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Encyclopedia > Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
Владимир Ильич Ленин
Vladimir Lenin

In office
November 8, 1917 – January 21, 1924
Preceded by Alexander Kerensky (President of the Provisional Government)
Succeeded by Alexei Rykov
Joseph Stalin (General Secretary of the Communist Party)

Born April 22, 1870(1870-04-22) (OS)
Simbirsk, Russian Empire
Died January 21, 1924 (aged 53)
Gorki, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Nationality Russian
Political party Bolshevik Party
Spouse Nadezhda Krupskaya
Profession Politician, revolutionary
Religion Atheist

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Улья́нов), and also known by the pseudonyms VI Lenin, Nikolai Lenin and N. Lenin, (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870  – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader of the October Revolution, the first head of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic and from 1922, the first de facto leader of the Soviet Union. He was named by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.[1] His contributions to Marxist theory are commonly referred to as Leninism. Lenin can refer to: Vladimir Lenin, Russian revolutionary and premier; Lenin, a Soviet icebreaker. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lenin. ... An approximately chronological list of leaders of the Soviet Union (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Alexander Kerensky This article is about the Russian politician. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Alexei Ivanovich Rykov (Russian: Алексей Иванович Рыков, Aleksej Ivanovič Rykov; February 25 [O.S. February 13] 1881 – March 15, 1938) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and Soviet politician. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Ulyanovsk (Улья́новск, formerlySimbirsk (Симби́рск)) is a city on the Volga River in Russia. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Gorki Leninskiye (Russian: ) is an urban settlement located in Leninsky District of Moscow Oblast, 35 km south of Moscow, Russia. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Nadezhda Krupskaya Nadezhda K. Krupskaya ( February 26, 1869 - February 27, 1939) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the former... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) at three years of age.
Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) at three years of age.

Born in Simbirsk (renamed Ulyanovsk after its most famous son), in the Russian Empire, Lenin was the son of Ilya Nikolaevich Ulyanov and Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova.[2] His father was a successful Russian official in public education who wanted democracy. The family was of mixed ethnicity, his ancestry being “Russian, Mordovian, Kalmyk, Jewish (see Blank family), Volgan German, and Swedish, and possibly others” according to biographer Dmitri Volkogonov.[3] Lenin was baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 516 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1487 × 1727 pixel, file size: 387 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From a soviet postcard printed in 1947 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 516 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1487 × 1727 pixel, file size: 387 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From a soviet postcard printed in 1947 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries... Ulyanovsk (Russian: ), formerly Simbirsk (), is a city on the Volga River in Russia, 893 km east from Moscow. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov (Ульянов, Илья Николаевич in Russian) (31 July 1831 (OS 19 July), Astrakhan — 24 January 1886 (OS 12 January), Simbirsk) was a Russian public figure in the field of public education and a teacher. ... Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova (neé Blank) (Russian: ) (6 March [O.S. 22 February] 1835 — 25 July [O.S. 12 July] 1916) was Vladimir Lenins mother. ... // Public spending on education in 2005 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... The Mordvins (Mordva) are a people who speak languages of the Finno-Permic branch of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... The Republic of Kalmykia ( Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... Dmitri Antonovich Volkogonov (Дмитрий Антонович Волкогонов in Russian) (22 March 1928, Chita - 6 December 1995, Moscow) was a Russian historian, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of History, Colonel General (1986). ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...

Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) circa 1887.
Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) circa 1887.

In 1886, Lenin’s father, a schoolmaster, died of a cerebral hemorrhage, and, in May 1887, when Lenin was 17 years old, his eldest brother Alexander was arrested and hanged for participating in a terrorist bomb plot threatening the life of Tsar Alexander III. His sister Anna, who was with Alexander at the time of his arrest, was banished to his family estate in the village of Kokushkino, about 40 km (25 mi.) from Kazan. This event radicalized Lenin, and his official Soviet biographies describe it as being central to the revolutionary track of his life. It is also significant, perhaps, that this emotional upheaval transpired in the same year as that which saw him enroll at the Kazan State University. A famous painting by Piotr Belousov, We Will Follow a Different Path, reprinted in millions of Soviet textbooks, depicted young Lenin and his mother grieving the loss of his elder brother. The phrase “We will follow a different path” refers to Lenin's choosing a Marxist approach to popular revolution, instead of anarchist or individualist methods. As Lenin became interested in Marxism, he was involved in student protests and was subsequently arrested. He was then expelled from Kazan University for his political ideas. He continued to study independently, however, and it was during this period of exile that he first familiarized himself with Karl Marx’s Das Kapital. Lenin was later permitted to continue his studies, this time at the University of Saint Petersburg, and, by 1891, had been admitted to the Bar.[4] File links The following pages link to this file: Vladimir Lenin Categories: NowCommons ... File links The following pages link to this file: Vladimir Lenin Categories: NowCommons ... A intracranial hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ... Alexander Ulyanov Mugshot Aleksandr Ilyich Ulyanov (Александр Ильич Ульянов in Russian) (1866-May 8, 1887) was a Russian revolutionary, one of the leaders of Pervomartovtsi, older brother of V.I. Lenin. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 13 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova-Ulyanova (Russian: Анна Ильинична Елизарова-Ульянова) (26 August (O.S. 14 August), 1864, Nizhny Novgorod - October 19, 1935, Moscow) was a Russian revolutionary and a Soviet statesman. ... Lenino-Kokushkino (Tatar and Russian: ; ), informally called Apaqay (Tatar: ), is a village (selo) in Pestrechinsky District, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, located 10 km south of Pestretsy, districts administrative center. ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... The main bulding of the university, 19th century Kazan State University is located in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Michel Bakunin. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Das Kapital (Capital, in the English translation) is an extensive treatise on political economy written by Karl Marx in German. ... Saint Petersburg State University (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) is one of the oldest educational institutions in Russia, situated in the city of Saint Petersburg. ...


In January 1892 Lenin was awarded a first class degree in law by the University.[5] He also distinguished himself in Latin and Greek, and learned German, French and English. His knowledge of the latter two languages was limited: he relied on Inessa Armand to translate an article into French and into English in 1917. In the same year he also wrote to S. N. Ravich in Geneva “I am unable to lecture in French.”[6] For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Inessa Armand (born Inès Stéphane; May 8, 1874–September 24, 1920) was a French-born Communist who spent most of her life in Russia. ...


Revolutionary activity, travel and exile

Lenin’s mug shot, December 1895.
Lenin’s mug shot, December 1895.

Lenin practiced as a lawyer for some years in Samara, a port on the Volga river,[7] before moving to St Petersburg in 1893. Rather than pursuing a legal career, he became increasingly involved in revolutionary propaganda efforts, joining the local Marxist group. On December 7, 1895, Lenin was arrested, held by authorities for fourteen months and then released and exiled to the village of Shushenskoye in Siberia, where he mingled with such notable Marxists as Georgy Plekhanov, who had introduced socialism to Russia. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Al Capone. ... This article is about about the city in Russia. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... Revolutionary propaganda means dissemination of revolutionary ideas. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Shushenskoye (Шу́шенское) is a village in Siberia, Russia, in the south of Krasnoyarsk Krai, at the confluence of the Yenisei and Big Shush. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... G. V. Plekhanov Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (December 11, 1856 – May 30, 1918; Old Style: November 29, 1856 – May 17, 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician. ...


In July 1898, Lenin married socialist activist Nadezhda Krupskaya and he published the book The Development of Capitalism in Russia in April of 1899.[8] In 1900, his exile came to an end, and he began his travels throughout Russia and the rest of Europe. Lenin lived in Zurich, Geneva (where he lectured and studied at Geneva University), Munich, Prague, Vienna, Manchester and London, and, during this time, he co-founded the newspaper Iskra (“The Spark”) with Julius Martov, who later became a leading opponent. He also wrote several articles and books related to the revolutionary movement, striving to recruit future Social Democrats. He began using various aliases, finally settling upon "Lenin"—"N. Lenin" in full. Nadezhda Krupskaya Nadezhda K. Krupskaya ( February 26, 1869 - February 27, 1939) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... The University of Geneva (Université de Genève) is a university in Geneva, Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The first edition of Iskra Iskra (Spark) was a political newspaper of Russian socialist emigrants. ... Julius Martov or L. Martov (Ма́ртов, real name Yuli Osipovich Zederbaum (Russian Ю́лий О́сипович Цедерба́ум)) (November 24, 1873 – April 4, 1923) was born in Constantinople in 1873. ...


