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Encyclopedia > Vlad III Dracula
Portrait of Vlad III in the Innsbruck Ambras Castle
Portrait of Vlad III in the Innsbruck Ambras Castle

Vlad III Basarab (other names: Vlad Ţepeş IPA: ['tsepeʃ] in Romanian, meaning Vlad the Impaler; Vlad Draculea in Romanian, transliterated as Vlad Dracula in some documents; Kazıklı Bey in Turkish, meaning Impaler Prince), (November or December, 1431 – December 1476). Vlad III Basarab was voivode of Wallachia principality (today a historical region of Romania). His three reigns were in 1448, 1456 to 1462, and 1476. Vlad Tepes also known as Vlad the Impaler or Dracula. ... Vlad Tepes also known as Vlad the Impaler or Dracula. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Events February 21 - The trial of Joan of Arc March 3 - Eugenius IV becomes Pope May 30 - In Rouen, France, 19-year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ... The Basarab dynasty was an early Romanian dynasty which had an important role in the establishing of the Wallachian Principality. ... For the heavy metal music band see Voivod (band). ... This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania. ... A principality is a monarchial feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Historically, Romania was divided into the following regions: Dobrogea Cadrilater Moldavia Bessarabia Budjak Bukovina Transylvania Banat CriÅŸana MaramureÅŸ Wallachia Muntenia Oltenia See also Development regions of Romania — divisions used currently and which are loosely based on the borders of historical regions Counties of Romania Categories: | ...


As voivode he led an independent policy in relation to the Ottoman Empire, and in Romania he is best remembered as a prince with a deep sense of justice and a defender of Wallachia against Ottoman expansionism. His impact on the expansion of the Ottoman Empire is recognizable in that his successful hold against the Ottomans bought precious time for western Europe. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ...

Contents


Names of Vlad III the Impaler

His Romanian surname Draculea (transliterated as Dracula in foreign languages of the historical documents where his name is mentioned) seems to come from his father's surname Dracul (see Vlad II Dracul), who was a member of the 'Order of the Dragon' created by Emperor Sigismund. The family of Vlad III Basarab had two factions, the Draculesti and the Danesti. Vlad II (also known as Dracul or The Dragon) (c. ... Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437. ...


His post-mortem moniker of Ţepeş (Impaler) originated in his preferred method for executing his opponents, impalement, popularized by medieval Transylvanian pamphlets. A moniker (or monicker) is a pseudonym, or cognomen, which one gives to oneself. ... Woodblock print of Vlad III Dracula attending a mass impalement. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ...


He is known in Turkish as Kazıklı Bey (Impaler Prince). Bey is the Turkish word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ...


He was refered to as Dracula in a number of documents of his times, mainly the Transylvanian Saxon pamphlets; also "The Annals of Jan Jan Długosz" ISBN 1901019004


Outside Wallachia he was known by the exaggerated tales of atrocities (many of which stem from records of debatable authenticity) and even more so — the title of vampire, and it has been suggested that his surname Dracula was the source of inspiration for the name of the main character of Bram Stoker's 1897 horror novel, Dracula. Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires (or vampiress, for female) are mythical or folkloric creatures, typically held to be the re-animated corpses of human beings and said to subsist on human and/or animal blood (hematophagy). ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847–April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... Horror fiction is, broadly, fiction intended to scare, unsettle or horrify the reader. ... Dracula (1897) is a novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, and the name of the worlds most famous vampire character. ...


Wallachian royalty and the family background of Vlad III Basarab

The crown of Wallachia was not passed automatically from father to son; instead, the leader was elected by the boyars, with the requirement that the Prince-elect be of princely lineage (os de domn - "of voivode bones", "of voivode marrow"), including out of wedlock births. This elective monarchy often resulted in instability, family disputes and assassinations. Eventually, the royal house split between two factions: the descendants of Mircea the Elder, Vlad's grandfather; and those of another prince, Dan II (Dăneşti faction). In addition to that, like in all feudal states, there was another struggle between the central administration (the prince) and the high nobility for control over the country. To top it off, the two powerful neighbors of Wallachia, the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, were at the peak of their rivalry for control of southeastern Europe, turning Wallachia into a battle ground. This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... The term prince (the female form is princess), from the Latin root princeps, when used for a member of the highest aristocracy, has several fundamentally different meanings - one generic, and several types of titles. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... Illegitimacy was a term in common usage for the condition of being born of parents who are not validly married to one another; the legal term is bastardy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Assassination is the deliberate killing of an important person, usually a political figure or other strategically important individual. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Dan II was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia in the 15th Century, ruling an extraordinary 5 times, and succeeded 4 times by Radu II Chelul, his rival for the throne. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl...

