice from Sir Oliver Bienias and Lord James Orchard. ... This article is about the Russian businessman. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Since February 2006, the political philosophy of Putin's administration has often been described as "sovereign democracy", the term being used both with positive and pejorative connotations. First proposed by Vladislav Surkov in February 2006, the term quickly gained currency within Russia and arguably unified various political elites around it. According to its proponents' interpretation, the government's actions and policies ought above all to enjoy popular support within Russia itself and not be determined from outside the country.[97][98] However, as implied by expert of the Carnegie Endowment Masha Lipman, "Sovereign democracy is a Kremlin coinage that conveys two messages: first, that Russia's regime is democratic and, second, that this claim must be accepted, period. Any attempt at verification will be regarded as unfriendly and as meddling in Russia's domestic affairs." [99] Some Western observers derided the term as a subterfuge to mask what is otherwise known as dictatorship.[100] Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Connotation is a subjective cultural and/or emotional coloration in addition to the explicit or denotative meaning of any specific word or phrase in a language, i. ... Vladislav Surkov Vladislav Yuryevich Surkov (Russian: Владислав Юрьевич Сурков) (b. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


During the term, Putin was widely criticized in the West and also by Russian liberals for what many observers considered a wide-scale crackdown on media freedoms (See also Media freedom in Russia). Since the early 1990s, a number of Russian reporters who have covered the situation in Chechnya, contentious stories on organized crime, state and administrative officials, and large businesses have been killed.[101][102] On October 7, 2006, Anna Politkovskaya, a journalist who ran a campaign exposing corruption in the Russian army and its conduct in Chechnya, was shot in the lobby of her apartment building. The death of this Russian journalist triggered an outcry of criticism of Russia in the Western media, with accusations that, at best, Putin has failed to protect the country's new independent media.[103] [104] When asked about Politkovskaya murder in his interview with the German TV channel ARD, Putin said that her murder brings much more harm to the Russian authorities than her publications.[105] In his interview with Izvestia in April 2008, Dmitry Dovgiy from Russia's Prosecutor General's Office said he is convinced that Politkovskaya murder was masterminded by Boris Berezovsky, citing the organizers' intent to "demonstrate that famous people can be murdered [in Russia] in the daylight" without being punished.[106] In January 2008, Oleg Panfilov, head of the Center for Journalism in Extreme Situations, maintained that a system of "judicial terrorism" had started against journalists under Putin and that more than 300 criminal cases had been opened against them over the past six years.[107] Since the early 1990s, a number of Russian reporters who have covered the situation in Chechnya , contentious stories on organized crime, state and administrative officials, and large businesses have been killed. ... Since the early 1990s, a number of Russian reporters who have covered the situation in Chechnya , contentious stories on organized crime, state and administrative officials, and large businesses have been killed. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anna Stepanovna Politkovskaya (Russian: ; 30 August 1958 – 7 October 2006) was a Russian journalist and human rights activist well known for her opposition to the Chechen conflict and the Putin administration. ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... ARD (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – the Consortium of public-law broadcasting institutions of the Federal Republic of Germany), is a joint organization of Germanys regional public broadcasting agencies. ... Modern Izvestia logo Old Izvestia logo. ... This article is about the Russian businessman. ...


At the same time, according to 2005 research by VCIOM, the share of Russians approving censorship on TV grew in a year from 63% to 82%; sociologists believed that Russians were not voting in favor of press freedom suppression, but rather for expulsion of ethically doubtful material (such as scenes of violence and sex).[108] All-Russia Center for the Study of Public Opinion (VTsIOM) Founding of VTsIOM Yuri Levada The founding and development of the agency was intertwined with the career of its founder, Yuri Levada-- the first professor to teach sociology at Moscow State University. ... For other uses, see Censor. ...


In a 2007 interview with newspaper journalists from G8 countries, Putin spoke out in favor of a longer presidential term in Russia, saying "a term of five, six or seven years in office would be entirely acceptable".[109][110] According to the constitution of Russia, the President is elected for a term of four years.[111]


On September 12, 2007, Russian news agencies reported that Putin dissolved the government upon the request of Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov. Fradkov commented that it was to give the President a "free hand" to make decisions in the run-up to the parliamentary election. Viktor Zubkov was appointed the new prime minister.[112] is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Mikhail Yefimovich Fradkov (Russian: ) (born September 1, 1950) is a Russian politician who has been the Prime Minister of Russia since March 2004. ... Viktor Alekseyevich Zubkov (Russian: ; b. ...


In December 2007, Putin-backed United Russia won 64.24% of the popular vote in their run for State Duma according to election preliminary results.[113] Their closest competitor, the Communist Party of Russia, won approximately 12% of votes.[114] United Russia's victory in December 2007 elections is seen by many as an indication of strong popular support of the current Russian leadership and its policies.[115][116] United Russia (Yedinaya Rossiya, Russian Единая Россия; the more correct translation is Unified Russia) is a political party in the Russian Federation which usually labels itself centrist. ... For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ...


The end of 2007 saw what both Russian and Western analysts viewed as an increasingly bitter infighting between various factions of the siloviki that make up a significant part of Putin's inner circle.[117][118] [119][120][121][122][123][124] A Silovik (силови́к, plural: siloviks or siloviki, силовики́, from a Russian word for power) is a Russian politician from the old security or military services, often the KGB and military officers or other security services who came into power in the terms of Boris Yeltsin or Vladimir Putin. ...


The Russian sociologist Igor Eidman (VCIOM) qualifies the regime that has solidified under Putin as "the power of bureaucratic oligarchy" which has "the traits of extreme right-wing dictatorship — the dominance of state-monopoly capital in the economy, silovoki structures in governance, clericalism and statism in ideology".[125] Some analysts assess the socio-economic system which has emerged in Russia as profoundly unstable and the situation in the Kremlin after Dmitry Medvedev's nomination as fraught with a coup d'état, as "Putin has built a political construction that resembles a pyramid which rests on its tip, rather than on its base".[126][127] Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... The theory of State monopoly capitalism (Stamocap or Stamokap theory) was initially a Marxist-Leninist doctrine popularised after world war 2. ... Clericalism is the application of the formal, church-based, leadership or opinion of ordained clergy in matters of either the church or broader political and sociocultural import. ... Statism (or Etatism) is a term that is used to describe: Specific instances of state intervention in personal, social or economic matters. ... Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (Russian: ; Russian pronunciation: ; born 14 September 1965) is the current President of Russia, inaugurated on May 7, 2008. ... Coup redirects here. ...


Gregory Feifer wrote in February 2008: "The main lesson we should have learned from Putin's eight years in office is a recognition that under the traditional Russian political system that he has revitalized, not only do officials not mean what they say, but also that obfuscation is essential to the way it all works. <...> Putin's playing of the Russian political game has been virtuosic."[128]


On February 8, 2008, Putin delivered a speech before the expanded session of the State Council headlined "On the Strategy of Russia's Development until 2020",[129] which was interpreted by the Russian media as his "political bequest". The speech was largely devoted to castigating the state of affairs in the 1990s and setting ambitious targets of economic growth by 2020.[130] He also condemned NATO's expansion and the US plan to include Poland and the Czech Republic in a missile defence shield and promised that "Russia has, and always will have, responses to these new challenges".[131] is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


In his last days in office he was reported to have taken a series of steps to re-align the regional bureaucracy to make the governors report to the prime-minister rather than the president.[132][133] The presidential site explained that "the changes... bear a refining nature and do not affect the essential positions of the system. The key role in estimating the effectiveness of activity of regional authority still belongs to President of the Russian Federation."


Economy

Under the Putin administration, Russia's economy saw the nominal Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increase 6 fold, climbing from 22nd to 10th largest in the world. The economy made real gains of an average 7% per year (2000: 10%, 2001: 5.7%, 2002: 4.9%, 2003: 7.3%, 2004: 7.1%, 2005: 6.5%, 2006: 6.7%, 2007: 8.1%), making it the 7th largest economy in the world in purchasing power. In 2007, Russia's GDP exceeded that of 1990, meaning it has overcome the devastating consequences of the 1998 financial crisis and preceding recession in the 1990s.[7] World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... GDP redirects here. ... World map showing GDP real growth rates for 2007. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Inkombank was one of the most high-profile casualties of the events of August 1998. ...


During Putin's eight years in office, industry grew by 75%, investments increased by 125%,[7] and agricultural production and construction increased as well. Real incomes more than doubled and the average salary increased eightfold from $80 to $640.[6][134][9] The volume of consumer credit between 2000–2006 increased 45 times,[135][136] and during that same time period, the middle class grew from 8 million to 55 million, an increase of 7 times. The number of people living below the poverty line also decreased from 30% in 2000 to 14% in 2008.[7][137][138] A number of large-scale reforms in retirement (2002), banking (2001–2004), tax (2000–2003), the monetization of benefits (2005) and others have taken place. The Putin administration has also handled management of oil revenues efficiently with establishment of the stabilization fund in 2004. The Fund was established to accumulate oil revenue, which proved to be a wise policy having allowed Russia to repay all of the Soviet Union's debts by 2005. In early 2008, it was split into the Reserve Fund (designed to protect Russia from possible global financial shocks) and the National Welfare Fund, whose revenues will be used for a pension reform.[7] The Stabilization fund of the Russian Federation (Russian: ) was established by resolution of the Government of Russia on January 1, 2004, as a part of the federal budget to balance the federal budget at the time of when oil price falls below a cut-off price, currently set at $27...


Inflation remained a problem however, as the government failed to contain the growth of prices. Between 1999–2007 inflation was kept at the forecast ceiling only twice, and in 2007 the inflation exceeded that of 2006, continuing an upward trend at the beginning of 2008.[7] The Russian economy is still commodity-driven despite its growth. Payments from the fuel and energy sector in the form of customs duties and taxes accounted for nearly half of the federal budget's revenues. The large majority of Russia's exports are made up by raw materials and fertilizers,[7] although exports as a whole accounted for only 8.7% of the GDP in 2007, compared to 20% in 2000.[139] There is also a growing gap between rich and poor in Russia. Between 2000–2007 the incomes of the rich grew from approximately 14 times to 17 times larger than the incomes of the poor. The income differentiation ratio shows that the 10% of Russia's rich live increasingly better than the 10% of the poor, amongst whom are mostly pensioners and unskilled workers in depressive regions. (See: Gini Coefficient) Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ...


Foreign policy

In international affairs, Putin has been publicly increasingly critical of the foreign policies of the US and other Western countries. In February 2007, at the annual Munich Conference on Security Policy, he criticised what he calls the United States' monopolistic dominance in global relations, and pointed out that the United States displayed an "almost uncontained hyper use of force in international relations". He said the result of it is that "no one feels safe! Because no one can feel that international law is like a stone wall that will protect them. Of course such a policy stimulates an arms race."[140] United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... The Munich Conference on Security Policy was founded in 1962 by German publisher Ewald von Kleist under the title Wehrkundetagung. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


He called for a "fair and democratic world order that would ensure security and prosperity not only for a select few, but for all". He proposed certain initiatives such as establishing international centres for the enrichment of uranium and prevention of deploying weapons in outer space.[140] In his January 2007 interview Putin said Russia is in favour of a democratic multipolar world and of strengthening the system of international law.[141]

While Putin is often characterised as an autocrat by the Western media and some politicians[142][143], his relationship with American President George W. Bush, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, former French President Jacques Chirac, and Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi are reported to be personally friendly. Putin's relationship with Germany's new Chancellor, Angela Merkel, is reported to be "cooler" and "more business-like" than his partnership with Gerhard Schröder.[144] Image File history File links George_W_Bush_and_Vladimir_Putin_by_Limestone_fireplace_at_Texas_White_House_in_Crawford_Texas. ... Image File history File links George_W_Bush_and_Vladimir_Putin_by_Limestone_fireplace_at_Texas_White_House_in_Crawford_Texas. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... President Bush at his ranch Prairie Chapel Ranch is a 1583 acre (6. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ...   (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, media proprietor, and is expected to be appointed President of the Council of Ministers of Italy, a position he has held twice before. ...   (IPA: ) (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ...