Lenin was active in the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP; РСДРП in Russian) and, in 1903, led the Bolshevik faction after a split with the Mensheviks. The names ‘Bolshevik’, or ‘Majority’, and ‘Menshevik’, or ‘Minority’, referred to the narrow outvoting of the Mensheviks in the decision to limit party membership to revolutionary professionals, rather than including sympathizers. The division was inspired partly by Lenin’s pamphlet What Is to Be Done? (1901–02), which focused on his revolutionary strategy. It is said to have been one of the most influential pamphlets in pre-revolutionary Russia, with Lenin himself claiming that three out of five workers had either read it or had had it read to them.[9] The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Па́ртия = РСДРП), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party, was a revolutionary socialist Russian political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organisations into one party. ... This article is about the Bolshevik faction in the RSDLP 1903-1912. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... What Is to Be Done? (Russian: ) was a political pamphlet, written by Vladimir Lenin at the end of 1901 and early 1902. ...


In November 1905 Lenin returned from exile to Russia to support the 1905 Russian Revolution.[10] In 1906, Lenin was elected to the Presidium of the RSDLP. At this time he shuttled between Finland and Russia but, in December 1907, with the revolution crushed by the Tsarist authorities, he returned back to European exile.[11] Until the revolutions of 1917, he spent the majority of his time exiled in Europe, where, despite relative poverty, he managed to continue his political writings.[12] Soviet propaganda poster portraying the 1905 revolution. ...


In response to philosophical debates on the proper course of a socialist revolution, Lenin completed Materialism and Empirio-criticism in 1909—a work which became fundamental in the Marxist-Leninist philosophy. Lenin continued to travel in Europe and participated in many socialist meetings and activities, including the Prague Party Conference of 1912. When Inessa Armand left Russia and settled in Paris, she met Lenin and other Bolsheviks living in exile, and it is believed that she was Lenin’s lover during this time. As writer Neil Harding points out however, although much has been made of this relationship, despite the “slender stock of evidence … we still have no evidence that they were sexually intimate”.[13] A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, typically with socialism (state or worker ownership over the means of production) as an intermediate stage. ... Materialism and Empiriocriticism (Материализм и эмпириокритицизм in Russian) is a major philosophical work by Vladimir Lenin published in 1909. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The failure of the attempt to secure unity convinced Lenin of the need for a clean break. ... Inessa Armand (born Inès Stéphane; May 8, 1874–September 24, 1920) was a French-born Communist who spent most of her life in Russia. ...

2006 photo of Lenin’s rented house in Zurich, Switzerland.
2006 photo of Lenin’s rented house in Zurich, Switzerland.
1920 photo of the house.
1920 photo of the house.

When the First World War began in 1914, and the large Social Democratic parties of Europe (at that time self-described as Marxist, and including luminaries such as Karl Kautsky) supported their various countries’ war efforts, Lenin was absolutely stunned, refusing to believe at first that the German Social Democrats had voted for war credits. This led him to a final split with the Second International, which was composed of these parties. Lenin (against the war in his belief that the peasants and workers were fighting the battle of the bourgeoisie for them) adopted the stance that what he described as an “imperialist war” ought to be turned into a civil war between the classes. As war broke out, Lenin was briefly detained by the Austrian authorities in the town of Poronin, where he was residing at the time. On 5 September 1914 Lenin moved to neutral Switzerland, residing first at Berne and then Zurich.[14] In 1915 he attended the anti-war Zimmerwald Conference, convened in the Swiss town of that name. Lenin was the main leader of the minority Zimmerwald Left, who unsuccessfully urged against the majority pacifists that the conference should adopt Lenin's stance of converting the imperialist war into a class war. Lenin and the Zimmerwald Left urged a similar resolution at the next anti-war conference, also held in Switzerland at Kienthal (24-30 April 1916), but in the end settled for a compromise manifesto.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 461 KB) This picture shows the house where Lenin wrote the Russian Revolution in present day Zurich, Switzerland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 461 KB) This picture shows the house where Lenin wrote the Russian Revolution in present day Zurich, Switzerland. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Karl Kautsky (October 16, 1854 - October 17, 1938) was a leading theoretician of social democracy. ... The Second International was an organization formed in 1889 (after several years of preparation) by socialist and labour parties who wished to work together for international socialism. ... Poronin is a village in southern Poland situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999 (it was previously in Nowy SÄ…cz Voivodeship from 1975-1998). ... For other uses, see Berne (disambiguation). ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from September 5 through September 8, 1915. ... The Zimmerwald Left was a revolutionary minority fraction at the Zimmerwald Peace Conference of 1915, headed by Lenin. ...


It was in Zurich in the spring of 1916 that Lenin wrote the important theoretical work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.[16] In this work Lenin argues that the merging of banks and industrial cartels give rise to finance capital. According to Lenin, in the last stage of capitalism, in pursuit of greater profits than the home market can offer, capital is exported. This leads to the division of the world between international monopolist firms and to European states colonizing large parts of the world in support of their businesses. Imperialism is thus an advanced stage of capitalism, one relying on the rise of monopolies and on the export of capital (rather than goods), and of which colonialism is one feature.[17] Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916) by Vladimir Lenin is a classic Marxist theoretical treatise on the relationship between capitalism and imperialism. ... Financial capital, or economic capital, is any liquid medium or mechanism that represents wealth, or other styles of capital. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Return to Russia

Locomotive of Lenin’s train, on which he arrived at Finland Station, Petrograd in April, 1917.
Locomotive of Lenin’s train, on which he arrived at Finland Station, Petrograd in April, 1917.

After the 1917 February Revolution in Russia and the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, Lenin realized that he must return to Russia as soon as possible, but this was problematic because he was isolated in neutral Switzerland as the First World War raged throughout neighboring states. The Swiss communist Fritz Platten nonetheless managed to negotiate with the German government for Lenin and his company to travel through Germany by rail, on the so-called “sealed train”. The German government clearly hoped Lenin’s return would create political unrest back in Russia, which would help to end the war on the Eastern front, allowing Germany to concentrate on defeating the Western allies. Once through Germany, Lenin continued by ferry to Sweden; the remainder of the journey through Scandinavia was subsequently arranged by Swedish communists Otto Grimlund and Ture Nerman. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 470 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1160 × 1480 pixel, file size: 489 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 470 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1160 × 1480 pixel, file size: 489 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Finland Rail Terminal (Russian: Финляндский вокзал) is a train station in St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The February Revolution in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... Lenin and Fritz Platten in 1919. ... railroads redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Otto Grimlund (1893 – 1969) was a Swedish Communist politician. ... Ture Nerman, passport photo Ture Nerman (May 18 , 1886 – October 7, 1969) was a Swedish Communist politician, and as a journalist and author, he was one of the most well-known political activists in his time. ...


On April 16, 1917, Lenin arrived by train to a tumultuous reception at Finland Station, in Petrograd.[18] He immediately took a leading role within the Bolshevik movement, publishing the April Theses,[19] which called for an uncompromising opposition to the provisional government. Initially, Lenin isolated his party through this lurch to the left. However, this uncompromising stand meant that the Bolsheviks were to become the obvious home for all those who became disillusioned with the provisional government, and with the “luxury of opposition” the Bolsheviks did not have to assume responsibility for any policies implemented by the government.[20] is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Finland Rail Terminal (Russian: Финляндский вокзал) is a train station in St. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... The Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returned to the capital of Russia, Petrograd, on April 3, 1917, just over a month following the February Revolution which had brought about the establishment of the liberal Provisional Government. ...

Lenin disguised as “Vilén”, wearing a wig and with his goatee shaved off. Finland, August 11, 1917.
Lenin disguised as “Vilén”, wearing a wig and with his goatee shaved off. Finland, August 11, 1917.