Order of the Dragon symbol
Order of the Dragon symbol

His father, born around 1390, was Vlad II Dracul, member of the Basarab family, the founders of Wallachia. He was an illegitimate son of Mircea the Elder, an important early Wallachian ruler. As a young man, he joined the court of Sigismund of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary, whose support for claiming the throne of Wallachia he eventually acquired. A sign of this support was the fact that in 1431 Vlad II was inducted into the Order of the Dragon (Societas Draconis in Latin, Ordinul Dracului in Romanian), along with the rulers of Poland and Serbia. The purpose of the Order was to protect Eastern Europe and the Holy Roman Empire from the infidel, mainly the muslim turks who were expanding the Ottoman Empire. Image File history File links Dragon_order_insignia. ... Image File history File links Dragon_order_insignia. ... Vlad II (also known as Dracul or The Dragon) (c. ... The Basarab dynasty was an early Romanian dynasty which had an important role in the establishing of the Wallachian Principality. ... Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... The Order of the Dragon (German: Drachenorden; Latin: Societas Draconistrarum) is an order of selected nobles modeled on the Order of St. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože Pravde Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Official language(s) Serbian1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Formation and independence    - Formation of Serbia 814   - Formation of the Serbian Empire 1345   - Independence from the Ottoman Empire July 13, 1878   - Serbia and Montenegro union... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ...


Wishing to assert his status, Vlad II displayed the symbol of the Order, (a dragon), in all public appearances, (on flags, clothing, etc.). The old Romanian word for serpent (Cf. drac) is nowadays the most common and casual reference to the devil - while the people of Wallachia did give Vlad II the surname Dracu (Dracul being the more grammatically correct form), any connection with a dark power was most likely coincidental. His son Vlad III would later use in several documents the surname Drăculea. Through various translations (Draculea, Drakulya) Vlad III eventually came to be known as Dracula (note that this ultimate version is a neologism in Romanian). Chinese dragon, colour engraving on wood, Chinese school, 19th Century A dragon is typically depicted as a large and powerful serpent or other reptile, with magical or spiritual qualities. ... Serpent is a word of Latin origin (serpens, serpentis) that is normally substituted for snake in a specifically mythic or religious context, in order to distinguish such creatures from the field of biology. ... Drac can be: The word for dragon in Catalan and other languages, from Latin DRACO. See European dragon (particularly the section on Catalan dragons). ... A modern interpretation of the devil, in red with goat like characteristics. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, or to reshape older terms in newer language form. ...


Vlad II finally became prince of Wallachia in 1436. During his reign he tried to maneuver between his powerful neighbors, opposing various initiatives of war against the Ottomans, which finally attracted the irritation of the Hungarian side, who accused him of disloyalty and removed him in 1442. With the help of the Turks (where he also had connections) he regained the throne in 1443 and until December 1447 when he was assassinated (decapited) on the orders of Iancu de Hunedoara (John Hunyadi), regent of Hungary. John Hunyadis portrait John Hunyadi (Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts as head of state, especially if not the monarch (who has higher titles). ...