In the wake of the September 11 attacks on the United States, he agreed to the establishment of coalition military bases in Central Asia before and during the US-led invasion of Afghanistan. Russian nationalists objected to the establishment of any US military presence on the territory of the former Soviet Union, and had expected Putin to keep the US out of the Central Asian republics, or at the very least extract a commitment from Washington to withdraw from these bases as soon as the immediate military necessity had passed. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


During the Iraq crisis of 2003, Putin opposed Washington's move to invade Iraq without the benefit of a United Nations Security Council resolution explicitly authorizing the use of military force. After the official end of the war was announced, American president George W. Bush asked the United Nations to lift sanctions on Iraq. Putin supported lifting of the sanctions in due course, arguing that the UN commission first be given a chance to complete its work on the search for weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. The issue of Iraqs disarmament reached a crisis in 2002-2003, when George W. Bush demanded a complete end to alleged Iraqi production and use of weapons of mass destruction. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... UN redirects here. ...


In 2005, Putin and former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder negotiated the construction of a major gas pipeline over the Baltic exclusively between Russia and Germany. Schröder also attended Putin's 53rd birthday in Saint Petersburg the same year. Nord Stream pipeline Nord Stream (former names: North Transgas and North European Gas Pipeline) is a planned natural gas pipeline from Russia to Germany. ...


The CIS, seen in Moscow as its traditional sphere of influence, became one of the foreign policy priorities under Putin, as the EU and NATO have grown to encompass much of Central Europe and, more recently, the Baltic states.  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...

Putin (center) at the 2006 APEC gala dinner with Roh Moo-hyun, Kwon Yang-sook, George W. Bush (right), and Laura Bush (far right)
Putin (center) at the 2006 APEC gala dinner with Roh Moo-hyun, Kwon Yang-sook, George W. Bush (right), and Laura Bush (far right)

During the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, Putin twice visited Ukraine before the election to show his support for Ukrainian Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych, who was widely seen as a pro-Kremlin candidate, and he congratulated him on his anticipated victory before the official election returns had been in. Putin's personal support for Yanukovych was criticized as unwarranted interference in the affairs of a sovereign state (See also The Orange revolution). Crises also developed in Russia's relations with Georgia and Moldova, both former Soviet republics accusing Moscow of supporting separatist entities in their territories. Moscow's policies under Putin towards these states are viewed by politicians in the West as "efforts to bully democratic neighbors".[145] Hillary Clinton in a December, 2007, article in Foreign Affairs said "Putin has also suppressed many of the freedoms won after the fall of communism, created a new class of oligarchs, and interfered deeply in the internal affairs of former Soviet republics."[146] On another occasion, Clinton also made her other famous remarks about Putin by saying the following: "He was a KGB agent. By definition he doesn’t have a soul".[147] When asked at a press conference on February 14, 2008 about Clinton's remarks regarding his soul, Putin was quoted as saying the following in response: "I think that a statesman must have a head as a minimum. And in order to build interstate relationships, one must be governed by the fundamental interest of one's own country rather than by emotions."[148] Image File history File linksMetadata APEC_gala_dinner_2006-Nov-18. ... Image File history File linksMetadata APEC_gala_dinner_2006-Nov-18. ... APEC may refer to: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Action Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Advanced Placement European Civilization Atlantic Provinces Economic Council This article consisting of a 4-letter acronym or initialism is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... This is a Korean name; the family name is Roh Roh Moo-hyun (IPA: ) (born September 1, 1946 in Gimhae, South Gyeongsang, South Korea) is the President of South Korea. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. ... Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) (born on July 9, 1950 in Yenakiieve, Donetsk Oblast) is the Prime Minister of Ukraine. ... Orange-clad demonstrators gather in the Independence Square in Kiev on 22 November, 2004. ... REDIRECT Hillary Rodham Clinton   This is a redirect from a title with another method of capitalisation. ... This article is about a journal. ...


Putin took an active personal part in promoting the Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate signed 17 May 2007 that restored relations between the Moscow-based Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia after the 80-year schism [149]. The Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate reunited the two branches of the Russian Orthodox Church: the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR) and the Moscow Patriarchate. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Russian: , ), also called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, or ROCOR) is a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church. ...


In his annual address to the Federal Assembly on April 26, 2007, Putin announced plans to declare a moratorium on the observance of the CFE Treaty by Russia until all NATO members ratified it and started observing its provisions, as Russia had been doing on a unilateral basis. Putin argues that as new NATO members have not even signed the treaty so far, an imbalance in the presence of NATO and Russian armed forces in Europe creates a real threat and an unpredictable situation for Russia.[150] NATO members said they would refuse to ratify the treaty until Russia complied with its 1999 commitments made in Istanbul whereby Russia should remove troops and military equipment from Moldova and Georgia. Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov was quoted as saying in response that "Russia has long since fulfilled all its Istanbul obligations relevant to CFE".[151] Russia has suspended its participation in the CFE as of midnight Moscow time on December 11, 2007.[152][153] On December 12, 2007, the United States officially said it "deeply regretted the Russian Federation's decision to 'suspend' implementation of its obligations under the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE)." State Department spokesman Sean McCormack, in a written statement, added that "Russia's conventional forces are the largest on the European continent, and its unilateral action damages this successful arms control regime."[154] NATO's primary concern arising from Russia's suspension is that Moscow could now accelerate its military presence in the Northern Caucasus.[155] is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Sergey Lavrov. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ...


The months following Putin's Munich speech[140] were marked by tension and a surge in rhetoric on both sides of the Atlantic. So, Vladimir Putin said at the anniversary of the Victory Day, "these threats are not becoming fewer but are only transforming and changing their appearance. These new threats, just as under the Third Reich, show the same contempt for human life and the same aspiration to establish an exclusive dictate over the world."[156] This was interpreted by some Russian and Western commentators as comparing the U.S. to Nazi Germany. On the eve of the 33rd Summit of the G8 in Heiligendamm, American journalist Anne Applebaum, who is married to a Polish politician, wrote that "Whether by waging cyberwarfare on Estonia, threatening the gas supplies of Lithuania, or boycotting Georgian wine and Polish meat, he [Putin] has, over the past few years, made it clear that he intends to reassert Russian influence in the former communist states of Europe, whether those states want Russian influence or not. At the same time, he has also made it clear that he no longer sees Western nations as mere benign trading partners, but rather as Cold War-style threats."[157] For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Burg Hohenzollern, Heiligendamm Haus Mecklenburg, Heiligendamm Kurhaus, Heiligendamm Heiligendamm is part of Bad Doberan, situated on the Baltic Sea coast in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in Germany. ... Anne Applebaum (born 1964) is a journalist and author who has written extensively about issues related to communism and the development of civil society in Eastern Europe and the USSR / Russia. ... Cyberattacks on Estonia (a. ... The 2006 Russian import ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines began in late-March 2006 and created a diplomatic conflict between the Republic of Moldova and Georgia on the one hand and Russia on the other. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


British historian Max Hastings described Putin as "Stalin's spiritual heir" in his article "Will we have to fight Russia in this Century?".[158] British academic Norman Stone in his article "No wonder they like Putin" compared Putin to General Charles de Gaulle.[159] Adi Ignatius argues that "Putin... is not a Stalin. There are no mass purges in Russia today, no broad climate of terror. But Putin is reconstituting a strong state, and anyone who stands in his way will pay for it."[69] In the same article, Hastings continues that although "a return to the direct military confrontation of the Cold War is unlikely", "the notion of Western friendship with Russia is a dead letter".[158] Both Russian and American officials always denied the idea of a new Cold War. The US defence secretary Robert Gates said on the Munich Conference: "We all face many common problems and challenges that must be addressed in partnership with other countries, including Russia. ... One Cold War was quite enough."[160] Vladimir Putin said prior to 33rd G8 Summit, on June 4: "we do not want confrontation; we want to engage in dialogue. However, we want a dialogue that acknowledges the equality of both parties’ interests."[109] Sir Max Hastings (born December 28, 1945) is a British journalist, editor, historian and author. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Norman Stone (1941-) is a British historian of modern Europe, especially Central and Eastern Europe. ... This article is about the person. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is currently serving as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Putin publicly opposed a U.S. missile shield in Europe, and presented President George W. Bush with a counterproposal on June 7, 2007 of sharing the use of the Soviet-era radar system in Azerbaijan rather than building a new system in the Czech Republic. Putin expressed readiness to modernize the Gabala radar station, which has been in operation since 1986. Putin proposed it would not be necessary to place interceptor missiles in Poland then, but interceptors could be placed in NATO member Turkey or Iraq. Putin suggested also equal involvement of interested European countries in the project.[161] A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Qabala can mean: Qabala Rayonu in Azerbaijan it is also an alternative spelling for Kabbalah This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Portraits of President Putin on display in a Moscow store.
Portraits of President Putin on display in a Moscow store.

In a June 4, 2007, interview to journalists of G8 countries, when answering the question of whether Russian nuclear forces may be focused on European targets in case "the United States continues building a strategic shield in Poland and the Czech Republic", Putin admitted that "if part of the United States’ nuclear capability is situated in Europe and that our military experts consider that they represent a potential threat then we will have to take appropriate retaliatory steps. What steps? Of course we must have new targets in Europe."[109][162][163] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1113 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vladimir Putin Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1113 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vladimir Putin Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


The end of 2006 brought strained relations between Russia and Britain in the wake of the death of a former FSB officer in London by poisoning. On July 20, 2007 UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown expelled "four Russian envoys over Putin's refusal to extradite ex-KGB agent Andrei Lugovoi, wanted in the UK for the murder of fellow former spy Alexander Litvinenko in London."[164] The Russian constitution prohibits the extradition of Russian nationals to third countries. British Foreign Secretary David Miliband said that "this situation is not unique, and other countries have amended their constitutions, for example to give effect to the European Arrest Warrant".[165] Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (Russian: ) (30 August 1962[1][2] – 23 November 2006) was a lieutenant-colonel in the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, alleged agent of MI6[3] , and later a Russian dissident and writer. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... Andrei Lugovoi (Lugovoy) (Russian: ) (Born 1966 in Azerbaijan) is a former KGB operative [1] and millionaire who met with Alexander Litvinenko on the day Litvinenko fell ill (1 November 2006). ... Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (Russian: ) (30 August 1962[1][2] – 23 November 2006) was a lieutenant-colonel in the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, alleged agent of MI6[3] , and later a Russian dissident and writer. ... David Wright Miliband (born 15 July 1965) is a British politician who is the current Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs [1] and Member of Parliament for the constituency of South Shields, Tyne and Wear. ...


Miliband's statement was widely publicized by Russian media as a British proposal to change the Russian constitution.[166][167][168] According to VCIOM, 62% of Russians are against changing the Constitution in this respect.[169] The British Ambassador in Moscow Tony Brenton said that the UK is not asking Russia to break its Constitution, but rather interpret it in such a way that would make Lugovoi's extradition possible.[170] Putin, in response, advised British officials to "fix their heads" rather than propose changing the Russian constitution[171][168] and said that the British proposals were "a relic of a colonial-era mindset".[172] All-Russia Center for the Study of Public Opinion (VTsIOM) Founding of VTsIOM Yuri Levada The founding and development of the agency was intertwined with the career of its founder, Yuri Levada-- the first professor to teach sociology at Moscow State University. ...


When Litvinenko was dying from radiation poisoning, he allegedly accused Putin of directing the assassination in a statement which was released shortly after his death by his friend Alex Goldfarb.[173] Critics have doubted that Litvinenko is the true author of the released statement.[174][175] When asked about the Litvinenko accusations, Putin said that a statement released after death of its author "naturally deserves no comment".[176] For other uses, see Alex Goldfarb. ...


The expulsions were seen as "the biggest rift since the countries expelled each other's diplomats in 1996 after a spying dispute." In response to the situation, Putin stated "I think we will overcome this mini-crisis. Russian-British relations will develop normally. On both the Russian side and the British side, we are interested in the development of those relations." Despite this, British Ambassador Tony Brenton was told by the Russian Foreign Ministry that UK diplomats would be given 10 days before they were expelled in response. The Russian government also announced that it would suspend issuing visas to UK officials and froze cooperation on counterterrorism in response to Britain suspending contacts with their Federal Security Service.[164]


Alexander Shokhin, president of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs warned that British investors in Russia will "face greater scrutiny from tax and regulatory authorities. [And] They could also lose out in government tenders". Some see the crisis as originating with Britain's decision to grant Putin's former patron, Russian billionaire Boris Berezovsky, political asylum in 2003. Earlier in 2007, Berezovsky had called for the overthrow of Putin.[164] This article is about the Russian businessman. ...