Meanwhile, Aleksandr Kerensky, Grigory Aleksinsky and other opponents of the Bolsheviks accused them and Lenin in particular of being paid German agents.[21] In response Leon Trotsky, a prominent new Bolshevik leader, made a defensive speech on July 17, saying: Image File history File links Lenin_05d. ... Image File history File links Lenin_05d. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky ( Russian:Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский) ( April 22, 1881 ( May 2, New Style) - June 11, 1970) was the second prime minister of the Russian Provisional Government, immediately before the Bolsheviks and Lenin came to power. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

An intolerable atmosphere has been created, in which you as well as we are choking. They are throwing dirty accusations at Lenin and Zinoviev. Lenin has fought thirty years for the revolution. I have fought twenty years against the oppression of the people. And we cannot but cherish a hatred for German militarism. … I have been sentenced by a German court to eight months’ imprisonment for my struggle against German militarism. This everybody knows. Let nobody in this hall say that we are hirelings of Germany.[22]

After the turmoil of the July Days, when workers and soldiers in the capital clashed with government troops, Lenin had to flee to Finland for safety, to avoid arrest by Kerensky. The Bolsheviks had not arranged the July Uprising. The time was still not ripe for revolution, claimed Lenin: the workers in the city were willing, but the Bolsheviks still needed to wait for the support of the peasants. During his short time in Finland, Lenin finished his book State and Revolution,[23] which called for a new form of government based on workers’ councils, or soviets elected and revocable at all moments by the workers. After an abortive coup attempt by General Kornilov in late August the masses rallied to the Bolsheviks and their programme of 'peace, bread and land'.[24]Imprisoned Bolshevik leaders were released and Lenin returned to Petrograd in October, inspiring the October Revolution with the slogan “All Power to the Soviets!” Lenin directed the overthrow of the Provisional Government from the Smolny Institute from the 6th to the 8th of November 1917. The storming and capitulation of the Winter Palace on the night of the 7th to 8th of November marked the beginning of Soviet rule. The July Days took place between July 4 and 7 July in 1917 in Russia when sailors and industrial workers of Petrograd rioted against the Russian Provisional Government. ... State and Revolution was a pamphlet written by Vladimir Lenin in August - September, 1917. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... The Kornilov Affair (Russian: Корниловщина, Kornilovshchina) was a confused struggle between Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army, General Lavr Kornilov and Aleksandr Kerensky in August/September, 1917, in between the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the October Revolution. ... Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (Russian: Лавр Георгиевич Корнилов) (August 18, 1870–April 13, 1918) was a senior Russian army general during World War I and the ensuing Russian Civil War. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... The Smolny Institute is the Neoclassical edifice in St Petersburg, which has played an important part in the Russian history. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ...


Head of the Soviet state

Lenin and his wife, in 1919.
Lenin and his wife, in 1919.

On November 8, 1917, Lenin was elected as the Chair of the Council of People’s Commissars by the Russian Congress of Soviets. is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Narodnykh Komissarov SSSR) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР; Predsedatel Soveta Ministrov SSSR) (1946-1991), who... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1993. ...


“Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the entire country,”[25] Lenin said, emphasizing the importance of bringing electricity to all corners of Russia and modernizing industry and agriculture:

We must show the peasants that the organization of industry on the basis of modern, advanced technology, on electrification which will provide a link between town and country, will put an end to the division between town and country, will make it possible to raise the level of culture in the countryside and to overcome, even in the most remote corners of land, backwardness, ignorance, poverty, disease, and barbarism.[26]

He initiated and supervised the devising and realization of the GOELRO plan, the first-ever Soviet project for national economic recovery and development. He was very concerned about creating a free universal health care system for all, the rights of women, and teaching the illiterate Russian people to read and write.[27] But first and foremost, the new Bolshevik government needed to take Russia out of the World War. GOELRO plan (Russian: план ГОЭЛРО) was the first ever Soviet plan of recovery and development of the state economy, a prototype of Five Year Plans. ... Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Faced with the imposing threat of a continuing German advance eastwards, Lenin argued that Russia should immediately sign a peace treaty. Other Bolshevik leaders, such as Bukharin, advocated continuing the war as a means of fomenting revolution in Germany. Trotsky, who led the negotiations, advocated an intermediate position, of “No War, No Peace”, calling for a peace treaty only on the conditions that no territorial gains on either side be consolidated. After the negotiations collapsed, the Germans renewed their advance, resulting in the loss of much of Russia’s western territory. As a result of this turn of events, Lenin’s position consequently gained the support of the majority in the Bolshevik leadership. On March 3, 1918, Lenin removed Russia from World War I by agreeing to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, under which Russia lost significant territories in Europe. This article is about the Bolshevik faction in the RSDLP 1903-1912. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin ( Russian: Николай Иванович Бухарин), ( October 9 ( September 27 Old Style) 1888 – March 13, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking...

Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin and Mikhail Kalinin, 1919.
Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin and Mikhail Kalinin, 1919.

The Russian Constituent Assembly was shut down during its first session January 19 and the Bolsheviks in alliance with the left Socialist Revolutionaries then relied on support from the soviets. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (880x456, 66 KB) Summary Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (880x456, 66 KB) Summary Source: http://www. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Mikhail Kalinin A 1919 image showing Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and Mikhail Kalinin (right) Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Russian: ) (November 19 [O.S. November 7] 1875 – June 3, 1946) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician. ... The Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное Собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye Sobranie) was a democratically elected constitutional body convened in Russia after the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II. It met for 13 hours, 4 p. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Essaires; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a Russian political party active in the early 20th century. ...


The Bolsheviks had formed a coalition government with the left wing of the Socialist Revolutionaries. However, their coalition collapsed after the Social Revolutionaries opposed the Brest-Litovsk treaty, and joined other parties in seeking to overthrow the Bolshevik government. Lenin responded to these efforts by a policy of wholesale persecution, which included jailing some of the members of the opposing parties. A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Essaires; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a Russian political party active in the early 20th century. ... The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest, formerly Brest-Litovsk, between Russia and the Central Powers, marking Russias exit from World War I. The treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year but is significant as a chief...


From early 1918, Lenin campaigned for a single individual (accountable to the state to which the workers could ask for measures) to be put in charge of each enterprise (workers having to obey him until it was changed by the state), contrary to most conceptions of workers' self-management, but absolutely essential for efficiency and expertise according to Lenin (it was argued by most proponents of self-management that the intention behind this move was to strengthen state control over labour and that the failures of self-management were mostly because of lack of resources —a problem the government itself could not solve as his licensing for a month of all workers of most factories proved). As S.A. Smith wrote: “By the end of the civil war, not much was left of the democratic forms of industrial administration promoted by the factory committees in 1917, but the government argued that this did not matter since industry had passed into the ownership of a workers’ state.” Poster for the Movimiento Nacional de Empresas Recuperadas (MNER), at a worker-recovered print shop, Chilavert Artes Gráficas in Buenos Aires, Argentina Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production... Some factual claims in this article need to be verified. ...


Lenin had a certain admiration for the Irish socialist revolutionary James Connolly, and the Soviet Union was the first country to recognize the Irish Republic which fought a war of independence against Britain. He would often meet with the famous revolutionary’s son, Roddy Connolly and developed a close friendship with him. For the Olympic athlete, see James Connolly (athletics). ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... Roddy Connolly (11 February 1901 - 16 December 1980). ...


Creation of the secret police

Main article: Cheka
Lenin in his Kremlin office, 1918.
Lenin in his Kremlin office, 1918.

To protect the newly-established Bolshevik government from counterrevolutionaries and other political opponents, the Bolsheviks created a secret police, the Cheka, in December 1917.[28] For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ... File links The following pages link to this file: Vladimir Lenin Categories: NowCommons ... File links The following pages link to this file: Vladimir Lenin Categories: NowCommons ...


The Bolsheviks had planned to hold a trial for the former Tsar, but in July 1918, when the White Army was advancing on Yekaterinburg where the former royal family was being held, Sverdlov acceded to the request of the local Soviet to execute the Tsar right away, rather than having him freed by the Whites. The Tsar and the rest of his immediate family were executed, though whether this was a decision of the central government or the local Soviet remains the subject of historical dispute. Lenin was informed about the execution only after it had taken place, but did not criticize it.[29] Censorship was quickly imposed, and it was up to the Cheka to confiscate the literature of dissident workers: “[On] 17 November the Central Executive Committee passed a decree giving the Bolsheviks control over all newsprint and wide powers of closing down newspapers critical of the regime…” (Leonard Shapiro, The Communist Party of the Soviet Union). Workers were re-forming independent soviets; the Cheka broke them up. Independent newspapers criticized Lenin’s government; the Cheka closed them down, until the Bolshevik-controlled Pravda and Izvestia had a monopoly on the supply of news. Shapiro asserts that “The refusal to come to terms with the socialists and the dispersal of the Constituent assembly led to the logical result that revolutionary terror would now be directed not only against traditional enemies, such as the bourgeoisie or right-wing opponents, but against anyone, be he socialist, worker or peasant, who opposed Bolshevik rule.” Nicholas II can refer to: Pope Nicholas II Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Yekaterinburg (Russian: , also romanized Ekaterinburg, formerly Sverdlovsk) is a major city in the central part of Russia, the administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast. ... Yakov Sverdlov Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov (Russian: Я́ков Миха́йлович Свердло́в), born Yankel Movshevich Eiman (Russian: Я́нкель Мовшевич Эйман); known under pseudonyms Andrey, Mikhalych, Max, Smirnov, Permyakov (June 3 [O.S. May 22] 1885 – March 16, 1919) was a Bolshevik party leader and an official of pre-Soviet Union Soviet Russia. ... For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ... Modern Izvestia logo Old Izvestia logo. ... A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ...


Assassination attempts

Lenin and Fritz Platten in 1919.
Lenin and Fritz Platten in 1919.