The identity of Vlad Dracula’s mother is somewhat uncertain, the most likely variant being that she was a Moldavian princess, niece or daughter of Moldavian prince Alexandru cel Bun. In some sources she is named Cneajna - Princess. Vlad seems to have had a very close relationship with Moldavia: he spent several years there after his father’s death; he left with his presumed cousin Ştefan (Stephen the Great) to Transylvania, he helped Ştefan get the throne of Moldavia in 1457 and was later helped by Ştefan to return to the throne of Wallachia in 1476. Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... Alexandru cel Bun Alexandru cel Bun on a Moldovan coin Alexandru cel Bun (Alexandru I MuÅŸat, Alexander the Kind) was the ruler of Moldavia 1400-1432, son of Roman I MuÅŸat. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Vlad III seems to have had three brothers. The oldest, probably named Mircea, born before 1430, briefly held his father's throne in 1442, was sent by Vlad Dracul in 1444 to fight in his place during the crusade against the Turks that ended with the Varna defeat and met his end along with his father in 1447, presumably being buried alive. Vlad IV, also known as Vlad Călugarul (Vlad the Monk), was born around 1425 to 1430, and was Vlad's half-brother. Vlad the Monk spent many years in Transylvania waiting for a chance to get the throne of Wallachia, trying a religious career in the meantime, until he became prince of Wallachia (1482). Radu, known as Radu cel Frumos (Radu the Handsome) was the youngest brother, was also Vlad’s most important rival as he continuously tried to replace Vlad with the support of the Turks, to which he had very strong connections. Radu seems to have been also favoured by the Turkish Sultan Mehmet 2nd. Vlad apparently had a sister too, named Alexandra. Mircea was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia, in the year 1442. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Varna (Bulgarian: Варна) is the third largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, with a population of 351,552 (as at January 10, 2006). ... Vlad Călugărul (translated asVlad the Monk), was the pious half-brother Vlad III (Vlad the Impaler, or Dracula). ... Radu cel Frumos (Radu the Handsome), (c. ...


From his first marriage, to a Wallachian noble woman, Vlad III apparently had a son, later prince of Wallachia as Mihnea cel Rău, and another two with his second wife, a relative of Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. Mihnea cel Rău is the son of Vlad Å¢epeÅŸ (Dracula) and ruler of Wallachia from 1508 until 1509. ... Matthias Corvinus as depicted in Chronica Hungarorum by Johannes de Thurocz Matthias Corvinus (Matthias the Just) (February 23, 1443 (?) – April 6, 1490) was one of the greatest Kings of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ...


The life of Vlad III the Impaler

Early years

Vlad was very likely born in the city (a military fortress) of Sighişoara in Transylvania, during the winter of 1431. He was born as the second son to his father Vlad Dracul and his mother Princess Cneajna of Moldovia. He had an older brother Mircea and a younger brother Radu, the Handsome. Although his native country was Wallachia to the south, the family lived in exile as his father had been ousted by pro-Ottoman boyars. In the same year as his birth, his father, Vlad Dracul, could be found in Nuremberg, where he was invested into the Order of the Dragon. At the age of five, young Vlad was also initiated into the Order of the Dragon. Clock tower SighiÅŸoara (Hungarian: Segesvár, German: Schäßburg, Latin: Castrum Sex) is a town on the Târnava river in Transylvania, Romania. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania. ... Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... The Order of the Dragon (German: Drachenorden; Latin: Societas Draconistrarum) is an order of selected nobles modeled on the Order of St. ...


A hostage of the Ottoman Empire

Vlad's father was under considerable political pressure from the Ottoman sultan. Threatened with invasion, he gave a promise to be the vassal of the Sultan and gave up his two younger sons as hostages so that he would keep his promise. If he did not follow the sultan's policies and interests, his sons would surely die. This is to be considered in the context of most Balkan Cristian kingdoms being totally destroyed at that time and the countries turned into 'pashaleks' - Ottoman provinces ruled by pashas. The Ottoman Dynasty (or the House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Vlad suffered much at the hands of the Turks, and was locked up in an underground dungeon. However, his younger brother, Radu, caught the eye of the sultan's son. Radu was released and converted to Islam, before being allowed into the Ottoman royal court.


These years were influential in shaping Vlad's character. He was often whipped by his Turkish captors for being stubborn and rude. It could be argued that the man's fascination with torture truly began under the Ottomans as he witnessed torture and occasionally took part in various discussions on the art of torture.


Brief reign and exile

After Vlad's father was assassinated in the marshes near Bălteni in December of 1447 by rebellious boyars (and, allegedly, under the orders of John Hunyadi) due to his semi-pro-Turkish policy, the Sultan released Vlad. Vlad's older brother Mircea was also dead at this point, blinded with hot iron stakes and buried alive by his political enemies at Târgovişte. The Turks then invaded Wallachia and the Sultan put Vlad on the throne as his puppet ruler. His rule was brief. It was not long before Hunyadi himself invaded Wallachia and ousted the Turks. A boyar (also spelt bojar; Romanian: boier) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Ruthenian (Russian) and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... John Hunyadis portrait John Hunyadi (Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ...