Leaders of the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Germany
Leaders of the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Germany
Presidents Bush and Putin at the 33rd G8 summit, June 2007.
Presidents Bush and Putin at the 33rd G8 summit, June 2007.

On December 10, 2007, Russia ordered the British Council to halt work at its regional offices in what was seen as the latest round of a dispute over the murder of Alexander Litvinenko; Britain said Russia's move was illegal.[177] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Leaders of the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Germany. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Logo of the British Council British Council building in London British Council, Hong Kong The British Council is one of the United Kingdoms cultural relations organisations and which specialises in educational opportunities. ...


Following the Peace Mission 2007 military exercises jointly conducted by the SCO member states, Putin announced on August 17, 2007 the resumption on a permanent basis of long-distance patrol flights of Russia's strategic bombers that were suspended in 1992.[178][179] US State Department spokesman Sean McCormack was quoted as saying in response that "if Russia feels as though they want to take some of these old aircraft out of mothballs and get them flying again, that's their decision."[179] The announcement made during the SCO summit in the light of joint Russian-Chinese military exercises, first-ever in history to be held on Russian territory,[180] makes some believe that Putin is inclined to set up an anti-NATO bloc or the Asian version of OPEC.[181] When presented with the suggestion that "Western observers are already likening the SCO to a military organisation that would stand in opposition to NATO", Putin answered that "this kind of comparison is inappropriate in both form and substance".[178] Russian Chief of the General Staff Yury Baluyevsky was quoted as saying that "there should be no talk of creating a military or political alliance or union of any kind, because this would contradict the founding principles of SCO".[180] Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Headquarters Secretariat RATS - Beijing - Tashkent Working languages Chinese, Russian Secretary General Zhang Deguang Formation 14 June 2001 Official website http://www. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Sean McCormack is a U.S. Assistant Secretary of State. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a large group of countries[1][2] made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Ecuador (which rejoined OPEC in November 2007). ... General Yury Nikolayevich Baluyevsky (Юрий Николаевич Балуевский), born 9 January, 1947, is the First deputy minister of defense and, since July 2004, the Chief of the Russian General Staff. ...


The resumption of long-distance flights of Russia's strategic bombers was followed by the announcement by Russian Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov during his meeting with Putin on December 5, 2007, that 11 ships, including the aircraft carrier Kuznetsov, would take part in the first major navy sortie into the Mediterranean since Soviet times.[182] The sortie was to be backed up by 47 aircraft, including strategic bombers.[183] According to Serdyukov, this is an effort to resume regular Russian naval patrols on the world's oceans,[184] the view that is also supported by Russian media.[185] The military analyst from Novaya Gazeta Pavel Felgenhauer believes that the accident-prone Kuznetsov is scarcely seaworthy and is more of a menace to her crew than any putative enemy[186]. Anatoliy Eduardovich Serdyukov (Russian: ) (b. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (Russian: Адмирал флота Советского Союза Кузнецов, originally named Tbilisi and then Leonid Brezhnev[1]) is an aircraft carrier (heavy aircraft carrying cruiser (TAVKR) in Russian classification) serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy. ... Novaya Gazeta (Russian: ) is a Russian newspaper. ... Dr. Pavel E. Felgenhauer is a Moscow-based defense analyst and columnist in Novaya Gazeta. ...


In September 2007, Putin visited Indonesia and in doing so became the first Russian leader to visit the country in more than 50 years.[187] In the same month, Putin also attended the APEC meeting held in Sydney, Australia where he met with Australian Prime Minister John Howard and signed an uranium trade deal. This was the first visit of a Russian president to Australia. APEC may refer to: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Action Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Advanced Placement European Civilization Atlantic Provinces Economic Council This article consisting of a 4-letter acronym or initialism is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ...


On October 16, 2007 Putin visited Tehran, Iran to participate in the Second Caspian Summit,[188][189] where he met with Iranian leader Mahmoud Ahmadinejad[190]. Other participants were leaders of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan.[191] This is the first visit of a Russian leader to Iran since Joseph Stalin's participation in the Tehran Conference in 1943.[192][193] At a press conference after the summit Putin said that "all our (Caspian) states have the right to develop their peaceful nuclear programmes without any restrictions".[194] During the summit it was also agreed that its participants, under no circumstances, would let any third-party state use their territory as a base for aggression or military action against any other participant.[188] is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Left to right: General Secretary of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom . ...

Vladimir Putin meets Boris Tadić, President of Serbia, in Moscow.

On October 26, 2007, at a press conference following the 20th Russia-EU Summit in Portugal, Putin proposed creating a Russian-European Institute for Freedom and Democracy headquartered either in Brussels or in one of the European capitals, and added that "we are ready to supply funds for financing it, just as Europe covers the costs of projects in Russia".[195] This newly proposed institution is expected to monitor human rights violations in Europe and contribute to development of European democracy.[196] Boris Tadić (Serbian: ; born 15 January 1958) is the President of Serbia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Vladimir Putin strongly opposes secession of Kosovo from Serbia. He called any support for this act "immoral" and "illegal".[197] He described Kosovo's declaration of independence a 'terrible precedent' that will come back to hit the West 'in the face'.[198] He stated that Kosovo precedent will de facto destroy the whole system of international relations, developed not over decades, but over centuries.[199] For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost...


Robert Kagan, reflecting on what underlay the fundamental rift between Putin's Russia and the EU wrote in February 2008: " Europe's nightmares are the 1930s; Russia's nightmares are the 1990s. Europe sees the answer to its problems in transcending the nation-state and power. For Russians, the solution is in restoring them. So what happens when a 21st-century entity faces the challenge of a 19th-century power? The contours of the conflict are already emerging—in diplomatic stand-offs over Kosovo, Ukraine, Georgia and Estonia; in conflicts over gas and oil pipelines; in nasty diplomatic exchanges between Russia and Britain; and in a return to Russian military exercises of a kind not seen since the Cold War. Europeans are apprehensive, with good reason."[200] Robert Kagan (born September 26, 1958) is an American neoconservative scholar and political commentator. ...


Talks on a new Partnership and Co-operation Agreement (PCA), signed in 1997, remained stymied till the end of Putin's presidency due to vetos by Poland and later Lithuania.[201]


Public opinion (criticism and support)

According to public opinion surveys conducted by Levada Center, Putin's approval rating was 81% in June 2007, and the highest of any leader in the world.[202] His popularity rose from 31% in August 1999 to 80% in November 1999 and since then it has never fallen below 65%.[203] Observers see Putin's high approval ratings as a consequence of higher living standards that improved during his rule and Russia's reassertion of itself on the world scene,[204][205][206]. Most Russians are also deeply disillusioned with the West after all the hardships of 90s,[159][207] and they no longer trust pro-western politicians associated with Yeltsin that were removed from the political scene under Putin's leadership.[207] Critics of Putin are seldom seen on two major national TV channels, Channel One and RTR. They do get some exposure through independent media, which include the national Ren-TV channel [208], radio stations such as Echo of Moscow[209] and a large selection[210] of independent newspapers such as Novaya Gazeta, Moscow Times and Nezavisimaya Gazeta.[211] InoSMI project delivers selected translations into Russian of articles dedicated to Russia from foreign and Western media online on a daily basis and has a daily audience of 70,000–90,000 visitors, most of them Russians.[212] All-Russia Center for the Study of Public Opinion (VTsIOM) Founding of VTsIOM Yuri Levada The founding and development of the agency was intertwined with the career of its founder, Yuri Levada-- the first professor to teach sociology at Moscow State University. ... Channel One (Russian: ; IPA: ) is one of Russias most highly rated TV channels, and the one with the widest reception area. ... The Russia TV Channel (Russian: ), previously known as RTR (Russian: ), is a state-owned Russian television channel founded in 1991. ... REN TV is one of the largest (and first of its kind) private federal channels in Russia. ... Echo of Moscow (russian:Эхо Москвы - Ekho Moskvy) is the independent Russian radiostation based in Moscow and broadcasted in many other Russian cities and in Internet. ... Novaya Gazeta (Russian: ) is a Russian newspaper. ... Moscow Times is an independent English language Russian daily newspaper. ... Nezavisimaya Gazeta (Независимая Газета; independent newspaper) is a Russian language daily newspaper, published by Izvestiya. ...


Despite widespread public support in Russia, Putin has also been the target of much criticism. Several reforms made under Putin’s presidency have been criticized by some privately owned Russian media outlets and many Western commentators as anti-democratic.[213][214][215] At the same time, a joint poll by World Public Opinion in the U. S. and NGO Levada Center [1] in Russia around June–July 2006 stated that "neither the Russian nor the American publics are convinced Russia is headed in an anti-democratic direction" and "Russians generally support Putin’s concentration of political power and strongly support the re-nationalization of Russia’s oil and gas industry." Russians generally support the political course of Putin and his team.[216] A 2005 survey showed that three times as many Russians felt the country was "more democratic" under Putin than it was during the Yeltsin or Gorbachev years, and the same proportion thought human rights were better under Putin than Yeltsin.[217]


In 2006 and 2007 "Dissenters' Marches" were organized by the opposition group Other Russia,[218] led by former chess champion Garry Kasparov and national-Bolshevist leader Eduard Limonov. Following prior warnings, demonstrations in several Russian cities were met by police action, which included interfering with the travel of the protesters and the arrests of as many as 150 people who attempted to break through police lines.[219][220] The Dissenters' Marches have received little support among the Russian general public, according to popular polls. [221] The Dissenters' March in Samara held in May 2007 during the Russia-EU summit attracted more journalists providing coverage of the event than actual participants.[222] When asked in what way the Dissenters' Marches bother him, Putin answered that such marches "shall not prevent other citizens from living a normal life".[223] During the Dissenters' March in St. Petersburg on March 3, 2007, the protesters blocked automobile traffic on Nevsky Prospect, the central street of the city, much to the disturbance of local drivers.[224][225] The Governor of St. Petersburg, Valentina Matvienko, commented on the event that "it is important to give everyone the opportunity to criticize the authorities, but this should be done in a civilized fashion".[225] When asked about Kasparov's arrest, Putin replied that during his arrest Kasparov was speaking English rather than Russian, and suggested that he was targeting a Western audience rather than his own people.[226][227] Putin has said that some domestic critics are being funded and supported by foreign enemies who would prefer to see a weak Russia.[228] In his speech at the United Russia meeting in Luzhniki: "Those who oppose us don't want us to realize our plan.... They need a weak, sick state! They need a disorganized and disoriented society, a divided society, so that they can do their deeds behind its back and eat cake on our tab."[229]. Protesters at the meeting near Gostiny Dvor, Saint Petersburg, March 3, 2007. ... The Other Russia (Russian: ), sometimes cited as Another Russia, is an umbrella coalition that gathers opponents of the Russian President Vladimir Putin. ... Garry Kasparov (Russian: ; Russian pronunciation: , Armenian: [1]) (born as Garri Kimovich Weinstein [2] on April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR; now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... United Russia (Yedinaya Rossiya, Russian Единая Россия; the more correct translation is Unified Russia) is a political party in the Russian Federation which usually labels itself centrist. ... Luzhniki may refer to: Luzhniki (locality), a locality in Moscow, Russia Luzhniki Palace of Sports, an arena in Moscow, Russia Luzhniki Stadium, a stadium in Moscow, Russia Category: ...


In early 2005, a youth organization called Nashi (meaning 'Ours' or 'Our Own People') was created in Russia, which positions itself as a democratic, anti-fascist organization. Its creation was encouraged by some of the most senior figures in the Administration of the President,[230] and by 2007 it grew to some 120,000 members (between the ages of 17 and 25). One of Nashi's major stated aims was to prevent a repeat of the 2004 Orange Revolution during the Russian elections: as its leader Vasily Yakemenko said, "the enemies must not perform unconstitutional takeovers".[231] Kremlin adviser, Sergei Markov said about the activists of Nashi: "They want Russia to be a modern, strong and free country... Their ideology is clear — it is modernization of the country and preservation of its sovereignty with that."[232] Nashi (Russian: , Youth Movement Ours!) is a Russian youth movement, officially announced by Vasily Yakemenko (leader of the pro-Putin Walking Together youth movement) on 1 March 2005, the founding conference was carried out on 15 April 2005. ... Orange-clad demonstrators gather in the Independence Square in Kiev on 22 November, 2004. ... Vasily Grigoryevich Yakemenko (Russian: , b. ...