On January 14, 1918, an assassination attempt on Lenin was made in his car in Petrograd by unrecognizable gunmen. Lenin and Fritz Platten were in the back of the car together, after having given a public speech. When the shooting started, “Platten grabbed Lenin by the head and pushed him down. … Platten’s hand was covered in blood, having been grazed by a bullet as he was shielding Lenin.”[30] Image File history File links Lenin. ... Image File history File links Lenin. ... Lenin and Fritz Platten in 1919. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lenin and Fritz Platten in 1919. ...


On August 30, 1918, Fanya Kaplan, a member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, approached Lenin after he had spoken at a meeting and was on the way to his car. He had his foot on the running board. She called out to Lenin, who turned to answer. She immediately fired three shots hitting Lenin twice: one bullet, relatively harmless, lodged in the arm; the second round, more seriously entering at the juncture of Lenin’s jaw and neck, the third shot striking a woman who was talking with Lenin when the shooting began.[31] Lenin fell to the ground, unconscious. He was taken to his apartment in the Kremlin, refusing to venture to a hospital since he believed that other assassins would be waiting there. Doctors were summoned but decided that it was too dangerous to remove the bullets. While Lenin began his slow recovery Pravda ridiculed Kaplan as a latter-day Charlotte Corday; assuring its readers that immediately after the shooting: “Lenin, shot through twice, with pierced lungs, spilling blood, refuses help and goes on his own. The next morning, still threatened with death, he reads papers, listens, learns, and observes to see that the engine of the locomotive that carries us towards global revolution has not stopped working…”[32] Although Lenin had no “pierced lungs”, the potentially fatal neck-jaw wound had allowed blood to enter one of his lungs, which is still a very serious condition.[33] is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Fanya Yefimovna Kaplan, in 1907 Faina Yefimovna Kaplan (Фаина Ефимовна Каплан; 1883–September 3, 1918), a. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Essaires; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a Russian political party active in the early 20th century. ... The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin ( Russian citadel). ... For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ... Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry, painted 1860: Under the Second Empire, Marat was seen as a revolutionary monster and Corday as a heroine of France, represented in the wall-map. ...


Other than similar exhortation by the press, little was revealed to the Russian public — either about the attempted assassination, the suspect, or Lenin’s condition. Historian Richard Pipes wrote, “The impression one gains … is that the Bolsheviks deliberately underplayed the event to convince the public that whatever happened to Lenin, they were firmly in control.”[citation needed] Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ...


Popular reaction to the assassination attempt on Lenin was described at the time by Leonid Krasin, who wrote to his wife on 7 Sept 1918: Krasin Leonid Borisovich Krasin (Russian: , 1870 – 1926) was a Russian Bolshevik leader. ...

“As it happens, the attempt to kill Lenin has made him much more popular than he was. One hears a great many people who are far from having any sympathy with the Bolsheviks, saying that it would be an absolute disaster if Lenin had succumbed to his wounds, as it was first thought he would. And they are quite right, for in the midst of all this chaos and confusion he is the backbone of the new body politic, the main support on which everything rests”[34]

A personal cult of Lenin, which he himself tried to discourage, began with this incident[35]. Lenin’s health declined from this point. It is believed by some that the incident contributed to his later strokes. For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


Lenin and the Red Terror

Lenin with Trotsky and soldiers in Petrograd, 1921.
Lenin with Trotsky and soldiers in Petrograd, 1921.

Following the assassination attempt on Lenin and the successful assassination of Petrograd chief of secret police Moisei Uritsky, Stalin, in a telegram to Lenin, argued that a policy of “open and systematic mass terror” be instigated against “those responsible”. Lenin and the other Bolsheviks agreed, and instructed Felix Dzerzhinsky, whom Lenin had appointed to head the Cheka in 1917, to commence a “Red Terror”, which was officially announced to the public on September 1, 1918, by the Bolshevik newspaper, Krasnaya Gazeta.[36] Suspected enemies could expect brutal torture, flogging, maiming or execution. Some were shot, others drowned, buried alive, or hacked to death by swords. Quite often those about to be executed were forced to dig their own graves.[37] The only published Soviet statistics regarding Cheka executions are the semi-official ones provided by the Chekist Martin Latsis, limited to RSFSR over the period 1918–1920, giving the grand total of 12,733 executed, including 3,082 for taking part in rebellions, 2,024 for membership of counter-revolutionary organizations, 643 for gangsterism, 455 for incitement to revolution, 206 for corruption, 102 for desertion and the same number for espionage.[38] These statistics are considered by many scholars to be decidedly understated, as they did not embrace Ukraine or the Crimea.[39] In the latter the Bolsheviks slaughtered an estimated 50,000 people after White forces withdrew in 1920.[37] Some historians estimate that between 1917 and 1922 up to 280,000 people were killed by the Chekas, of which about half perished through summary executions and the other half through the suppression of rebellions (e.g. Tambov Rebellion).[40] Orlando Figes goes so far as to assert that it is possible more people were killed by the Cheka than died in battle.[41] During the Civil War, atrocities were carried out by both Reds and Whites.[42] Image File history File links Beschreibung Description: Trotsky and Lenin with soldiers in Petrograd Source: originally uploaded to en. ... Image File history File links Beschreibung Description: Trotsky and Lenin with soldiers in Petrograd Source: originally uploaded to en. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... Moisei Solomonovich Uritsky was a Bolshevik revolutionary leader whose assassination helped precipitate the Red Terror. ... Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский; September 11, 1877 - July 20, 1926) was a Polish Communist revolutionary, famous as the founder of the Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka, later known by many names. ... For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ... For other uses, see Red Terror (disambiguation). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the former... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Combatants peasant rebels Red army Strength 50,000 100,000 Casualties N/A N/A The Tambov Rebellion of 1919–1921 was one of the largest and well organized peasant rebellions against the Bolshevik regime during the Russian Civil War[1][2]. The uprising took place in the territories of... Orlando Figes, born 1957 in London, son of the Feminist writer Eva Figes. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist...


According to the Black Book of Communism, in May 1919 there were 16,000 people in labor camps based on the old Tsarist katorga labor camps, and in September 1921 there were more than 70,000.[43] Lenin's Hanging Order documents that Lenin himself ordered terror on 11th August 1918 .[44] The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a controversial book edited by doctor Stéphane Courtois which attempts to catalog various crimes (deaths, torture, deportations, etc. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... -1... This article needs to be wikified. ...


According to Orlando Figes, Lenin had always been an advocate of “mass terror against enemies of the revolution” and was open about his view that the proletarian state was a system of organized violence against the capitalist establishment. Figes also claims that the terror, while encouraged by the Bolsheviks, had its roots in a popular anger against the privileged.[45] When Kamenev and Bukharin tried to curb the “excesses” of the Cheka in late 1918, it was Lenin who defended it.[46] Lenin remained an advocate of mass terror. In a letter of March 19, 1922, to Molotov and the members of the Politburo, following an uprising by the clergy in the town of Shuia, Lenin outlined a brutal plan of action against the clergy and their followers, who were defying the government decree to remove church valuables: “We must (…) put down all resistance with such brutality that they will not forget it for several decades. (…) The greater the number of representatives of the reactionary clergy and reactionary bourgeoisie we succeed in executing (…) the better.”[47] According to Church records, 2,691 priests, 1,962 monks and 3,447 nuns were killed that year.[48] Orlando Figes, born 1957 in London, son of the Feminist writer Eva Figes. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Categories: People stubs | Old Bolsheviks | Soviet politicians | Exonerated Soviet death sentences | Russian Jews ... Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin ( Russian: Николай Иванович Бухарин), ( October 9 ( September 27 Old Style) 1888 – March 13, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ...


Lenin also signed off on lists of people to be executed. For example, in September 1918, 25 former tsarist ministers and high civil servants along with 765 so-called White Guards were shot in Moscow. Lenin personally signed the execution lists.[49]


Russian Communist Party and civil war

Communist Party
of the Soviet Union

Party History
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was to a significant degree determined by a person who was the head of the party in particular periods of time. ...

Party Organization
Congress
Central Committee
Politburo
Secretariat
Orgburo
Control Committee
Auditing Commission General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Became synonymous with leader of the party under Stalin. ... The Congress of the CPSU was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its predecessors. ... The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbriviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... The Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee was a key body within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and was responsible for the central administration of the party as opposed to drafting government policy which was usually handled by the Politburo. ... // Existence of Orgburo The Orgburo existed from 1919 to 1952, until the 19th Congress, when the Orgburo was abolished and its functions were transferred to the enlarged Secretariat. ... Party Control Committee (PCC) of the CPSU Central Committee (Russian: Komitet Partiynogo Kontrolya) was a supreme disciplinary organ within the hierarchy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Central Auditing Commission (CAC), (Russian: Центральная Контрольная Комиссия (ЦКК), Centralnaya Kontrolnaya Komissiya) was a supervisory organ within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...