Vlad fled to Moldavia until October of 1451 and was put under the protection of his uncle, Bogdan II. During his escape, he had the shoes on his horse put on backwards to confuse anyone who tried to follow him.


Turning tides

Bogdan was assassinated and Vlad, taking a gamble, fled to Hungary. Hunyadi pardoned him and put him forward as the Kingdom of Hungary's candidate for the throne of Wallachia.


In 1456, Hungary invaded Serbia to drive out the Turks, and Vlad III simultaneously invaded Wallachia with his own contingent. Both campaigns were successful, although Hunyadi died suddenly of fever. Nevertheless, Vlad was now prince of his native land.


The main reign of Vlad III Tepes (1456–62)

Ţepeş’ actions after 1456 are well documented. Except for constantly performing acts of cruelty, he seems to have led the life of all the other princes of Wallachia, spending most of his time at the court of Târgovişte, occasionally in other important cities, such as Bucharest - that he founded, drafting laws, meeting foreign envoys and presiding over important judicial trials. He probably made public appearances on relevant occasions, such as religious holidays and major fairs. As a pastime he probably enjoyed hunting on the vast princely domain, with his more or less loyal friends. He made some additions to the palace in Târgovişte (out of which Chindia tower is today the most notable remainder), reinforced some castles, like the one at Poienari, where he also had a personal house built nearby. He also made donations to various churches and monasteries, one such place being the monastary at Lake Snagov where he is supposed to have been buried. County DâmboviÅ£a County Status County capital Mayor Iulian Furcoiu, since 2000 Area  km² Population (2002) 89,429 Density  inh/km² Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Bucharest (Romanian: BucureÅŸti ) is the capital city and industrial and commercial centre of Romania. ... (pronounced poy-en-ar-ee). ...


The early part of Vlad’s reign was dominated by the idea of eliminating all possible threats to his power, mainly the rival nobility groups. This was done mainly by physical elimination, but also by reducing the economic role of the nobility: the key positions in the Prince’s Council, traditionally belonging to the country’s greatest boyars, were handed to obscure individuals, some of them of foreign origin, but who manifested loyalty towards Vlad. (Nonetheless, even these people were eliminated regularly). For the less important functions, Vlad also ignored the old boyars, preferring to knight and appoint men from the free peasantry. A key element of the power of the Wallachian nobility was their connections in the Saxon - populated autonomous towns of Transylvania, so Vlad acted against these cities by eliminating their trade privileges in relation with Wallachia and by organizing raids against them. The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: Siebenbürger Sachsen; Romanian: SaÅŸi, Hungarian: Szászok) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania from the 12th century onwards. ...


Another serious threat to Vlad’s power was the anarchical situation (a constant state of war had led to rampant crime, falling agricultural production and virtual disappearance of trade) in which Wallachia was brought since the death of his grandfather Mircea the Elder (1418). Vlad used severe methods to restore some order, as he needed an economically stable country if he was to have any chance against his external enemies.


Vlad III Basarab was also constantly on guard against the adherents of the Dăneşti clan. Some of his raids into Transylvania may have been efforts to capture would-be princes of the Dăneşti. Several members of the Dăneşti clan died at Vlad's hands. Vladislav II of Wallachia was murdered soon after Vlad came to power in 1456. Another Dăneşti prince was captured during one of Vlad's forays into Transylvania. Thousands of citizens of the town that had sheltered his rival were impaled by Vlad. The captured Dăneşti prince was forced to read his own funeral oration while kneeling before an open grave before his execution. Vladislav II was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia, between the years 1447-1448, and again from 1448 to 1456. ... Look up eulogy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A personal crusade

Main article: The Night Attack

The greatest threat to Vlad’s position was the rivalry in southeastern Europe between the Ottoman Empire and the Hungarian Kingdom. Following family traditions, Vlad decided to side with the latter. To the end of the 1450s there was once again talk about a war against the Turks, in which the king of Hungary, Matthias Corvinus would play the main role. Knowing this, Vlad stopped paying money to the Ottomans in 1459 and around 1460 made a new alliance with Corvinus, much to the dislike of the Turks, who attempted to remove him. They failed; later, in the winter of 1461 to 1462 Vlad crossed south of the Danube and devastated the area between Serbia and the Black Sea, leaving over 20,000 people dead. Combatants Wallachia Ottoman Empire Commanders Vlad III Dracula Mehmed II Strength up to 30,000 Up to 90,000 Casualties 5,000 15,000 The Night Attack (Romanian: Atacul de noapte) was a skirmish fought between Vlad III Dracula of Wallachia and Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events and Trends Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453. ... Matthias Corvinus (Mátyás in Hungarian), (February 23, 1443 (?) - April 6, 1490) was one of the greatest Kings of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ... Map of the Black Sea. ...