Nashi has been referred to as "Putin Youth", the "loyal youth brigade" and "Putinjugend" in the Western media.[233][234][235][236][237] The Boston Globe said that "movement's brownshirt tactics certain evoke shades of Hitler Youth, as does the emphasis on physical fitness, clean living, and procreation for the Motherland".[238] Some British and American journalists view the emergence of this and, more recently, other similar organisations, such as Young Guard and Locals, as one of the signs of Russia under Putin "sliding into fascism, with state control of the economy, media, politics and society becoming increasingly heavy-handed".[239][240][241] In early 2008 it was reported that Nashi and other similar youth movements would be "radically reorganized" and would no longer function as a centralized federal project. The youth movements say they no longer need to organize street protests now that there is no longer a threat of an orange revolution in Russia. Political analyst Stanislav Belkovsky explained: "Putin was dissatisfied with how Nashi was faring, they were causing tensions with the West. Medvedev positions himself as a friend of the West, and aggressive national patriotic support does not fit in with that image".[242] Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ...


In July 2007 Bret Stephens of The Wall Street Journal wrote: "Russia has become, in the precise sense of the word, a fascist state. It does not matter here, as the Kremlin's apologists are so fond of pointing out, that Mr. Putin is wildly popular in Russia: Popularity is what competent despots get when they destroy independent media, stoke nationalistic fervor with military buildups and the cunning exploitation of the Church, and ride a wave of petrodollars to pay off the civil service and balance their budgets. Nor does it matter that Mr. Putin hasn't re-nationalized the "means of production" outright; corporatism was at the heart of Hitler's economic policy, too." [243] Bret Stephens is a writer, editorialist and member of the Wall Street Journal Editorial Board. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ...


Putin was Time Magazine's Person of the Year for 2007[244][245], given the title for his "extraordinary feat of leadership in taking a country that was in chaos and bringing it stability".[246] Time said that "TIME's Person of the Year is not and never has been an honor. It is not an endorsement. It is not a popularity contest. At its best, it is a clear-eyed recognition of the world as it is and of the most powerful individuals and forces shaping that world—for better or for worse". The choice provoked sarcasm from one of Russia's opposition leaders, Garry Kasparov,[247][248] who recalled that Adolf Hitler had been Time's Man of the Year in 1938 and an overwhelmingly negative reaction from the magazine's readership.[249] TIME redirects here. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In April 2008, Putin was put on the Time 100 most influential people in the world list.[250] Madeleine Albright wrote: "After our first meetings, in 1999 and 2000, I described him in my journal as "shrewd, confident, hard-working, patriotic, and ingratiating." In the years since, he has become more confident and — to Westerners — decidedly less ingratiating." She added "It is unlikely that Putin, 55, will wear out his welcome at home anytime soon, as he has nearly done with many democracies abroad. In the meantime, he will remain an irritant to NATO, a source of division within Europe and yet another reason for the West to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels." Time 100 cover for 2007 The Time 100 is an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world, as assembled by Time. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


On December 4, 2007, at Harvard University, Mikhail Gorbachev credited Putin with having "pulled Russia out of chaos" and said he was "assured a place in history", "despite Gorbachev's acknowledgment that the news media have been suppressed and that election rules run counter to the democratic ideals he has promoted".[251] Nevertheless, on January 28, 2008, Gorbachev in his interview to Interfax[252] "sharply criticized the state of Russia’s electoral system and called for extensive reforms to a system that has secured power for President Vladimir V. Putin and the Kremlin’s inner circle."[253] Following Gorbachev's interview The Washington Post's editorial said: "No wonder that Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet Union's last leader, felt moved to speak out. "Something wrong is going on with our elections", he told the Interfax agency. But it's not only elections: In fact, the system that Mr. Gorbachev took apart is being meticulously reconstructed."[254] is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Interfax is a Russian non-governmental press agency based in Moscow. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...


In its January 2008 World Report, Human Rights Watch wrote in the section devoted to Russia: "As parliamentary and presidential elections in late 2007 and early 2008 approached, the administration headed by President Vladimir Putin cracked down on civil society and freedom of assembly. Reconstruction in Chechnya did not mask grave human rights abuses including torture, abductions, and unlawful detentions. International criticism of Russia’s human rights record remains muted, with the European Union failing to challenge Russia on its human rights record in a consistent and sustained manner."[255] The organization called President Putin a "repressive" and "brutal" leader on par with the leaders of Zimbabwe and Pakistan.[256] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...

Putin in 2003
Putin in 2003

Download high resolution version (479x639, 54 KB)President Vladimir Putin of Russia. ... Download high resolution version (479x639, 54 KB)President Vladimir Putin of Russia. ...

Family and personal life

On July 28, 1983 Putin married Lyudmila Shkrebneva, at that time an undergraduate student of the Spanish branch of the Philology Department of the Leningrad State University and a former airline stewardess, who had been born in Kaliningrad on January 6, 1958. They have two daughters, Maria Putina (born 1985) and Yekaterina "Katya" Putina (born 1986 in Dresden). The daughters attended the German School in Moscow (Deutsche Schule Moskau) until his appointment as prime minister. is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Bella Kocharian, Laura Bush, Lyudmila Putina and Zorka Purvanova – first ladies of Armenia, the United States, Russia and Bulgaria respectively in 2003. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... Saint Petersburg State University (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) is one of the oldest educational institutions in Russia, situated in the city of Saint Petersburg. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ...


On April 12, 2008 the Russian newspaper Moskovsky Korrespondent owned by Alexander Lebedev reported that Vladimir Putin and his wife Lyudmila had been divorced for some time. According to the tabloid, Putin plans to marry the 24-year old former Olympic gymnast Alina Kabaeva in June. The information allegedly came from a "close friend" of the head of a wedding company. Kabayeva's spokeswoman refused to discuss "this nonsense"[257]. As Putin was abroad at the time, and the Kremlin declined to comment, the rumour spread into serious newspapers and television broadcasts all over the world, until on April 18, 2008 Putin himself denied the entire story at a press conference with Silvio Berlusconi, saying: "There is not a single word of truth" to the report". "I have always had a negative opinion of those who, with their snotty noses and their erotic fantasies, meddle in other people's lives," he added. [258][259] is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexander Lebedev (born 16 December 1959) is a Russian billionaire, referred to as one of the Russian tycoons. ... Alina Kabaeva Russian: Алина Кабаева (born May 12, 1983 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan) is an Individual rhythmic gymnast from Russia. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...   (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, media proprietor, and is expected to be appointed President of the Council of Ministers of Italy, a position he has held twice before. ...


Since 1992, Putin had owned a dacha of about 7 thousand square meters in Solovyovka, Priozersky district of the Leningrad region, which is located on the eastern shore of the Komsomol'skoye lake on the Karelian Isthmus near St. Petersburg. His neighbours there are Vladimir Yakunin, Andrei Fursenko, Sergey Fursenko, Yuriy Kovalchuk, Viktor Myachin, Vladimir Smirnov and Nikolay Shamalov. On November 10, 1996, together they instituted the co-operative society Ozero (the Lake) which united their properties. This was confirmed by Putin's income and property declaration as a nominee for the presidency in 2000.[38] [2] However, this real estate was not listed in his income and property declaration for 1998–2002 submitted before the 2004 elections. (Full text of the declaration in Russian: .doc) Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... Vladimir Yakunin Vladimir Ivanovich Yakunin (Russian: Владимир Иванович Якунин; born June 30, 1948 in Vladimir region), is a Russian official, head of state-run Russian Railways company. ... Andrei Aleksandrovich Fursenko (Russian: Андрей Александрович Фурсенко; born July 17, 1949 in Leningrad) is a Russian politician. ... Sergey Aleksandrovich Fursenko (Russian: Сергей Александрович Фурсенко) (born in 1954 in Leningrad, Soviet Union) is a Russian businessman. ... Yury Valentinovich Kovalchuk (Russian: Юрий Валентинович Ковальчук, born July 25, 1951, Leningrad, Soviet Union) is a Russian businessman. ... Vladimir Alexeyevich Smirnov (in Russian: Владимир Алексеевич Смирнов, b. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Ozero (in Russian: Озеро, meaning the lake) is a co-operative society instituted on November 10, 1996 by Vladimir Putin, Vladimir Yakunin, Andrei Fursenko, Sergey Fursenko, Yuriy Kovalchuk, Viktor Myachin, Vladimir Smirnov and Nikolay Shamalov. ...


Putin's father was "a model communist, genuinely believing in its ideals while trying to put them into practice in his own life.". With this dedication he became secretary of the Party cell in his workshop and then after taking night classes joined the factory’s Party bureau.[260] Though his father was a "militant atheist",[261] Putin's mother "was a devoted Orthodox believer". Though she kept no icons at home, she attended church regularly (despite the government's persecution of the Russian Orthodox Church at that time). She ensured that Putin was secretly christened as a baby, and she regularly took him to services. His father knew of this but turned a blind eye.[260] According to Putin's own statements, his religious awakening followed the serious car crash of his wife in 1993, and was deepened by a life-threatening fire that burned down their dacha in August 1996.[261][262] Right before an official visit to Israel his mother gave him his baptismal cross telling him to get it blessed “I did as she said and then put the cross around my neck. I have never taken it off since.”[260] Putin repeated the story to George W. Bush in June 2001, which might have inspired Bush to make his much-derided[147] remark that he had "got a sense of Putin's soul".[263][264] Putin is regularly shown on Russian television attending Orthodox services, lighting candles in front of icons and crossing himself, though there is no credible information about his actual participation in the Church's sacraments. When asked whether he believes in God during his interview with Time, he responded saying: "... There are things I believe, which should not in my position, at least, be shared with the public at large for everybody's consumption because that would look like self-advertising or a political striptease."[265] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... This article is about the concept of time. ...


Putin speaks German with near-native fluency. His family used to speak German at home as well.[266] After becoming President he was reported to be taking English lessons and could be seen conversing directly with Bush and other native speakers of English in informal situations, but he continues to use interpreters for formal talks. Putin spoke English in public for the first time during the state dinner in Buckingham Palace in 2003 saying but a few phrases while delivering his condolences to the Queen.[267] He made a full English speech while addressing delegates at the 119th International Olympic Committee Session in Guatemala City on behalf of the successful bid of Sochi for the 2014 Winter Olympics. [268] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Sochi (Russian: , IPA: [soʨɪ]) is a Russian resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border. ... The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games, is an international winter multiple sports event that will be celebrated from February 7 to February 23, 2014. ...


Personal wealth

According to the official data submitted during the Russian legislative election, 2007 Putin's wealth is limited to approximately 3.7 million rubles (approximately $150 thousand) in bank accounts, a private 77.4 square meters apartment in Saint Petersburg, 260 shares of Bank Saint Petersburg (with the December 2007 market price $5.36 per share[3]) and two 1960s Volga M21 cars that he inherited from his father and does not register for on-road use. Putin's total 2006 income totaled to 2 million rubles (approximately $80 thousand).[269] According to the official data Putin did not make into the top 100 most wealthy Duma candidates of his own United Russia party.[270] Legislative elections will be held in the Russian Federation on December 2, 2007[1]. At stake are the 450 seats in the State Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (The legislature). ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... See stock (disambiguation) for other meanings of the term stock A stock, also referred to as a share, is commonly a share of ownership in a corporation. ... Volga is a brand name of various passenger cars from GAZ. Throughout the Soviet world, Volga cars were seen as a high status symbols, used by party officials, the nomenklatura, and security services. ... The Vehicle register in the United Kingdom is a database of motor vehicles. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... United Russia (Yedinaya Rossiya, Russian Единая Россия; the more correct translation is Unified Russia) is a political party in the Russian Federation which usually labels itself centrist. ...