Leaders
Vladimir LeninJoseph Stalin
Nikita KhrushchevLeonid Brezhnev
Yuri AndropovKonstantin Chernenko
Mikhail Gorbachev
Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Khrushchev redirects here. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death fifteen months later. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...

Pravda
Komsomol
For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist Union of Youth. The organisation served as the youth wing of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( CPSU), the youngest members being fourteen years old, the upper limit for an age...

Communism Portal
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Further information: On the Allies invasion of Russia: Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Polar Bear Expedition, North Russia Campaign, American Expeditionary Force Siberia
Lenin giving a speech.
Lenin giving a speech.

In March 1919, Lenin and other Bolshevik leaders met with revolutionary socialists from around the world and formed the Communist International. Members of the Communist International, including Lenin and the Bolsheviks themselves, broke off from the broader socialist movement. From that point onwards, they would become known as communists. In Russia, the Bolshevik Party was renamed the “Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks),” which eventually became the CPSU. Britain, France, Canada and the United States, along with other World War I Allied countries, conducted a military intervention into the Russian Civil War during the period of 1918 through 1920. ... The Polar Bear Expedition (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition, the American North Russia Expeditionary Force - ANREF or the American Expeditionary Force North Russia - AEFNR) was a contingent of about 5,000 U.S. troops who landed in Arkhangelsk, Russia and fought the Bolshevik forces in the surrounding region... North Russia Campaign Arkhangelsk Oblast May 1918 – Sept 1919 Polar Bear Expedition Russian Civil War North Russia Relief Force // Introduction The North Russia Campaign (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition or the Allied Intervention in North Russia) was the involvement of international troops part of the Allied Intervention in... The American Expeditionary Force Siberia (AEF Siberia) was the involvement of U.S. troops, during the tail end of World War I and the Russian Revolution, in Vladivostok, Russia, from 1918 and 1920. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 160 × 120 pixelsFull resolution (160 × 120 pixel, file size: 422 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vladimir Lenin Demonstration (people) ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 160 × 120 pixelsFull resolution (160 × 120 pixel, file size: 422 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vladimir Lenin Demonstration (people) ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Communist Party of Russia could reasonably refer to Russian Social Democratic Labour Party the precessor of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union or two modern parties: Communist Party of the RSFSR Communist Party of the Russian Federation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when...


Meanwhile, the civil war raged across Russia. A wide variety of political movements and their supporters took up arms to support or overthrow the Soviet government. Although many different factions were involved in the civil war, the two main forces were the Red Army (communists) and the White Army (traditionalists). Foreign powers such as France, Britain, the United States and Japan also intervened in this war (on behalf of the White Army). Eventually, the more organizationally proficient Red Army, led by Leon Trotsky, won the civil war, defeating the White Russian forces and their allies in 1920. Smaller battles continued for several more years, however. Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... White Army redirects here. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...


The civil war has been described as one “unprecedented for its savagery,” with mass executions and other atrocities committed by both sides. Between battles, executions, famine and epidemics, many millions would perish.[50]


In late 1919, successes against the White Russian forces convinced Lenin that it was time to spread the revolution to the West, by force if necessary. When the newly independent Second Polish Republic began securing its eastern territories annexed by Russia in the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, it clashed with Bolshevik forces for dominance in these areas, which led to the outbreak of the Polish-Soviet War in 1919. With the revolution in Germany and the Spartacist League on the rise, Lenin viewed this as the perfect time and place to “probe Europe with the bayonets of the Red Army.” Lenin saw Poland as the bridge that the Red Army would have to cross in order to link up the Russian Revolution with the communist supporters in the German Revolution, and to assist other communist movements in Western Europe. However the defeat of Soviet Russia in the Polish-Soviet War invalidated these plans. Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... “November Revolution” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Spartacist League (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


Lenin was a harsh critic of imperialism.[51] In 1917 he declared the unconditional right of separation for national minorities and oppressed nations. However, when the Russian Civil War was won he used military force to assimilate the newly independent states of Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.[52] He argued that the inclusion of those countries into the newly emerging Soviet government would shelter them from capitalist imperial ambitions.[citation needed] For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ...


During the civil war, as an attempt to maintain food supply to the cities and the army in the conditions of economic collapse, the Bolsheviks adopted the policy of war communism. That involved “requisitioning” supplies from the peasantry for little or nothing in exchange. This led the peasants to drastically reduce their crop production. Additionally, according to the official Bolshevik view which is still shared by some Marxists,[53] rich peasants (kulaks) withheld grain in order to increase their profits — statistics indicate that most of the grain and the other food supplies passed through the black market.[54] Then, the Bolshevik requisitions came to affect the food that peasants had grown for their own subsistence and their seed grain. The resulting conflicts began with the Cheka and the army shooting hostages, and, according to The Black Book of Communism, ended with a second full-scale civil war against the peasantry, including the use of poison gas, death camps, and deportations. The same source emphasizes that in 1920, Lenin ordered increased emphasis on the food requisitioning from the peasantry, at the same time as the Cheka gave detailed reports about the large scale famine.[55] The long war and a drought in 1921 also contributed to the famine. Estimates on the deaths from this famine are between 3 and 10 million.[3][4]. An economic collapse is a devastating breakdown of a national, regional, or territorial economy. ... War communism or wartime communism (Russian: Военный коммунизм; 1918 - 1921) was the economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War with the aim of keeping towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food, in conditions when all normal economic mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by the... Kulaks (Russian: кула́к, kulak, fist, literally meaning tight-fisted) was a category of rich peasants in later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and Soviet Union. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ... The Black Book of Communism The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book that describes the history of political repressions by Communist states, including extrajudicial executions, deportations, and man-made famines that the book argues resulted from communist policies. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ...

“Comrade Lenin Cleanses the Earth of Filth”, a Communist poster from 1920.
“Comrade Lenin Cleanses the Earth of Filth”, a Communist poster from 1920.

The long years of war, the Bolshevik policy of war communism, the Russian famine of 1921, and the encirclement of hostile governments took their toll on Russia, however, and much of the country lay in ruins. There were many peasant uprisings, the largest being the Tambov rebellion. After an uprising by the sailors at Kronstadt in March 1921, Lenin replaced the policy of War Communism with the New Economic Policy (NEP), in a successful attempt to rebuild industry and especially agriculture. The new policy was based on recognition of political and economic realities, though it was intended merely as a tactical retreat from the socialist ideal. The whole policy was later reversed by Stalin. Image File history File links Tov_lenin_ochishchaet. ... Image File history File links Tov_lenin_ochishchaet. ... War communism or wartime communism (Russian: Военный коммунизм; 1918 - 1921) was the economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War with the aim of keeping towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food, in conditions when all normal economic mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by the... Help!, a Soviet poster from 1921. ... Combatants peasant rebels Red army Strength 50,000 100,000 Casualties N/A N/A The Tambov Rebellion of 1919–1921 was one of the largest and well organized peasant rebellions against the Bolshevik regime during the Russian Civil War[1][2]. The uprising took place in the territories of... Combatants Soviet Sailors Red Army Commanders Stepan Petrichenko Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky Strength c. ... War communism or wartime communism (Russian: Военный коммунизм; 1918 - 1921) was the economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War with the aim of keeping towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food, in conditions when all normal economic mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by the... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Lenin's stance on anti-Semitism

The chaotic years of World War I, the February and October Revolutions, and the Civil War were fertile ground for the antisemitism that was endemic to tsarist Russia. During the war, Jews were accused of sympathizing with Germany and often persecuted. Russian anti-semitism continued even after the lifting of official anti-Jewish restrictions by the February regime and the Bolsheviks. Pogroms were unleashed throughout the Civil War, perpetrated by virtually every competing faction, from anarchists, to Polish and Ukrainian nationalists to the Red and White Armies. Continuing the policy of the Bolsheviks before the Revolution, Lenin and the Bolshevik Party strongly condemned the pogroms, including official denunciations in 1918 by the Council of People's Commissars. Opposition to the pogroms and to manifestations of Russian anti-semitism in this era were complicated by both the official bolshevik policy of assimilationism towards all national and religious minorities, and concerns about overemphasizing Jewish concerns for fear of exacerbating popular anti-semitism, as the White forces were openly identifying the Bolshevik regime with Jews.[56][57][58] Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Ukrainian: Нестор Іванович Махно, October 26, 1888 – July 25, 1934) was an anarcho-communist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ...


Lenin was intrigued with technology and in 1919 recorded eight of his speeches on gramophone records. Seven were later re-recorded and put on sale in the Khrushchev era. Significantly the one which was suppressed outlined Lenin’s feelings on anti-Semitism[59]: Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ...