In response to this, Sultan Mehmed II, the recent conqueror of Constantinople, raised an army of around 60,000 men and in the spring of 1462 headed towards Wallachia. With his army of 20,000-30,000 men Vlad was unable to stop the Turks from entering Wallachia and occupying the capital Târgovişte (June 4, 1462), so he resorted to guerrilla war, constantly organizing small attacks and ambushes on the Turks. The most important of these attacks took place on the night of June 16/17, when Vlad and some of his men allegedly entered the main Turkish camp (wearing Ottoman disguises) and attempted to assassinate Mehmed. The Turks eventually left the country, but not before installing Vlad’s brother, Radu the Handsome, as the new prince; he gathered support from the nobility and chased Vlad to Transylvania, and by August 1462 he had struck a deal with the Hungarian Crown. Consequently, Vlad was imprisoned by Matthias Corvinus. The Ottoman Dynasty (or the House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Mehmed II (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) (Arabic: محمد الثاني) was first the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Map of Constantinople. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... Guerrilla War redirects here. ...


In captivity

The exact length of Vlad's period of captivity is open to some debate. The Russian pamphlets indicate that he was a prisoner from 1462 until 1474. Apparently his imprisonment was none too onerous. He was able to gradually win his way back into the graces of Hungary's monarch; so much so that he was able to meet and marry a member of the royal family (the cousin of Matthias) and have two sons who were about ten years old when he reconquered Wallachia in 1476. McNally and Florescu place Vlad III the Impaler's actual period of confinement at about four years from 1462 to 1466. It is unlikely that a prisoner would have been allowed to marry into the royal family. Diplomatic correspondence from Buda during the period in question also seems to support the claim that Vlad's actual period of confinement was relatively short. Buda (German: Ofen) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ...


The openly pro-Turkish policy of Vlad's brother, Radu (who was prince of Wallachia during most of Vlad's captivity), was a probable factor in Vlad's rehabilitation. During his captivity, Vlad also adopted Catholicism. It is interesting to note that the Muscovy narrative, normally very favorable to Vlad Tepes, indicates that even in captivity he could not give up his favorite past-time; he often captured birds and mice which he proceeded to torture and mutilate — some were beheaded or tarred-and-feathered and released, most were impaled on tiny spears. Catholic Church redirects here. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ...


Apparently in the years before his final release in 1474 (when he began preparations for the reconquest of Wallachia), Vlad resided with his new wife in a house in the Hungarian capital (the setting of the thief anecdote). Vlad had a son from an earlier marriage, Mihnea cel Rău. According to legend his first wife, whose name is not recorded, died during the siege of his castle in 1462. The Turkish army surrounded Poienari Castle, led by his half-brother Radu the Handsome. An archer shot an arrow through a window into Vlad's main quarters, demanding his surrender. Upon reading the message, Vlad's wife flung herself off the tower into a tributary of the Argeş River flowing below the castle. Today, the river is called Râul Doamnei (the Lady's River). Mihnea cel Rău is the son of Vlad Å¢epeÅŸ (Dracula) and ruler of Wallachia from 1508 until 1509. ... (pronounced poy-en-ar-ee). ... ArgeÅŸ is a river of Southern Romania, which rises from the FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, in the Carpathians and flows into the Danube. ... Riul Doamnei is an affluent of ArgeÅŸ River. ...


Return to Wallachia and death

See also Battle of Vaslui The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul ÃŽnalt) (January 10, 1475) was fought between the Moldavian (Romanian) Prince, Åžtefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great) and the Ottoman General Suleiman Pasha. ...