On the other hand, there have been some allegations that Putin secretly owns a large fortune. According to former Chairman of the Russian State Duma Ivan Rybkin[271] [272] , and Russian political scientist Stanislav Belkovsky[273] [274], Putin controls a 4.5% stake in Gazprom ($13 billion), 37% in Surgutneftegaz (approximately $20 billion) and 50% in the oil-trading company Gunvor run by a close friend of Putin — Gennady Timchenko (last year turnover of the company was $40 billion).[275][276][277]. The aggregate estimated value of these holdings would easily make Putin Russia's richest person. In December, 2007, Belkovsky elaborated on his claims: "Putin's name doesn't appear on any shareholders' register, of course. There is a non-transparent scheme of successive ownership of offshore companies and funds. The final point is in Zug [in Switzerland] and Liechtenstein. Vladimir Putin should be the beneficiary owner."[278] This claim however has never been supported with evidence.[6] The Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (lang-rus Председатель Государственной Думы Федерального собрания Российской Федерации), also called Speaker (спикер), is the presiding officer of the lower house of the Russian parliament. ... For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ... Ivan Petrovich Rybkin (b. ... See also: Political Science Notable political scientists Kenneth Arrow - Nobel Memorial Prize winning economist who published influential paper on his widely cited Arrows Impossibility Theorem Robert Axelrod Duncan Black - Responsible for unearthing the work of many early political scientists, including Charles Dodgson Jean-Charles de Borda - 18th century mathematician... Gazprom (LSE: OGZD; Russian: , sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is the largest Russian company and the biggest extractor of natural gas in the world. ... JSC Surgutneftegaz (MICEX:SNGS RTS:SNGS) is a major oil and gas joint stock company of Russia that united several previously state-owned enterprises with large oil and gas reserves in Western Siberia in 1993 after the collapse of the Soviet Union. ...


Putin is not included in the world list of billionaires compiled by Forbes[279] or the list of Russian billionaires compiled by the Finance magazine.[280] Forbes magazine annually lists the worlds wealthiest individuals: The Worlds Billionaries. ... For other uses, see Forbes (disambiguation). ... This is the list of Russian billionaires as of January 2007 based on Magazine Finance [1]. Category: ...


When asked at a press conference on February 14, 2008 that some papers wrote of him as the richest person in Europe, and if this is true, then what would be the sources of his wealth, Putin was quoted as saying the following in response: "This is true. I am the richest person not only in Europe, but also in the world. I collect emotions. And I am rich in that respect that the people of Russia have twice entrusted me with leadership of such a great country as Russia. I consider this to be my biggest fortune. As for the rumors concerning my financial wealth, I have seen some pieces of paper regarding this. This is plain chatter, not worthy discussion, plain bosh. They have picked this in their noses and have smeared this across their pieces of paper. This is how I view this."[148] is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Martial arts

One of Putin's favorite sports is the martial art of judo. Putin began training in sambo (a martial art that originated in the Soviet Union) at the age of 14, before switching to judo, which he continues to practice today.[281] Putin won competitions in his hometown of Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg), including the senior championship of Leningrad. He is the President of the Yawara Dojo, the same St. Petersburg dojo he practiced at when young. Putin co-authored a book on his favorite sport, published in Russian as Judo with Vladimir Putin and in English under the title Judo: History, Theory, Practice.[282] Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... A dojo ) is a Japanese term which literally means place of the Way. Initially, Dojo were adjunct to temples. ...


Though he is not the first world leader to practice judo, Putin is the first leader to move forward into the advanced levels. Currently, Putin is a black belt (6th dan) and is best known for his Harai Goshi (sweeping hip throw). Vladimir Putin earned Master of Sports (Soviet and Russian sport title) in Judo in 1975 and in Sambo in 1973. After a state visit to Japan, Putin was invited to the Kodokan Institute where he showed the students and Japanese officials different judo techniques.[283] This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Harai Goshi is one of the original 40 throws of Judo as developed by Jigoro Kano. ... Unified Sports Classification System of the USSR (Russian: Единая Всесоюзная спортивная классификация) was a document, which provided general Soviet physical education system requirements for athletes. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... The Kodokan Institute is the headquarters of the Judo World. ...


Honours

  • In September 2006, France's president Jacques Chirac awarded Vladimir Putin the insignia of Grand-Croix (Grand Cross) of the Légion d'honneur, the highest French decoration, to celebrate his contribution to the friendship between the two countries. This decoration is usually awarded to the heads of state considered as very close to France.[284]
  • On February 12, 2007 Saudi King Abdullah awarded Putin the King Abdul Aziz Award, Saudi Arabia's top civilian decoration.[285]
  • On September 10, 2007 UAE President Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan awarded Putin the Order of Zayed, UAE's top civilian decoration.[286]
  • In December 2007 Putin was named Person of the Year by Expert magazine, influential and respected Russian business weekly.[287]
  • Putin has also been named Time Magazine's Person of the Year 2007. [288]

“Chirac” redirects here. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney walks with newly crowned King Abdullah, former U.S. President George H.W. Bush, and former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell during a retreat at King Abdullahs Farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, August 2005. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... UAE redirects here. ... His Highness Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahayan (خليفة بن زايد بن سلطان آل نهيان, born 1948) is the current president of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). ...

Anecdotes

See also: Putinisms
  • In a transcript[289] published on July 12, 2006, Putin is reported to have responded to U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney's political criticism by saying, "I think the statements of your Vice-President of this sort are the same as an unsuccessful hunting shot."[289][290] U.S. President George W. Bush later remarked that the comment was "pretty clever, actually, quite humorous."[291]
  • In response to Bush's closing remarks during the press conference at the 32nd G8 summit held in July of 2006, concerning accusations about the decline of democracy in modern Russia, when Bush said that Iraq is a good example to follow, Putin stated, "We certainly would not want to have the same kind of democracy as they have in Iraq, I will tell you quite honestly."[292]
  • Among many Russian circles is a joke that President Putin grapples with bears for sport and to prove his might as a leader. This is believed to stem from the aforementioned pictures released of a fishing trip Putin took part in where he was photographed shirtless.
  • At a press conference on February 1, 2007 Putin was asked for his opinion on homosexuality in the midst of a row over the decision by Moscow Mayor Yury Luzhkov to ban a gay rights parade in Moscow. Putin said: "My approach toward gay parades and sexual minorities is very simple. It is directly linked to my responsibilities. One of the key problems of our country is the demographic problem." After the audience burst out in laughter, Putin added, "I respect the freedom of people in all respects."[293][294]
  • In an oft-reported incident in July 2006, Putin, in a "spontaneous show of affection," kissed a little boy on the stomach. There was a slight interest in the subject by Western media, and the subject became a popular joke for many on the internet who did not feel especially favorable to Putin. [4]

For other uses, see Putinism. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... On February 11, 2006, U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney shot Harry Whittington, a 78-year-old Texas attorney, while participating in a quail hunt on a ranch in Kenedy County, Texas. ... 32nd G8 summit The 32nd summit of the G8 group of industrialised nations took place from July 15 to July 17, 2006 outside Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Key speeches

  • During his terms in office Putin has made 8 annual addresses to the Federal Assembly of Russia, speaking on the situation in Russia and on guidelines of the internal and foreign policy of the State (as prescribed in Article 84.f of the Constitution). The 2007 election campaign of the United Russia party went under the slogan "Putin's Plan: Russia's Victory". When asked on the "Putin's plan", Vladimir Putin said the last five Addresses contained some key parts "devoted to the state’s medium-term development", and "if all these key ideas were put together to build a coherent system, it can become the country's development plan in the medium-term". [295]