The Tsarist police, in alliance with the landowners and the capitalists, organized pogroms against the Jews. The landowners and capitalists tried to divert the hatred of the workers and peasants who were tortured by want against the Jews. … Only the most ignorant and downtrodden people can believe the lies and slander that are spread about the Jews. … It is not the Jews who are the enemies of the working people. The enemies of the workers are the capitalists of all countries. Among the Jews there are working people, and they form the majority. They are our brothers, who, like us, are oppressed by capital; they are our comrades in the struggle for socialism. Among the Jews there are kulaks, exploiters and capitalists, just as there are among the Russians, and among people of all nations… Rich Jews, like rich Russians, and the rich in all countries, are in alliance to oppress, crush, rob and disunite the workers… Shame on accursed Tsarism which tortured and persecuted the Jews. Shame on those who foment hatred towards the Jews, who foment hatred towards other nations.[60]

Lenin was supported by the Labor Zionist (Paole Zion) movement, then under the leadership of Marxist theorist Ber Borochov, which was fighting for the creation of a Jewish workers' state in Palestine and also participated in the October Revolution (and in the Soviet political scene afterwards until being banned by Stalin in 1928). While Lenin remained opposed to outward forms of anti-semitism (and all forms of racism), allowing Jewish people to rise to the highest offices in both party and state, certain historians such as Dmitri Volkogonov argue that the record of his government in this regard was highly uneven. A former official Soviet historian turned staunch anti-communist, Volkogonov claims that Lenin was aware of pogroms carried out by units of the Red Army during the war with Poland, though the whole issue was effectively ignored. Volkogonov writes that “While condemning anti-Semitism in general, Lenin was unable to analyze, let alone eradicate, its prevalence in Soviet society”.[61] Likewise, the hostility of the Soviet regime towards all religion made no exception for Judaism, and the 1921 campaign against religion saw the seizure of many synagogues (whether this should be regarded as anti-Semitism is a matter of definition since Orthodox churches received the same treatment). Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... Also spelled Czarism, a system of government ruled by a Tsar, an autocratic ruler with broad powers. ... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... Ber Borochov, c. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Dmitri Antonovich Volkogonov (Дмитрий Антонович Волкогонов in Russian) (22 March 1928, Chita - 6 December 1995, Moscow) was a Russian historian, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of History, Colonel General (1986). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


However, according to Jewish historian Zvi Gitelman: “Never before in Russian history — and never subsequently has a government made such an effort to uproot and stamp out anti-Semitism”.[62]


Later life and death

Kamenev and Lenin at Gorki Leninskiye, 1922.
Kamenev and Lenin at Gorki Leninskiye, 1922.

Lenin’s health had already been severely damaged by the strains of revolution and war. The assassination attempt earlier in his life also added to his health problems. The bullet was still lodged in his neck, too close to his spine for medical techniques of the time to remove. In May 1922, Lenin had his first stroke. He was left partially paralyzed on his right side, and his role in government declined. After the second stroke in December of the same year, he resigned from active politics. In March 1923, he suffered his third stroke and was left bedridden for the remainder of his life, no longer able to speak. Image File history File links Kamenev. ... Image File history File links Kamenev. ... Lev Borisovich Kamenev   (Russian: Лев Борисович Каменев, born Rosenfeld, Розенфельд) (July 18 [O.S. July 6] 1883 – August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician. ... Gorki Leninskiye (Russian: ) is an urban settlement located in Leninsky District of Moscow Oblast, 35 km south of Moscow, Russia. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. ...



After his first stroke, Lenin dictated to his wife several papers regarding the government. Most famous of these is Lenin's Testament, which was partially inspired by the 1922 Georgian Affair and among other things criticized top-ranking communists, including Joseph Stalin, Grigory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev, Nikolai Bukharin and Leon Trotsky. Of Stalin, who had been the Communist Party’s general secretary since April 1922, Lenin said that he had “unlimited authority concentrated in his hands” and suggested that “comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post.” Upon Lenin’s death, his wife mailed his Testament to the central committee, to be read at the 13th Party Congress in May 1924. However, the committee and especially the ruling “triumvirate” — Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev — had a vested interest in not releasing the will to the wider public. The central committee justified this by stating that Lenin had been mentally ill in his final years and, as such, his final judgments were not to be trusted.[citation needed] Lenin’s Testament was first officially published in 1925 in the United States by Max Eastman. In the same year, Trotsky wrote an article that downplayed its significance, stating that Lenin’s notes should not be regarded as a “will” and had neither been concealed nor violated.[63] He did invoke it in his polemic against Stalin on later occasions, while in exile.[64][65] Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Lenins Testament is the name given to a document written by Vladimir Lenin in the last weeks of 1922 and the first week of 1923. ... The Georgian Affair of 1922 was a political conflict within the Soviet leadership about the way in which social and political transformation was to be achieved in the Georgian SSR. The dispute over Georgia, which arose shortly after the forcible Sovietization of the country and peaked in the latter part... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Grigory Zinoviev Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евс́еевич Зин́овьев, alternative transliteration Grigorii Ovseyevish Zinoviev, born Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky (Радомысльский), also known as Hirsch Apfelbaum, (September 23 [O.S. September 11] 1883 - August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician. ... Lev Borisovich Kamenev   (Russian: Лев Борисович Каменев, born Rosenfeld, Розенфельд) (July 18 [O.S. July 6] 1883 – August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician. ... Nikolai Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: ), (October 9 [O.S. September 27] 1888 â€“ March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... The term triumvirate is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful political and/or military leaders. ... Max Eastman in Moscow (1922) Max Forrester Eastman (January 4, 1883–March 25, 1969) was a socialist American writer and patron of the Harlem Renaissance, later known for being an anti-leftist. ...


Lenin died at 18:50 Moscow time on January 21, 1924, aged 53, at his estate in Gorki Leninskiye. Over 900,000 people passed through the Hall of Columns during the four days and nights that Lenin lay in state. Large sections of the population in other countries expressed their grief at the death of Lenin. Speaking at a memorial meeting, Chinese premier Sun Yat-sen. said: is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Gorki Leninskiye (Russian: ) is an urban settlement located in Leninsky District of Moscow Oblast, 35 km south of Moscow, Russia. ... Sun Yat-sen (Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Zhōngshān; Simplified Chinese: 孙中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the Father of Modern China. ...

Through the ages of world history thousands of leaders and scholars appeared who spoke eloquent words, but these remained words. You, Lenin, were an exception. You not only spoke and taught us, but translated your words into deeds. You created a new country. You showed us the road of joint struggle... You, great man that you are, will live on in the memories of the oppressed people through the centuries.

[66]


The city of Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honor three days after Lenin’s death. This remained the name of the city until the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, when it reverted to its original name, St Petersburg, even though its administrative area kept the name (Leningrad Oblast) Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


During the early 1920s the Russian movement of cosmism was so popular that Leonid Krasin and Alexander Bogdanov proposed to cryonically preserve Lenin’s body in order to revive him in the future.[67] Necessary equipment was purchased abroad, but for a variety of reasons the plan was not realized.[68] Instead his body was embalmed and placed on permanent exhibition in the Lenin Mausoleum in Moscow on January 27, 1924. Russian cosmism is a philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century. ... Krasin Leonid Borisovich Krasin (Russian: , 1870 – 1926) was a Russian Bolshevik leader. ... Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov Russian: (born Alyaksandr Malinouski, Belarusian: ) August 22 (Old Style), 1873, Hrodna, Russia (today Belarus) - April 7, 1928, Moscow) was a Russian physician, philosopher, economist, science fiction writer, and revolutionary of Belarusian ethnicity whose scientific interests ranged from the universal systems theory to the possibility of human rejuvenation... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... Lenins Tomb, with wall of the Kremlin and the former Soviet Parliament building behind An entrance to Lenins Mausoleum Lenins Mausoleum (Russian: ) (Transliteration: Mavzoley Lenina) also known as Lenins Tomb, situated in Red Square in Moscow, is the mausoleum that serves as the final resting place... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ...


After death

 The Lenin Mausoleum at Red Square, Moscow.

The Lenin Mausoleum at Red Square, Moscow.

Lenin’s preserved body is on permanent display at the Lenin Mausoleum. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x800, 480 KB) Summary Lenins tomb, Red Square, Moscow, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x800, 480 KB) Summary Lenins tomb, Red Square, Moscow, 2005. ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Lenins Tomb, with wall of the Kremlin and the former Soviet Parliament building behind An entrance to Lenins Mausoleum Lenins Mausoleum (Russian: ) (Transliteration: Mavzoley Lenina) also known as Lenins Tomb, situated in Red Square in Moscow, is the mausoleum that serves as the final resting place...