Around 1475 Vlad the Impaler was again ready to make another bid for power. Vlad and Prince Stefan Báthory of Transylvania invaded Wallachia with a mixed force of Transylvanians, a few dissatisfied Wallachian boyars, and a contingent of Moldavians sent by Vlad's cousin, Prince Stephen III of Moldavia. Vlad's brother, Radu the Handsome, had died a couple of years earlier and had been replaced on the Wallachian throne by another Ottoman candidate, Basarab the Elder, a member of the Dăneşti clan. At the approach of Vlad's army, Basarab and his cohorts fled, some to the protection of the Turks, others to the shelter of the Transylvanian Alps. After placing Vlad Tepes on the throne, Stephen Báthory and the bulk of Vlad's forces returned to Transylvania, leaving Vlad in a very weak position. Vlad had little time to gather support before a large Ottoman army entered Wallachia determined to return Basarab to the throne. Vlad's cruelties over the years had alienated the boyars who felt they had a better chance of surviving under Prince Basarab. Apparently, even the peasants, tired of the depredations of Vlad, abandoned him to his fate. Vlad was forced to march to meet the Turks with the small forces at his disposal, somewhat less than four thousand men. Events August 29 - Treaty of Picquigny ends a brief war between France and England. ... Stephen the Great (Romanian icon) Stephen III of Moldavia, also called Stephen MuÅŸat III (BorzeÅŸti, 1433 – Suceava, 1504-07-02) was a voivod (prince) of Moldova (1457-1504), who won renown in Europe for his long resistance against the Ottoman Empire. ... Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia in the 15th Century, repeating the achievement of Dan II in being elected by the Boyars as Prince on 5 different occasions. ... Southern Carpathians (also called Transylvanian Alps; in Romanian: Carpaţii Meridionali) are located between the Prahova river in the east and the Timiş river and Cerna river in the west. ...


There are several variants of Vlad III the Impaler's death. Some sources say he was killed in battle against the Turks near Bucharest in December of 1476. Others say he was assassinated by disloyal Wallachian boyars just as he was about to sweep the Turks from the field or during a hunt. Other accounts have Vlad falling in defeat, surrounded by the bodies of his loyal Moldavian bodyguard (the troops loaned by Prince Stephen remained with Vlad after Stephen Báthory returned to his country). Still other reports claim that Vlad, at the moment of victory, was accidentally struck down by one of his own men. Vlad's body was decapitated by the Turks and his head was sent to Istanbul and preserved in honey, where the sultan had it displayed on a stake as proof that Kazıklı Bey was dead. He was reportedly buried at a monastery located at Snagov, near Bucharest. The Beheading of Cosmas and Damian, by Fra Angelico Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... Istanbul (other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and economic center. ... Ilfov county with Snagov commune highlighted Snagov (population: 7,000) is a commune located 40 km north of Bucharest in Ilfov county, Romania. ...


Still others say that he was killed by his brother who at the time was with the Turks and his step-father; his brother stabbed him to death. He was then buried in the church from which he was taken out of. Some people say that his father came to visit the coffin and was found beheaded. Also that somewhere in the late 1800's early 1900's when archeologists dug up the coffin the tomb had only animal bones in it.[citation needed]


Legacy of Vlad Tepes

Romanian verbal tradition provides another important source for the life of Vlad the Impaler: legends and tales concerning the Impaler have remained a part of folklore among the Romanian peasantry. These tales have been passed down from generation to generation for five hundred years. Through constant retelling they have become somewhat garbled and confused and they have gradually been forgotten in later years. However, they still provide valuable information about Dracula and his relationship with his people. Many of the tales contained in the pamphlets are also found in the verbal tradition, though with a somewhat different emphasis. Among the Romanian peasantry, Vlad Tepes was remembered as a just prince who defended his people from foreign aggression, whether those foreigners were Turkish invaders or German merchants. He is also remembered as a champion of the common man against the oppression of the boyars. National poet of Romania, Mihai Eminescu wrote the memorable verses "Unde esti tu Tepes Doamne Ca punand mana pe ei Sa-i imparti in doua cete In smintiti si in misei" (where are you Tepes lord, to get them and split them in two gangs, fools and rascals"). Vlad's fierce insistence on honesty is a central part of the verbal tradition. Many of the anecdotes contained in the pamphlets and in the verbal tradition demonstrate the prince's efforts to eliminate crime and dishonesty from his domain. Presidential candidate Traian Basescu refered to Vlad Tepes and his method of punishing illegalities, in his anticoruption discourse during the election campain of 2004. Folklore is the body of verbal expressive culture, including tales, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs current among a particular population, comprising the oral tradition of that culture, subculture, or group. ... Mihai HEminescu Mihai Eminescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ) (January 15, 1850 – June 15, 1889), born Mihail Eminovici, was a late Romantic poet, probably the best-known and most influential Romanian poet. ... Traian Băsescu (born November 4, 1951) is a Romanian politician. ...