Federal Assembly of Russia (Федеральное Собрание) is the name of the parliament of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation, 1993. ... United Russia (Yedinaya Rossiya, Russian Единая Россия; the more correct translation is Unified Russia) is a political party in the Russian Federation which usually labels itself centrist. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ CNN | Putin gets unanimous vote for new role
  2. ^ BBC NEWS | Europe | Film 'reveals' Putin's love life
  3. ^ Putin rides high telegraph.co.uk July 15, 2006.
  4. ^ How Putin is inspired by history BBC Retrieved on April 23, 2008
  5. ^ How President Putin restored national pride BBC Retrieved on April 22, 2008
  6. ^ a b c d Russians weigh an enigma with Putin’s protégé MSNBC Retrieved on May 3, 2008
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Russia’s economy under Vladimir Putin: achievements and failures RIA Novosti Retrieved on May 1, 2008
  8. ^ Putin’s Eight Years Kommersant Retrieved on May 4, 2008
  9. ^ a b Putin’s Economy – Eight Years On Russia Profile, Retrieved on April 23, 2008
  10. ^ Russians live the caviar dream USA Today Retrieved on April 30, 2008
  11. ^ Sergey Morozov, "Putin's Diplomacy: Russian Judo on World Tatami". - St. Petersburg, publishing house "Krylov", 2008. - 288 pp. ISBN 978-5-9717-0630-4. Chapter "Dracula, Rotten Meat and Dr. Evil", p. 130: "... in the Kremlin they thought that Russia has become a subject of a series of political propaganda attacks orchestrated by the West and exiled oligarchs.", p. 139, Dmitry Peskov: "Things we observe in the British media relate more to a usual human hysteria rather than to journalism... President regards this calmly, understanding at the same time that this has nothing to do with journalism and analytics."
  12. ^ Profile: Boris Berezovsky BBC Retrieved on May 1, 2008
  13. ^ What a carve-up! The Guardian Retrieved on April 28, 2008
  14. ^ a b c Back in business - how Putin's allies are turning Russia into a corporate state. by Neil Buckley and Arkady Ostrovsky Financial Times June 19 2006.
  15. ^ Former Russian Spies Are Now Prominent in Business by Andrew Kramer New York Times December 18, 2007.
  16. ^ Russia's New Oligarchy: For Putin and Friends, a Gusher of Questionable Deals by Anders Aslund December 12, 2007.
  17. ^ Миллиардер Тимченко, «друг Путина», стал одним из крупнейших в мире продавцов нефти. NEWSru.com Nov 1, 2007.
  18. ^ Путин остается премьером, чтобы сохранить контроль над бизнес-империей. NEWSru.com Dec 17, 2007.
  19. ^ За время президентства Путин «заработал» 40 миллиардов долларов?
  20. ^ Независимый экспертеый доклад «Путин. Итоги» Experts' report by Boris Nemtsov and Vladimir Milov released in February 2008.
  21. ^ За четыре года мздоимство в России выросло почти в десять раз (Bribe-taking in Russia has increased by nearly ten times) Финансовые известия July 21, 2005.
  22. ^ Energy Revenues and Corruption Increase in Russia Voice of America 13 July 2006.
  23. ^ Чума-2005: коррупция Argumenty i Fakty № 29 (1290) July 2005
  24. ^ Russia: Bribery Thriving Under Putin, According To New Report Radio Liberty July 22, 2005
  25. ^ Putin, the Kremlin power struggle and the $40bn fortune The Guardian Dec 21, 2007
  26. ^ Seize the moment, talk to Medvedev. Financial Times May 6 2008.
  27. ^ Some biographers speculate that he was born somewhere in Southern Russia in 1950 and later lived at Metekhi, Georgian SSR, USSR, from 1953 to 1960, see Who is Mr. Putin (in Russian) by Vladimir Pribylovsky and Yury Felshtinsky, Subbota, No 10, March 4, 2004; Georgian relatives of the President (in Russian) by I. Bobrova, Moskovskiy Komsomolets, June 13, 2006. The official word on his birth is at the presidential website: Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin.
  28. ^ Book Intro (Russian).
  29. ^ First Person (Paperback) by Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Author), Nataliia Gevorkian (Author), Natalia Timakova (Author), A.V. Kolesnikov (Author), Catherine A. Fitzpatrick (Author) at Amazon.com
  30. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/p/putin-first.html
  31. ^ Peter Baker and Susan Glasser. Kremlin Rising: Vladimir Putin and the End of Revolution,p. 40. New York, Scribner, 2005. ISBN 0-7432-6431-2
  32. ^ Выпускники за 1975 год. Saint Petersburg State University's website.
  33. ^ a b c ПУТИН Владимир Владимирович (Russian). Антикомпромат (anticompromat.ru).
  34. ^ Владимир Путин. От Первого Лица. Chapter 6
  35. ^ ИВАНОВ Сергей Борисович (Russian). Антикомпромат (anticompromat.ru).
  36. ^ David Hoffman. Putin's Career Rooted in Russia's KGB. The Washington Post January 30, 2000.
  37. ^ Seven Moments of the Successor's Life[dead link] (in Russian), Moskovskiy Komsomolets, 18.08.1999.
  38. ^ a b c d V. Pribylovsky. Происхождение путинской олигархии (The Origin of Putin's Oligarchy) (Russian). Антикомпромат (anticompromat.ru).
  39. ^ МИЛЛЕР Алексей Борисович (Russian). Антикомпромат (anticompromat.ru).
  40. ^ Kovalev, Vladimir (2004-07-23). Uproar At Honor For Putin. The St. Petersburg Time.
  41. ^ Hoffman, David (2000-01-30). Putin's Career Rooted in Russia's KGB. The Washington Post.
  42. ^ J. Michael Waller (2000-03-17). Russia Reform Monitor No. 755: U.S. Seen Helping Putin's Presidential Campaign; Documents, Ex-Investigators, Link Putin to St. Petersburg Corruption. American Foreign Policy Council, Washington, D.C..
  43. ^ B. Berezovsky (2004-02-24). New Repartition //What is to be done?. Kommersant.
  44. ^ Kovalev, Vladimir (2005-07-29). Putin Should Settle Doubts About His Past Conduct. The St. Petersburg Time.
  45. ^ Roth, Jürgen. Die Gangster aus dem Osten. Hamburg: Europa Verlag, 2003. ISBN 3203815265
  46. ^ Duparc, Agathe et Vladimir Ivanidze. Le nom de M. Poutine apparaît en marge des affaires de blanchiment au Liechtenstein. Le Monde, 26.05.2000.
  47. ^ A Stain on Mr. Clean by Mark Hosenball and Christian Karyl, Newsweek, 3.09.2001
  48. ^ Le Monde Says Putin Linked To Crime[dead link] Moscow Times, 30.05.2000.
  49. ^ Putin’s Name Surfaces in German Probe by Catherine Belton
  50. ^ The Man Who Wasn't There by Nick Paton Walsh. The Observer, 29.02.2004.
  51. ^ a b Владимир Путин: от ассистента Собчака до и.о. премьера (Russian). GAZETA.RU.
  52. ^ ПУТИН — КАНДИДАТ НАУК (Russian). zavtra.ru (2000-05-24).
  53. ^ Tony Allen-Mills Putin accused of plagiarising his PhD thesis The Sunday Times March 26, 2006
  54. ^ Putin plagiarized from Pitt professors - Pittsburgh Tribune-Review
  55. ^ The Half-Decay Products (in Russian) by Oleg Odnokolenko. Itogi, #47(545), 2.01.2007.
  56. ^ The Security Organs of the Russian Federation. A Brief History 1991-2004 by Jonathan Littell.
  57. ^ The Operation "Successor" by Vladimir Pribylovsky and Yuriy Felshtinsky (in Russian).
  58. ^ Interview with David Satter on Radio Liberty August 8, 2003 (Russian)
  59. ^ Tremlett, Giles. "Leader's secret holidays to Spain", The Times, June 15, 2000. Retrieved on 2007-04-29. (English) 
  60. ^ Text of Yeltsin's speech in English. BBC NEWS (1999-08-09). Retrieved on 2007-05-31.
  61. ^ Yeltsin redraws political map BBC, August 10, 1999
  62. ^ Yeltsin's man wins approval BBC, August 16, 1999.
  63. ^ Can Grozny be groovy? by The Independent, March 13, 2007.
  64. ^ Human Rights Watch Reports, on human rights abuses in Chechnya. Retrieved November 22, 2006
  65. ^ Russia Factbook Central Intelligence Agency
  66. ^ Political groups and parties: Unity Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt
  67. ^ УКАЗ от 31 декабря 1999 г. № 1763 О ГАРАНТИЯХ ПРЕЗИДЕНТУ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ, ПРЕКРАТИВШЕМУ ИСПОЛНЕНИЕ СВОИХ ПОЛНОМОЧИЙ, И ЧЛЕНАМ ЕГО СЕМЬИ. Rossiyskaya Gazeta
  68. ^ «Развращение» первого лица. Госдума не решилась покуситься на неприкосновенность экс-президента. www.newizv.ru March 18, 2004.
  69. ^ a b Person of the Year 2007: A Tsar Is Born by Adi Ignatius, Retrieved on December 19, 2007, Time.com
  70. ^ Yeltsin linked to bribe scandal BBC, September 8, 1999.
  71. ^ Profile: Boris Berezovsky BBC Retrieved on May 1, 2008
  72. ^ What a carve-up! The Guardian Retrieved on April 28, 2008
  73. ^ Russia's New Oligarchy: For Putin and Friends, a Gusher of Questionable Deals by Anders Aslund December 12, 2007.
  74. ^ Миллиардер Тимченко, «друг Путина», стал одним из крупнейших в мире продавцов нефти. NEWSru.com Nov 1, 2007.
  75. ^ Путин остается премьером, чтобы сохранить контроль над бизнес-империей. NEWSru.com Dec 17, 2007.
  76. ^ За время президентства Путин «заработал» 40 миллиардов долларов?
  77. ^ Независимый экспертеый доклад «Путин. Итоги» Experts' report by Boris Nemtsov and Vladimir Milov released in February 2008.
  78. ^ За четыре года мздоимство в России выросло почти в десять раз (Bribe-taking in Russia has increased by nearly ten times) Финансовые известия July 21, 2005.
  79. ^ Energy Revenues and Corruption Increase in Russia Voice of America 13 July 2006.
  80. ^ Чума-2005: коррупция Argumenty i Fakty № 29 (1290) July 2005
  81. ^ Russia: Bribery Thriving Under Putin, According To New Report Radio Liberty July 22, 2005
  82. ^ Putin, the Kremlin power struggle and the $40bn fortune The Guardian Dec 21, 2007
  83. ^ Duma approves old Soviet anthem CNN, December 8, 2000.
  84. ^ National anthem of Russian Federation, StateSymbol.Ru
  85. ^ Lynch, Dov (2005). "The enemy is at the gate": Russia after Beslan. International Affairs 81 (1), 141–161.
  86. ^ Putin tightens grip on security, BBC News, September 13, 2004.
  87. ^ Page, Jeremy. Analysis: punished for his political ambitions. The Times. Retrieved on 2007-12-27.
  88. ^ How to Steal Legally. by Tim Osborne The Moscow Times February 15, 2008. Issue 3843. Page 8.
  89. ^ Putin’s Gamble. Where Russia is headed. by Nikolas Gvosdev www.nationalreview.com November 05, 2003.
  90. ^ Putin's Kremlin Asserting More Control of Economy. Yukos Case Reflects Shift on Owning Assets, Notably in Energy. by Peter Baker Washington Post July 9, 2004.
  91. ^ What Putin Stands For. Planes, uranium, tanks, infrastructure, and nuclear power for sale. by Reuben F. Johnson Weekly Standard April 23, 2007, Volume 012, Issue 30
  92. ^ Abramovich Beyond Sibneft. by Heidi Brown Forbes October 12, 2005.
  93. ^ Газнефтепром Нефтегазовая Вертикаль journal.
  94. ^ Sibneft Deal May Just Be the Start. By Valeria Korchagina The Moscow Times September 30, 2005.
  95. ^ $13 billion Sibneft deal fulfills Gazprom quest. By Andrew Kramer International Herald Tribune September 29, 2005.
  96. ^ David Linley wooed by ‘Kremlin’s cashier’. Billionaire friend of Putin set to buy stake in viscount’s furniture business. by Nick Fielding The Sunday Times January 13, 2008.
  97. ^ Sovereignty is a Political Synonym of Competitiveness Vladislav Surkov, public appear, 7 February 2006
  98. ^ Our Russian Model of Democracy is Titled «Sovereign Democracy» Vladislav Surkov, briefing, 28 June 2006.
  99. ^ Putin's "Sovereign Democracy"
  100. ^ Putin’s ‘sovereign democracy’ looks familiar. Putin’s near-autocratic power resembles the old Soviet Union to opponents. By Jim Maceda NBC News March 30, 2007.
  101. ^ CPJ calls on Putin to take responsibility for Politkovskaya murder probe - Committee to Protect Journalists
  102. ^ http://www.cpj.org/Killed.database.FINAL.03.29.07.xls
  103. ^ Putin's Russia failed to protect this brave woman, Joan Smith.
  104. ^ Anna Politkovskaya, Prominent Russian Journalist, Putin Critic and Human Rights Activist, Murdered in Moscow, Democracy Now
  105. ^ Answers on questions asked during interview to ARD TV channel (Germany), Dresden, 10 October 2006
  106. ^ It Must Be Profitable Not to Receive Bribes, Izvestia, April 3, 2008
  107. ^ Paying for a Play on Putin's Name. by Francesca Mereu The Moscow Times January 15, 2008. Issue 3820. Page 1.
  108. ^ Source: 82% of Russians Approve TV Censorship, Russian Development Portal, 24 June 2005
  109. ^ a b c Interview with Newspaper Journalists from G8 Member Countries, June 4, 2007, full official transcript.
  110. ^ Putin: I Am the World's Only 'Pure Democrat'[dead link] by Jim Heintz (Associated Press). The Guardian, June 4, 2007.
  111. ^ Constitution of Russia, Section One, Chapter Four.
  112. ^ Putin Dissolves Government, Nominates Viktor Zubkov as New Prime Minister
  113. ^ Election Preliminary Results for United Russia[dead link], December 4, 2007, Rbc.ru
  114. ^ Preliminary results of voting, Retrieved on December 4, 2007, Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation
  115. ^ Russians Voted In Favour of Putin, December 4, 2007, Izvestia.ru
  116. ^ Assenters' March, December 3, 2007, Izvestia.ru
  117. ^ Owen Matthews; Anna Nemtsova (2007-12-01). Under A Quiet Surface. Forget democracy. The real Russian politics rages in the Kremlin. (English). Newsweek. Retrieved on 2007-12-12. “In the last eight years we have created a very solid Soviet-style bureaucratic elite, with their own codes and speaking the same language.”
  118. ^ The secret policeman's election.. The Economist (December 6th 2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  119. ^ Neil Buckley; Catherine Belton (2007-12-12). An apparatchik president? Why Russia expects Putin to stay on at Medvedev’s side (English). Financial Times. Retrieved on 2007-12-13. “One former insider says the tussles looked as if the siloviki were paving the way for a takeover of power.”
  120. ^ The man who wants to buy back Russia. by Catherine Belton Financial Times December 20, 2007.
  121. ^ Виктор Ядуха. Сеанс с разоблачением. Борьба кремлевских группировок переходит в новую стадию. РБК Daily Dec 3, 2007
  122. ^ Сергей Баймухаметов. Шварцман выдал тайну Маркетинг и консалтинг News Agency 07 декабря 2007.
  123. ^ Роман Шлейнов. Явление Шварцмана народу Novaya Gazeta № 93 Dec 6, 2007.
  124. ^ В поисках нарушений: Генпрокуратура проверит Следственный комитет. NEWSru.com Dec 14, 2007.
  125. ^ Популяры вместо оптиматов. Оппозиция в России может быть только новой и левой. Vremya Novostei № 230 December 14, 2007.
  126. ^ Putin’s pyramid. by Arkady Ostrovsky The Ecjnjmist From The World in 2008 print edition.
  127. ^ Purge or Coup? by Anders Åslund The Moscow Times January 9, 2008.
  128. ^ The Master of Bluff. by Gregory Feifer The Moscow Times February 5, 2008. Issue 3835. Page 10.
  129. ^ Выступление на расширенном заседании Государственного совета «О стратегии развития России до 2020 года». RF President's official web site, February 8, 2008.
  130. ^ Итоги недели. Блестящее будущее осажденной крепости. by Alexander Golts Yezhednevny Zhurnal Feb 8, 2008.
  131. ^ Putin vows 'arms race' response. BBC 8 February 2008.
  132. ^ Будущий премьер Путин намерен лично контролировать губернаторов NEWSru.com April 30, 2008.
  133. ^ Губернаторов начальник. Будущий премьер намерен лично контролировать региональных руководителей (The chief of governors. The future premier intends to personally check regional leaders.) Nezavisimaya gazeta April 30, 2008.
  134. ^ Medvedev is new Russian president Al Jazeera Retrieved on May 7, 2008
  135. ^ РОЗНИЧНЫЙ ПОДХОД. Российские банки борются за частников
  136. ^ Ежегодно объем потребительского кредитования в России удваивается
  137. ^ ОСНОВНЫЕ СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ИНДИКАТОРЫ УРОВНЯ ЖИЗНИ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ
  138. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Russia