Because of Lenin’s unique role in the creation of the first Communist state, and despite his expressed wish shortly before his death that no memorials be created for him, his character was elevated over time to the point of near religious reverence.[citation needed] By the 1980s, every city in the Soviet Union had a statue of Lenin in its central square, either a Lenin street or a Lenin Square near the center, and often 20 or more smaller statues and busts throughout its territory.[citation needed] Collective farms, medals, hybrids of wheat, and even an asteroid were named after him. Lenin’s life became the subject of nursery rhymes and children’s storytelling.[citation needed] Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. ...

Vladimir Lenin, cartoon by Nikolai Bukharin, 1927
Vladimir Lenin, cartoon by Nikolai Bukharin, 1927

Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the level of reverence for Lenin in post-Soviet republics has fallen considerably, though he is still considered an important figure by generations who grew up during the Soviet period.[69] Most statues of Lenin have been torn down in Eastern Europe, but many still remain in Russia and ex-Soviet Central Asia. In 1991, following a close vote and political battles between communist and liberals the city of Leningrad returned to its original name, St Petersburg, whilst the surrounding Leningrad Oblast retained Lenin’s name.[70] The citizens of Ulyanovsk, Lenin’s birthplace, have so far resisted all attempts to revert its name to Simbirsk. The subject of interring Lenin’s body has been a recurring topic for the past several years in Russia. Nikolai Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: ), (October 9 [O.S. September 27] 1888 â€“ March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ... Soviet era is the period of Russian history comprising the years 1917 – 1991, when the power was held by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Ulyanovsk (Russian: ), formerly Simbirsk (), is a city on the Volga River in Russia, 893 km east from Moscow. ...


Censorship of Lenin in the Soviet Union

Lenin’s writings were carefully censored under the Soviet regime after his death. In the early 1930s, it became accepted dogma under Stalin to assume that neither Lenin nor the Central Committee could ever be wrong. Therefore, it was necessary to remove evidence of situations where they had actually disagreed, since in those situations it was impossible for both to have been right at the same time. Trotsky was a particularly vocal critic of these practices, which he saw as a form of deification of a mere human being who could, and did, make mistakes.[71] Later, even the fifth “complete” Soviet edition of Lenin’s works (published in 55 thick volumes between 1958 and 1965) left out parts that either contradicted dogma or showed their author in too poor a light.[72] Apotheosis - the posthumous transformation of a Roman emperor into a god, Theosis - being unified with God in East Orthodox theology of salvation, Assigning divine qualities to any mortal and, usually, worshipping that person as if they were a supernatural being. ...


See also

Lenin standing in the courtyard of the Kremlin in 1919.
Lenin standing in the courtyard of the Kremlin in 1919.

This article is about Russian citadels. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... East Berlin, Germany In the Soviet Union, every city had several monuments of Vladimir Lenin. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... The term enemy of the people (Russian language: враг народа, vrag naroda) was a fluid designation under the Bolsheviks rule in regards to their real or suspected political or class opponents, sometimes including former allies. ... Anti-Leninism is the opposition to either Vladimir Lenin as an individual or to his legacy of thought known as Leninism or Bolshevism. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Soviet Union was a single-party state where the Communist Party officially ruled the country according to the Soviet constitution [1]. All key positions in the institutions of the state were occupied by members of the Communist Party. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Time 100: V.I. Lenin by David Remnick, April 13 1998.
  2. ^ Christopher Read (2005) Lenin. Abingdon: Routledge: 4
  3. ^ Volkogonov, Dmitri (1994). Lenin — A New Biography. Free Press, p. 8. ISBN 0-02-933435-7. 
  4. ^ Service, Robert. Lenin: A Biography. ISBN 0-330-49139-3. 
  5. ^ Christopher Read (2005) Lenin: 18
  6. ^ Danilov, Eugene (Moscow, 2007). Lenin: Secrets of Life and Death. Zebra E, p. 181. ISBN 978-5-17-043866-2. 
  7. ^ J. Brooks and G. Chernyavskiy (2007) Lenin and the Making of the Soviet State. Bedford/St Martin’s: Boston and New York
  8. ^ Lenin, V.I. (Written in 1896–1899; First printed in book form in March 1899; Published according to the text of the second edition, 1908). The Development of Capitalism in Russia: The Process of the Formation of a Home Market for Large-Scale Industry. Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
  9. ^ What is to be done?
  10. ^ Christopher Read (1905) Lenin: 81
  11. ^ Christopher Read (1905) Lenin: 81
  12. ^ Christopher Read (1905) Lenin: 86
  13. ^ Neil Harding, Lenin’s Political Thought (1986), p250
  14. ^ Ronald W. Clark (1988) Lenin: the Man Behind the Mask: 154
  15. ^ Christopher Read (1905) Lenin: 132-4
  16. ^ V.I. Lenin (2000) Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. New Delhi: LeftWord Books: 34
  17. ^ Paul Bowles (2007) Capitalism. Pearson: Harlow: 93
  18. ^ Alan Moorehead, The Russian Revolution. New York: Harper (1958), pp. 183–187
  19. ^ April Theses
  20. ^ Read, Christopher (1996). From Czar to Soviets: The Russian People and Their Revolution, 1917–21. Oxford University Press, pp. 151–153. ISBN 0-19-521241-X. 
  21. ^ (Russian) Biography of Grigory Aleksinsky at Hrono.ru
  22. ^ Trotsky, Leon. The Month of The Great Slander. The History of the Russian Revolution; Volume 2,Chapter 27.
  23. ^ Lenin, Vladimir (1917). The State and Revolution.
  24. ^ Christopher Read (2005) Lenin: 174
  25. ^ Lenin “Collected Works”, vol. 31, page 516.
  26. ^ Lenin “Collected Works”, vol. 30, page 335.
  27. ^ Archive of Lenin’s works
  28. ^ Christopher Read (2005) Lenin: 186
  29. ^ King, Greg and Wilson, Penny (2003). The Fate of the Romanovs. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-20768-3. 
  30. ^ Volkogonov, Dimitri. Lenin — A New Biography, p. 229. ISBN 0-02-933435-7. 
  31. ^ Pipes, Richard, The Russian Revolution,(Vintage Books, 1990) p.807
  32. ^ Ibid. p. 809
  33. ^ Dr. V. Bonch-Bruevich, Lenin’s attending physician, in Tri Pokusheniia na V. Lenina 1924.
  34. ^ Lubov Krassin (1929) Leonid Krassin: His Life and Work, by his wife. Skeffington: London
  35. ^ Ronald Clark (1988) Lenin: The Man Behind the Mask: 373
  36. ^ Red Terror
  37. ^ a b Gellately, Robert (2007). Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, p. 65. ISBN 1400040051. 
  38. ^ Ronald Clark (1988) Lenin: The Man Behind the Mask: 356
  39. ^ Leggett, George (1987). The Cheka: Lenin’s Political Police. Oxford University Press, p. 464. ISBN 0198228627. 
  40. ^ Leggett, George (1987). The Cheka: Lenin’s Political Police. Oxford University Press, pp. 466–467. ISBN 0198228627. 
  41. ^ Figes, Orlando (1997). A People’s Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924. Penguin Books, p. 649. ISBN 0198228627. 
  42. ^ Twentieth Century Atlas — Death Tolls
  43. ^ Black Book of Communism, p. 80
  44. ^ [1] Lenin’s Secret Files
  45. ^ Figes, Orlando (1998). A People’s Tragedy: The Russian Revolution: 1891–1924. Penguin, pp. 524–525. ISBN 0-14-024364-X. 
  46. ^ Figes, Orlando (1998). A People’s Tragedy: The Russian Revolution: 1891–1924. Penguin, p. 649. ISBN 0-14-024364-X. 
  47. ^ Pipes, Richard (1996). The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive. Yale University Press, pp. 152–154. ISBN 0-300-06919-7. 
  48. ^ Courtois, Stephane (1999). The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press, p. 126. ISBN 0674076087. 
  49. ^ Gellately, Robert (2007). Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, p. 57. ISBN 1400040051. 
  50. ^ Lincoln, W. Bruce (1999). Red Victory: A History of the Russian Civil War. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80909-5. 
  51. ^ Lenin, Vladimir (1915). The Revolutionary Proletariat and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination.
  52. ^ Pipes, Richard (1994). Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime. Vintage, p. 141–166. ISBN 0679761845. 
  53. ^ An exchange of letters on the BBC documentary Lenin’s Secret Files. World Socialist Web Site (1998-03-06). Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
  54. ^ Carr, E.H. (1966). The Bolshevik Revolution 1917–1923, Part 2, p. 233.  Chase, W.J. (1987). Workers, Society and the Soviet State: Labour and Life in Moscow 1918–1929, pp. 26–27.  Nove, A. (1982). An Economic History of the USSR, p. 62.  [2] Flewers, Paul, War Communism in Retrospect].
  55. ^ Black Book of Communism p. 92–97, 116–121.
  56. ^ Benjamin Pinkus. The Jews of the Soviet Union: The History of a National Minority. Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  57. ^ Naomi Blank. Redefining the Jewish Question from Lenin to Gorbachev: Terminology or Ideology. In: Yaacov Ro'i, editor. Jews and Jewish Life in Russia and the Soviet Union.Routledge, 1995.
  58. ^ William Korey. Russian Anti-semitism, Pamyat, and the Demonology of Zionism. Routeledge, 1995.
  59. ^ Ronald Clark (1988) Lenin: The Man Behind the Mask: 456
  60. ^ Lenin, Vladimir (1919). Anti-Jewish Pogroms. Speeches On Gramophone Records.
  61. ^ Dmitrij Volkogonov: Lenin. Počátek teroru. Dialog, Liberec 1996, p. 173.
  62. ^ Gutelman, Zvi; Curtis, M. (ed.) (1986). Antisemitism in the Contemporary World. Westview Press, pp. 189–190. ISBN 0-8133-0157-2. 
  63. ^ Trotsky, L.D.: ‘Concerning Eastman’s Book ‘Since Lenin Died’’, in: ‘Bolshevik’, 16; 1 Sept, 1925; p. 68.Concerning Eastman’s Book ‘Since Lenin Died’ that downplayed its significance.
    In several parts of his book Eastman says that the Central Committee concealed from the Party a number of exceptionally important documents written by Lenin in the last period of his life (it is a matter of letters on the national question, the so-called ‘will’, and others); there can be no other name for this than slander against the Central Committee of our Party. … Vladimir Ilyich did not leave any “will”, and the very character of his attitude towards the Party, as well as the character of the Party itself, precluded any possibility of such a ‘will’. What is usually referred to as a ‘will’ in the émigré and foreign bourgeois and Menshevik press (in a manner garbled beyond recognition) is one of Vladimir Ilyich’s letters containing advice on organisational matters. The 13th Congress of the Party paid the closest attention to that letter, as to all of the others, and drew from it the conclusions appropriate to the conditions and circumstances of the time. All talk about concealing or violating a ‘will’ is a malicious invention.
  64. ^ Trotsky, Leon. 1930. My Life. The Marxists Internet Archive
  65. ^ Trotsky, Leon (1932). [http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1932/12/lenin.htm On the Suppressed Testament of Lenin]. The Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved on 2007-03-16. 
  66. ^ Vadim Gorin, Lenin: A Biography, Progress Publishers, 1983, pp.469-70
  67. ^ See the article: А.М. и А.А. Панченко «Осьмое чудо света», in the book Панченко А.М. О русской истории и культуре. St. Petersburg: Azbuka, 2003. Page 433.
  68. ^ Ibidem.
  69. ^ Pipes, Richard (May/June 2004). "Flight From Freedom: What Russians Think and Want". Foreign Affairs. 
  70. ^ http://www.sos.state.md.us/International/MDSS/RussiaHistory.htm. St Petersburg/Leningrad Oblast
  71. ^ Lenin’s most Prominent writings: “April Thesis” (1917) Lenin claimed in his April Thesis that a Socialist Revolution was necessary. “What is to be done?” (1903) This detailed Lenin’s vision for a “Vanguard” revolutionary party. “Imperialism, the highest stage of Capitalism” (1916) Lenin believed that World War 1 was a Capitalist affair which involved Capitalist nations in competition for land, resources as well as cheap labour. Trotsky, Leon (1930). Volume Three: The Triumph of the Soviets; Appendix No. 1. 
  72. ^ Figes, Orlando (October 27, 1996). "Censored by His Own Regime". The New York Times. 