However, despite the more positive interpretation, the Romanian verbal tradition also remembers Vlad as an exceptionally cruel and often capricious ruler. There are several events that are common to all the pamphlets, regardless of their nation of origin. Many of these events are also found in the Romanian verbal tradition. Specific details may vary among the different versions of these anecdotes but the general course of events usually agrees to a remarkable extent. For example, in some versions the foreign ambassadors received by Vlad Tepes at Târgovişte are Florentine, in others they are Ottoman. The nature of their offense against the Prince also varies from version to version. However, all versions agree that Vlad, in response to some real or imagined insult, had their hats nailed to their heads. Some of the sources view Vlad's actions as justified, others view his acts as crimes of wanton and senseless cruelty. Founded 59 BC as Florentia Region Tuscany Mayor Leonardo Domenici (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  102 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 356,000 almost 500,000 3,453/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Latitude Longitude 43°47 N 11°15 E www. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl...


Alleged atrocities

The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
Woodblock print of Vlad III attending a mass impalement.
Woodblock print of Vlad III attending a mass impalement.

More than anything else, Vlad III Tepes is known for his exceeding cruelty. Impalement was Tepes's preferred method of torture and execution, which he had learned in his youth as a prisoner of the Turks. His method of torture - a horse attached to each of the victim's legs as a sharpened stake was gradually forced into the body. The end of the stake was usually oiled and care was taken that the stake not be too sharp; else the victim might die too rapidly from shock. Normally the stake was inserted into the body through the anus and was often forced through the body until it emerged from the mouth. However, there were many instances where victims were impaled through other bodily orifices or through the abdomen or chest. Infants were sometimes impaled on the stake forced through their mother's chests. The records indicate that victims were sometimes impaled so that they hung upside down on the stake. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Vlad III at Impalement The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Vlad III at Impalement The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Woodblock print of Vlad III Dracula attending a mass impalement. ... Torture is any act by which severe pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted on a person as a means of intimidation, deterrence, revenge, punishment, or information gathering. ... Male Human Anatomy Anal redirects here. ...


As expected, death by impalement was slow and painful. Victims sometimes endured for hours or days. Vlad often had the stakes arranged in various geometric patterns. The most common pattern was a ring of concentric circles in the outskirts of a city that constituted his target. The height of the spear indicated the rank of the victim. The corpses were often left decaying for months.


Thousands were often impaled at a single time. 10,000 were impaled in the Transylvanian city of Sibiu (where Vlad the Impaler had once lived) in 1460. The previous year, on Saint Bartholomew's Day (in August), Vlad the Impaler had 30,000 of the merchants and officials of the Transylvanian city of Braşov that were breaking his authority impaled. One of the most famous woodcuts of the period shows Vlad the Impaler feasting amongst a forest of stakes and their grisly burdens outside Braşov, while a nearby executioner cuts apart other victims. County Sibiu County Status County capital Mayor Klaus Johannis, from the Democratic Forum of Germans of Romania, since 2000 Area 121 km² Population (2002) 171,535 Density 1,417 inh/km² Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Michelangelos The Last Judgement shows Saint Bartholomew holding the knife of his martyrdom and his flayed skin. ... County BraÅŸov County Status County capital Mayor George Scripcaru, since 2004 Area  km² Population (2002) 283,901 Density  inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ...


Impalement was Vlad the Impaler's favourite but by no means his only method of torture. The list of tortures employed by the prince is extensive: nails in heads, cutting off of limbs, blinding, strangulation, burning, cutting off of noses and ears, mutilation of sexual organs (especially in the case of women), scalping, skinning, exposure to the elements or to animals, and boiling alive.