  139. ^ Rosstat Confirms Record GDP Growth Kommersant Retrieved on May 5, 2008
  140. ^ a b c 43rd Munich Conference on Security Policy. Putin's speech in English, February 10, 2007.
  141. ^ Interview for Indian Television Channel Doordarshan and Press Trust of India News Agency, January 18, 2007.
  142. ^ Stand Up to Putin. by Robert Kagan The Washington Post September 15, 2004
  143. ^ The myth of Putin's success. By Michael McFaul and Kathryn Stoner-Weiss IHT December 13, 2007
  144. ^ Merkel cools Berlin Moscow ties BBC News 16 January 2006
  145. ^ McCain, John (November/December 2007, Vol 86, Number 6). An Enduring Peace Built on Freedom // Revitalizing the Transatlantic Partnership. Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
  146. ^ Clinton, Hillary (November/December 2007, Vol 86, Number 6). Security and Opportunity for the Twenty-first Century // Security Through Statesmanship. Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
  147. ^ a b Clinton: Putin Has No Soul. Reuters report via The St. Petersburg Times Issue #1337 (1) January 9, 2008.
  148. ^ a b "Что касается различных слухов по поводу денежного состояния, я смотрел некоторые бумажки на этот счёт: просто болтовня, которую нечего обсуждать, просто чушь. Все выковыряли из носа и размазали по своим бумажкам. Вот так я к этому и отношусь." The President's annual press conference for the Russian and foreign media, February 14, 2008, Kremlin.ru
  149. ^ David Holley. "Russian Orthodox Church ends 80-year split", Los Angeles Times, May 17, 2007. [dead link]
  150. ^ Annual Address to the Federal Assembly, April 26, 2007, Kremlin, Moscow
  151. ^ Lavrov Announced Conditions of Resuming CFE Observance, December 3, 2007, Izvestia.ru
  152. ^ Russia walks away from CFE arms treaty. AFP via Yahoo! News (December 12, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  153. ^ Russia Suspends Participation In CFE Treaty. Radio Liberty (December 12, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  154. ^ US 'deeply regrets' Russia's 'wrong' decision on CFE. AFP (December 12, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  155. ^ Putin poised to freeze arms pact as assertiveness grows. Financial Times (December 12, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  156. ^ Speech at the Military Parade Celebrating the 62nd Anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War, Red Square, Moscow, May 9, 2007
  157. ^ Putin is playing a dangerous game By Anne Applebaum, 05/06/2007
  158. ^ a b A blundering Bush, Tsar Putin, and the question: will we, in this century, have to fight Russia? by Max Hastings, June 5, 2007, Daily Mail
  159. ^ a b No wonder they like Putin by Norman Stone, December 4, 2007, The Times
  160. ^ Munich Conference on Security Policy, As Delivered by Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates Munich, Germany February 11, 2007
  161. ^ Press Conference following the end of the G8 Summit, June 8, 2007
  162. ^ Doug Sanders, "Putin threatens to target Europe with missiles", The Globe and Mail, June 2, 2007
  163. ^ Asymmetrical Iskander missile systems, RIA Novosti, November 15, 2007
  164. ^ a b c Gonzalo Vina and Sebastian Alison. "Brown Defends Russian Expulsions, Decries Killings", Bloomberg News, July 20, 2007. 
  165. ^ David Miliband's oral statement to the Commons on the Litvinenko case, July 16, 2007
  166. ^ Lugovoi Has Disclosed Next Martyr, August 29, 2007
  167. ^ London Proposes to Moscow Changing Constitution, July 17, 2007
  168. ^ a b John Lennon on Russian Constitution, August 17, 2007
  169. ^ VCIOM: Russians Oppose Lugovoi Extradition to Brits[dead link], Rbc.ru, August 21, 2007
  170. ^ British Ambassador Suggests Russia Interprets Its Constitution In New Ways, Gorod.lv, July 23, 2007
  171. ^ Excerpts from Transcript of Meeting with Members of Russian Youth Organisations, July 24, 2007, In Russian
  172. ^ Excerpts from Transcript of Meeting with Members of Russian Youth Organisations, July 24, 2007, In English
  173. ^ In full: Litvinenko statement, BBC News, November 24, 2006
  174. ^ Soviet Moonwalker is Guilty for Litvinenko Death? Strange Litvinenko Last Will, Izvestia, November 27, 2006
  175. ^ Is Putin being set up?, Townhall.com, November 27, 2006
  176. ^ Joint Press Conference after Russia-EU Summit, Helsinki, Finland, November 24, 2006
  177. ^ Russia suspends British Council regional offices. Reuters (December 10, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  178. ^ a b Press Statement following the Peace Mission 2007 Counterterrorism Exercises and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Summit, August 17, 2007, Chelyabinsk Region
  179. ^ a b Russia restores Soviet-era strategic bomber patrols, August 17, 2007, RIA Novosti, Russia
  180. ^ a b SCO Scares NATO, August 8, 2007, KM.ru
  181. ^ Russia Over Three Oceans, August 20, 2007, "Chas", Latvia
  182. ^ Beginning of Meeting with Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov, December 5, 2007, Kremlin.ru
  183. ^ Guy Faulconbridge. Russian navy to start sorties in Mediterranean Reuters December 5, 2007.
  184. ^ Mike Eckel. Russian navy group goes to Mediterranean [dead link] Associated Press December 5, 2007.
  185. ^ Russia's Navy Has Resumed Presence in World Ocean Vzglyad.ru (Russian) December 5, 2007.
  186. ^ Павел Фельгенгауэр. Семь честных слов под килем Novaya Gazeta № 95 December 13, 2007.
  187. ^ Russia Courts Indonesia
  188. ^ a b Putin: Iran Has Right to Develop Peaceful Nuclear Programme[dead link], October 16, 2007, Rbc.ru
  189. ^ "Putin's warning to the U.S.", Reuters, October 16, 2007. 
  190. ^ Putin Positive on Second Caspian Summit Results, Meets With Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, October 16, 2007, Kremlin.ru
  191. ^ Visit to Iran. Second Caspian Summit, October 15-16, 2007, Kremlin.ru
  192. ^ Vladimir Putin defies assassination threats to make historic visit to Tehran, October 16, 2007, The Times (In Russian)
  193. ^ Vladimir Putin defies assassination threats to make historic visit to Tehran, October 16, 2007, The Times (In English)
  194. ^ Answer to a Question at the Joint Press Conference Following the Second Caspian Summit, October 16, 2007, Tehran, Kremlin.ru
  195. ^ Press Statement and Answers to Questions following the 20th Russia-European Union Summit, October 26, 2007, Mafra, Portugal, Kremlin.ru
  196. ^ Russia Will Finance European Democracy, October 29, 2007, Izvestia.ru
  197. ^ Putin: supports for Kosovo unilateral independence "immoral, illegal". Xinhua (2008-02-14). Retrieved on 2008-02-25.
  198. ^ Putin: Kosovo case terrible precedent. Press TV (2008-02-22). Retrieved on 2008-02-25.
  199. ^ EU's Solana rejects Putin's criticism over Kosovo's independence. IRNA (2008-02-23). Retrieved on 2008-02-25.
  200. ^ New Europe, Old Russia. By Robert Kagan The Washington Post February 6, 2008.
  201. ^ Divide, rule or waffle The Economist May 1st 2008.
  202. ^ Russia's economic might: spooky or soothing?
  203. ^ www.russiavotes.org
  204. ^ Putin Cements His Grip, October 6, 2007, The Washington Post
  205. ^ Quarter of Russians Think Living Standards Improved During Putin's Rule, Oprosy.info, March 27, 2007
  206. ^ Living Standards of Russians Improved, October 10, 2007, RBC Daily
  207. ^ a b Putin the Terrible, we love you, May 27, 2007, The Sunday Times
  208. ^ Major Russian TV Station is Accused of Censorship
  209. ^ Dissent and satire still alive in Russia
  210. ^ Russia as friend, not foe Asia Times Retrieved on May 1, 2008
  211. ^ Russia: 'Nezavisimaya Gazeta' is Worth Watching Again
  212. ^ Yaroslav Ognev: InoSMI Reader Is Inosmified Person, November 30, 2007, InoSMI.ru
  213. ^ From Those Putin Would Weaken, Praise
  214. ^ 50% Good News Is the Bad News in Russian Radio
  215. ^ Russian Media Criticism of Vladimir Putin: Evidence and Significance
  216. ^ Russians Support Putin’s Re-Nationalization of Oil, Control of Media, But See Democratic Future - World Public Opinion.org
  217. ^ Russia through the looking-glass openDemocracy Retrieved on April 16 2008
  218. ^ Kasparov, Building Opposition to Putin
  219. ^ BBC NEWS | Europe | Garry Kasparov jailed over rally
  220. ^ Putin moves against Kasparov and the 'white knight' revolution
  221. ^ VCIOM: Dissenters' Marches Do Not Interest Russians, Regnum.ru, July 3, 2007
  222. ^ There Were Fewer Dissenters' March Participants Than Journalists, RIA News Agency, May 18, 2007
  223. ^ Joint press conference after Russia-EU summit, Samara, May 18, 2007
  224. ^ 100 People Arrested During Dissenters' March in St. Petersburg, Izvestia, March 5, 2007
  225. ^ a b Guests from Moscow, RG.ru, March 5, 2007
  226. ^ Interview with Time Magazine, published on December 19, 2007, Kremlin.ru (in English)
  227. ^ Interview with Time Magazine, published on December 19, 2007, Kremlin.ru (in Russian)
  228. ^ Putin attacks the West, opponents
  229. ^ Unity of Forum and Content
  230. ^ Michael Hammerschlag. "Putin's children", International Herald Tribune, July 5, 2007. 
  231. ^ Interview with Vasily Yakemenko, Gzt. Ru, January 26, 2006
  232. ^ Discussion of speech freedom at Russian Radio Freedom, April 19, 2005
  233. ^ 'Putin Youth' opens new campaign against British interests, December 6, 2007, The Times
  234. ^ Thousands march in latest youth rally for Putin, December 6, 2007, San Diego Union Tribune
  235. ^ Putin’s fanatical youth brigade targets Britain, September 2, 2007, The Sunday Times
  236. ^ Pro-Putin Youth Group Looks To Preempt Postelection Rallies, November 30, 2007, Radio Free Europe
  237. ^ Pro-Putin youth out to take Duma by storm, November 25, 2007, Telegraph
  238. ^ Putin's young 'brownshirts'. By Cathy Young The Boston Globe August 10, 2007.
  239. ^ Sex for the motherland: Russian youths encouraged to procreate at camp. By Edward Lucas The Daily Mail 29th July 2007.
  240. ^ Is Putin the bully leading Russia into fascism? by Michael Binyon The Times June 5, 2007.
  241. ^ The alarming spread of fascism in Putin’s Russia. by Gavin Knight New Statesman 24 July 2007.
  242. ^ What the Russian papers say RIA Novosti Retrieved on April 22, 2008
  243. ^ "For the Sake of One Man". By Bret Stephens Wall Street Journal July 17, 2007.
  244. ^ Person of the Year 2007. by Adi Ignatius Time
  245. ^ Choosing Order Before Freedom by Richard Stengel Time December 31, 2007.
  246. ^ Putin Named Time "Person of the Year" Google News
  247. ^ Man of the Year? by Garry Kasparov The Wall Street Journal December 22, 2007.
  248. ^ И это 'Человек года'? Russian translation of Kasparov's article in The Wall Street Journal.
  249. ^ Did we get it right? Time's talkback.
  250. ^ Vladimir Putin by Madeleine Albright Time (magazine) Retrieved on May 1, 2008
  251. ^ Gorbachev Applauds Putin's Achievements. By Doug Struck The Washington Post December 5, 2007.
  252. ^ Горбачев считает, что избирательная система в РФ нуждается в совершенствовании. M. Gorbachev's interview on The Gorbachev Foundation website.
  253. ^ Gorbachev, Rebuking Putin, Criticizes Russian Elections. By C. J. Chivers New York Times January 29, 2008.
  254. ^ A Potemkin Election. Russia's presidential campaign takes on a distinctly Soviet flavor. The Washington Post January 30, 2008.
  255. ^ Russia. Events of 2007 Human Rights Watch website
  256. ^ Rights Group Calls Putin a 'Brutal' Leader. The Moscow Times February 4, 2008. Issue 3834. Page 5.
  257. ^ Shaun Walker, in The Independent, quoting Moskovsky Korrespondent. A president, the gymnast and marriage rumours that won't go away. Retrieved on 2008-04-18.
  258. ^ "Putin denies tabloid report about plans to marry former champion gymnast", International Herald Tribune, 2008-04-18. Retrieved on 2008-04-18. 
  259. ^ Putin says no truth in report he plans to wed former gymnast half his age Retrieved on April 18 2008
  260. ^ a b c Richard Sakwa (2004). Putin: Russia's Choice. London: Routledge. 
  261. ^ a b Timothy J. Colton, Michael MacFaul (2003). Popular Choice and Managed Democracy: the Russian elections of 1999 and 2000. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution. 
  262. ^ Russian President Vladimir Putin Discusses Domestic and Foreign Affairs Larry King Live, September 8, 2000.
  263. ^ Piety's Comeback as a Kremlin Virtue. By Alexander Osipovich The Moscow Times February 12, 2008. Page 1.
  264. ^ Bush and Putin: Best of friends. BBC 16 June, 2001.
  265. ^ Putin Q&A: Full Transcript Time Magazine Retrieved on March 22, 2008
  266. ^ Wagner, Hans (June 30, 2006). Das Konfliktpotential mit den USA wächst (German). Retrieved on 2007-03-29.
  267. ^ Putin treated royally on historic London visit
  268. ^ http://media.kremlin.ru/2007_07_04_01_01.wmv
  269. ^ ЦИК зарегистрировал список "ЕР" Rossiyskaya Gazeta N 4504 27 October 2007 (Russian)
  270. ^ ЦИК раскрыл доходы Путина Vzglyad 26 October 2007
  271. ^ Corwin, Julie A. (13 February 2004). Do not attempt to adjust your set.. RFE/RL Reports. Radio Free Europe. Retrieved on 2007-12-10.
  272. ^ Ирина Романчева (2004-02-03). Рыбкин собрал компромат на президента. Экс-глава Совбеза России «рассекречивает» бизнесменов из кремлевского окружения. (Russian). Nezavisimaya Gazeta newspaper. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. “Now it is Putin who is Russia's biggest business oligarch.”
  273. ^ Quiring, Von Manfred (12 November 2007). Warum Putin gar nicht Präsident bleiben will. Die Welt. Retrieved on 2007-12-04.
  274. ^ Jonas Bernstein (2007-11-19). Staniskav Belkovsky: PUTIN WILL LEAVE POWER COMPLETELY (English). The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
  275. ^ Gennadi Timchenko: Russia's most low-profile billionaire Sobesednik № 10, March 7, 2007
  276. ^ Миллиардер Тимченко, "друг Путина", стал одним из крупнейших в мире продавцов нефти. NEWSru.com 1 ноября 2007 г.
  277. ^ Vladimir Pribylovsky and Yuri Felshtinsky) The Age of Assassins. The Rise and Rise of Vladimir Putin, Gibson Square Books, London, 2008, ISBN 190-614207-6; pages 299-300.
  278. ^ Putin, the Kremlin power struggle and the $40bn fortune. by Luke Harding The Guardian December 21, 2007.
  279. ^ The World's Billionaires. Retrieved on 2007-11-01.
  280. ^ Finance magazine 2007 (January 2007). Rating of Russian Billionaires (Russian). FinansMag.ru. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
  281. ^ Vladimir Putin: the NPR interview U.S. radio station National Public Radio New York (November 15, 2001)
  282. ^ Putin, Vladimir V.; Vasilii Shestakov, Alexey Levitsky, Aleksei Levitskii (July 2004). Judo: History, Theory, Practice. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-445-6. 
  283. ^ Tom Ross. Presidential Judo. FightingArts.com.
  284. ^ Template:Lang fr iconVideo Chirac décore Poutine
  285. ^ Putin goes calling on the Saudis - The Hindu
  286. ^ (Russian)Putin Receives Top UAE's Decoration, Order of Zayed, Rbc.ru, September 10, 2007
  287. ^ "A Global Player" in the Expert magazine.
  288. ^ Time: Person of the Year 2007
  289. ^ a b Interview with NBC Television Channel (USA) (July 12, 2006).
  290. ^ Putin has fun with Cheney hunting accident.
  291. ^ White House Press Conference (July 13, 2006).
  292. ^ Press Conference Following Talks with U.S. President George W. Bush (July 15, 2006).
  293. ^ Transcript of Press Conference with the Russian and Foreign Media, February 1, 2007
  294. ^ Moscow Pride Banned Again.
  295. ^ Meeting with Members of the Valdai International Discussion Club, September 2007, Kremlin. Ru