Dmitri Antonovich Volkogonov (Дмитрий Антонович Волкогонов in Russian) (22 March 1928, Chita - 6 December 1995, Moscow) was a Russian historian, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of History, Colonel General (1986). ... Robert Service (born 1947) is a historian of Russia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfred A. Knopf ( September 12, 1892 – August 11, 1984) was a leading American publisher of the 20th century. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a controversial book edited by doctor Stéphane Courtois which attempts to catalog various crimes (deaths, torture, deportations, etc. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Alfred A. Knopf ( September 12, 1892 – August 11, 1984) was a leading American publisher of the 20th century. ... The World Socialist Web Site is the online news and information center of the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a controversial book edited by doctor Stéphane Courtois which attempts to catalog various crimes (deaths, torture, deportations, etc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...

Further reading

  • Cliff, Tony (1986). Building the Party: Lenin, 1893–1914. Haymarket Books. ISBN 1-931859-01-9. 
  • Fischer, Louis (2001). The Life of Lenin. Orion Publishing Co.. ISBN 1-84212-230-4. 
  • Gellately, Robert (2007). Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf. ISBN 1400040051. 
  • Gooding, John (2002). Socialism In Russia: Lenin and His Legacy, 1890–1991. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-97235-X. 
  • Leggett, George (1987). The Cheka: Lenin’s Political Police. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198228627. 
  • Lenin, Vladimir (2002). Revolution at the Gates: A Selection of Writings from February to October 1917 by V. I. Lenin. Verso Books. ISBN 1-85984-661-0. 
  • Kolakowski, Leszek and Falla, P. S. (2005). Main Currents of Marxism. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-06054-3. 
  • Pannekoek, Anton, and Richey, Lance Byron (2003). Lenin as Philosopher. Marquette University Press. ISBN 0-87462-654-4. 
  • Payne, Robert (1967). The Life And Death Of Lenin. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-41640-5. 
  • Pipes, Richard (1999). The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07662-2. 
  • Read, Christopher (2005). Lenin: A Revolutionary Life. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-20649-9. 
  • Service, Robert (2002). Lenin: A Biography. Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-00828-6. 
  • Shub, David (1965). Lenin: A Biography. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-020809-7. 
  • Toynbee, Arnold (July 1970). "A Centenary View of Lenin". International Affairs 46 (3): 490–500. doi:10.2307/2613225. 
  • Trotsky, Leon (1971). On Lenin: Notes Towards a Biography. Harrap Publishing. ISBN 0-245-50302-1. 
  • Tucker, Robert C. (1975). The Lenin Anthology. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-09236-4. 
  • Volkogonov, Dmitri (2006). Lenin: A New Biography. Free Press. ISBN 0-02-933435-7. 

Tony Cliff (May 20, 1917 – May 9, 2000) was a Trotskyist revolutionary activist. ... Louis Fischer was a well known American journalist of the 1950s. ... Alfred A. Knopf ( September 12, 1892 – August 11, 1984) was a leading American publisher of the 20th century. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Leszek KoÅ‚akowski (born 23 October 1927 in Radom, Poland) is a Polish philosopher and historian of ideas. ... Anton Pannekoek Antonie (Anton) Pannekoek (January 2, 1873, Vaassen – April 28, 1960, Wageningen) was a Dutch astronomer and Marxist theorist. ... Pierre Stephen Robert Payne (December 4, 1911 – March 3, 1983), was a novelist, historian and biographer. ... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... Robert Service (born 1947) is a historian of Russia. ... This page is about the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee; for the economic historian Arnold Toynbee see this article. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Dmitri Antonovich Volkogonov (Дмитрий Антонович Волкогонов in Russian) (22 March 1928, Chita - 6 December 1995, Moscow) was a Russian historian, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of History, Colonel General (1986). ...

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Selected works

Preceded by
Aleksandr Kerensky (as Head of the Provisional Government of 1917)
Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars
1917–1924
Succeeded by
Alexey Ivanovich Rykov
Persondata
NAME Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Vladimir Illyich Ulyanov, Владимир Ильич Ульянов (Ленин) (Russian)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Russian politician, led October Revolution
DATE OF BIRTH 22 April 1870(1870-04-22)
PLACE OF BIRTH Simbirsk, Russia
DATE OF DEATH 21 January 1924
PLACE OF DEATH Moscow, Russia

The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ulyanovsk (Улья́новск, formerlySimbirsk (Симби́рск)) is a city on the Volga River in Russia. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Vladimir Lenin - Encyclopedia Article (835 words)
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Владимир Ильич Ульянов) (April 10 (O.S.) = April 22 (N.S.), 1870 - January 21, 1924) who used the alias Nikolai Lenin (Ленин) (most likely a reference to the river Lena), was a Russian revolutionary, first leader of the Soviet Union, and the namesake of Leninism.
Lenin was the son of a civil service official, and distinguished himself in the study of Latin and Greek.
Lenin died of a fourth stroke in January of 1924.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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