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This article is about the city in Germany. ... Modern Izvestia logo Old Izvestia logo. ... The Moscow Times is an English-language daily newspaper published in Moscow, Russia since 1992. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... Novaya Gazeta (Russian: ) is a Russian newspaper. ... Newsru [1] is an online Russian news web site. ... Vremya Novostei is a Moscow-based liberal, reformist, but pro-government daily newspaper. ... Anders Ã…slund is a Swedish economist and expert on economic transition from centrally planned to market economies. ... The Moscow Times is an English-language daily newspaper published in Moscow, Russia since 1992. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The Moscow Times is an English-language daily newspaper published in Moscow, Russia since 1992. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Nezavisimaya Gazeta (Независимая Газета; independent newspaper) is a Russian language daily newspaper, published by Izvestiya. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (الجزيرة), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ... Kommersant (Cyrillic: Коммерса́нтъ) (which literally translates as The Businessman) is a commerce-oriented newspaper published in Russia. ... The Munich Conference on Security Policy was founded in 1962 by German publisher Ewald von Kleist under the title Wehrkundetagung. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... AFP logo Paris headquarters of AFP Charles Havas Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the oldest news agency in the world, and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. ... Yahoo! News is an Internet-based news aggregator provided by Yahoo!. It features Top Stories, U.S. National, World, Business, Entertainment, Science, Health, Weather, Most Popular, News Photos, Op/Ed, and Local news. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AFP logo Paris headquarters of AFP Charles Havas Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the oldest news agency in the world, and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Anne Applebaum (born 1964) is a journalist and author who has written extensively about issues related to communism and the development of civil society in Eastern Europe and the USSR / Russia. ... Sir Max Hastings (born December 28, 1945) is a British journalist, editor, historian and author. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Norman Stone (1941-) is a British historian of modern Europe, especially Central and Eastern Europe. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Globe and Mail is a Canadian English-language nationally distributed newspaper, based in Toronto and printed in six cities across the country. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Modern Izvestia logo Old Izvestia logo. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Novaya Gazeta (Russian: ) is a Russian newspaper. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Kagan (born September 26, 1958) is an American neoconservative scholar and political commentator. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Asia Times Online is an Internet-only publication that reports and examines geopolitical, political, economic and business issues, looking at these from an Asian perspective. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... openDemocracy is a website for debate about international politics and culture. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cathy Young Cathy Young (Ekaterina Jung) was born in the Soviet Union in 1963. ... The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and New England. ... Edward Lucas is an American film director. ... The Daily Mail is a British newspaper, currently published in a tabloid format. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... RIA (Russian Information Agency) Novosti is a Russian press agency based in Moscow. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... TIME redirects here. ... Richard Rick Stengel is TIME’s 16th Managing Editor. ... TIME redirects here. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Garry Kasparov (Russian: ; Russian pronunciation: , Armenian: [1]) (born as Garri Kimovich Weinstein [2] on April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR; now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... TIME redirects here. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... The Moscow Times is an English-language daily newspaper published in Moscow, Russia since 1992. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Larry King Live is a nightly CNN interview program hosted by broadcaster and writer Larry King. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Moscow Times is an English-language daily newspaper published in Moscow, Russia since 1992. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rossiyskaya Gazeta is a Russian government daily newspaper. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the radio broadcast service. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Die Welt is a German national daily newspaper published by the Axel Springer company. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vladimir Valerianovich Pribylovsky (Russian: , b. ... Yuri Felshtinsky (b. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NPR redirects here. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For followers of Hinduism, see Hindu. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Vladimir Putin
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Vladimir Putin
  • The official site of the President of the Russian Federation
  • Speeches by the President at the official website.
  • Artiom Malgin, Jaroslav Skvortsov, Alexandr Tchechevishnikov (Moscow State Institute of International Relations, MGIMO); published by the Foundation Institute for Eastern Studies, Warsaw: Aims, Priorities and Tasks: Attempt at a Systematic Analysis of the Presidential Speeches In Russia (2000 – 2005), XV Economic Forum Krynica 7–10 September, 2005
  • The Accidental Autocrat, in The Atlantic Monthly, March 2005 (may require subscription)
  • Russia as friend, not foe, in Asia Times by Nicolai N. Petro, February 2007
  • Russia's Foreign Policy in a resurgent mode: An Analysis
  • Transcript of the Interactive Webcast[dead link] with the President, July 6, 2006 (BBC version).
  • RussianSpy: Vladimir Putin
  • BBC – Vladimir Putin: Spy turned politician
  • CBNnews.com – Putin: Russia’s Next Czar?
  • Putin and his judo activities
  • Transcript of an interview with Larry King, September 2000
  • Guardian — How I learned to love Vlad, by Nick P. Walsh
  • Russia - To Be Feared... For Now
  • Putin's Russia
  • Anatol Lieven. "Putin versus Cheney", International Herald Tribune, May 11, 2006. 
  • Putin's Duality by Ion Mihai Pacepa, FrontPageMagazine, August 5, 2005
  • Putin has been vilified by the West - but he is still a great leader, by John Laughland, Daily Mail, September 22, 2007
  • Putin Positions Himself for Influence, by Jason Bush, Business Week, September 12, 2007
  • An apparatchik president? Why Russia expects Putin to stay on at Medvedev’s side by Neil Buckley and Catherine Belton, Financial Times, December 11, 2007
  • In Like a Dove, Out Like a Hawk. By Nikolaus von Twickel The Moscow Times February 22, 2008. Issue 3848. Page 1.
Political offices
Preceded by
None
Head of the Committee for External Relations of the Saint Petersburg City Administration
1991 – 1996
Succeeded by
Gennadiy Tkachyov
Preceded by
Alexei Kudrin
Chief of the Control Directorate of the Russian presidential administration
1997 – 1998
Succeeded by
Nikolay Patrushev
Preceded by
Nikolay Kovalyov
Director of the Federal Security Service
1998 – 1999
Succeeded by
Nikolay Patrushev
Preceded by
Nikolai Bordyuzha
Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation
1999
Succeeded by
Sergei Ivanov
Preceded by
Sergei Stepashin
Prime Minister of Russia
1999 – 2000
Succeeded by
Mikhail Kasyanov
Preceded by
Boris Yeltsin
President of Russia
2000 – 2008
Acting: 1999 – 2000
Succeeded by
Dmitri Medvedev
Preceded by
Tony Blair
United Kingdom
Chair of the G8
2006
Succeeded by
Angela Merkel
Germany
Preceded by
Viktor Zubkov
Prime Minister of Russia
2008 – present
Incumbent
Persondata
NAME Putin, Vladimir
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 2nd President of the Russian Federation
DATE OF BIRTH October 7, 1952
PLACE OF BIRTH Leningrad, Soviet Union
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
The President of Russia (ru: Президент России) is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vladimir Putin News - The New York Times (1303 words)
Among intellectuals and advocates of a democratic Russia in the Western mode, a gnawing concern is arising that the relative freedom from state surveillance and restriction that citizens have relished in the last decade may be drawing to a close.
Vladimir V. Putin swore an oath today to ''respect and guard the human and civil rights'' of Russia and became, officially at last, its second president.
By CLIFFORD J. President Vladimir V. Putin is poised to extinguish the last embers of opposition in Russia’s Parliament.
Vladimir Putin, "Soviet man" who missed class | openDemocracy (1532 words)
Putin's answer to an Italian journalist who asked about the jailed oil tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky displayed the same mindset: "One must always obey the law, not only when they have you at a certain part" (these were his quoted words, though in reality he is believed to have named the "part").
Putin may be the first Russian-Soviet leader since Lenin to master a foreign tongue, but he has never bothered to learn the language of post-Soviet Russia, or to read its signals.
Putin missed the moments of awakening, the years full of hope as the Soviet empire crumbled, when millions took to the streets and democracy was a dream.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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