No one was immune to Vlad the Impaler's attentions. His victims included women and children, peasants and great lords, ambassadors from foreign powers and merchants. However, the vast majority of his European victims came from the merchants and boyars of Transylvania and his own country, Wallachia. Many have attempted to justify Vlad's actions on the basis of nascent nationalism and political necessity. Most of the merchants in Transylvania and Wallachia were Saxons who were seen as parasites, preying upon Romanian natives of Wallachia, while the boyars had proven their disloyalty time and time again (Vlad's own father and older brother were murdered by unfaithful boyars). It is highly contested whether he was actually insane, though he certainly had no problem giving that impression. His domestic atrocities were largely driven by one or more of three motives: personal or political vendettas, the establishment of iron-fisted law and order in Wallachia, and nationalizing the province's economy through policies that would be identified today as producerism. Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is a form of identity that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: Siebenbürger Sachsen; Romanian: Saşi, Hungarian: Szászok) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania from the 12th century onwards. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with feud. ... Grange poster depicting the independent, industrious farmer as the keystone figure in society. ...


Vlad Tepes committed even more impalements and other tortures against invading forces, namely Ottomans. It was once reported that an invading Ottoman army turned back in fright when it encountered thousands of rotting corpses impaled on the banks of the Danube. In 1462 Mehmed II, the conqueror of Constantinople, a man not noted for his squeamishness, returned to Constantinople after being sickened by the sight of 20,000 impaled corpses outside of Vlad's capital of Târgovişte. Many of the victims were Turkish prisoners of war Vlad had previously captured during the Turkish invasion. The total Turkish casualty toll in this battle reached over 40,000. The warrior sultan turned command of the campaign against Vlad over to subordinates and returned to Istanbul, even though his army had initially tripled Vlad's in size. Mehmed II (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) (Arabic: محمد الثاني) was first the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Mehmed II Strength 7,000 100,000 Casualties Entire garrison killed or captured Unknown, but heavy The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of the Byzantine capital by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29...


Vlad the Impaler began his reign of terror almost as soon as he came to power. His first significant act of cruelty may have been motivated by a desire of revenge as well as a need to solidify his power. Early in his reign he gave a feast for his boyars and their families to celebrate Easter. Vlad was well aware that many of these same nobles were part of the conspiracy that led to his father's assassination and the burying alive of his elder brother, Mircea. Many had also played a role in the overthrow of numerous Wallachian princes. During the feast Vlad asked his noble guests how many princes had ruled during their life times. All of the nobles present had outlived several princes. One answered that at least thirty princes had held the throne during his life. None had seen less than seven reigns. Vlad immediately had all the assembled nobles arrested. The older boyars and their families were impaled on the spot. The younger and healthier nobles and their families were marched north from Târgovişte to the ruins of Poienari Castle in the mountains above the Argeş River. Vlad the Impaler was determined to rebuild this ancient fortress as his own stronghold and refuge. The enslaved boyars and their families were forced to labor for months rebuilding the old castle with materials from another nearby ruin. According to the reports, they labored until the clothes fell off their bodies and then were forced to continue working naked. Very few of the old gentry survived the ordeal of building Vlad's castle. This article is about the Christian festival. ... Assassination is the deliberate killing of an important person, usually a political figure or other strategically important individual. ... Gentry is a term meaning one thing in the UK: landed gentry. ...


Throughout his reign, Vlad systematically eradicated the old boyar class of Wallachia. The old boyars had repeatedly undermined the power of the prince during previous reigns and had been responsible for the violent overthrow of several princes. Apparently Vlad Tepes was determined that his own power be on a modern and thoroughly secure footing. In place of the executed boyars, Vlad promoted new men from among the free peasantry and middle class; men who would be loyal only to their prince. Many of Vlad's acts of cruelty can be interpreted as efforts to strengthen and modernize the central government at the expense of the decaying feudal powers of nobility carried over from the Middle Ages. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Anecdotal evidence

Much of the information we have about Vlad III Tepes comes from pamphlets published in the Holy Roman Empire and chronicles written in Muscovy. The first known German pamphlet dates from 1488 and it is possible that some were printed during Vlad’s lifetime. At least initially, they may have been politically inspired. At that time Matthias Corvinus of Hungary was seeking to bolster his own reputation in the Empire and may have intended the early pamphlets as justification of his less than vigorous support of his vassal. The pamphlets were also a form of mass entertainment in a society where the printing press was just coming into widespread use. Much like the subject matter of the supermarket tabloids of today, the cruel life of the Wallachian tyrant was easily sensationalized. The pamphlets were reprinted numerous times over the thirty or so years following Vlad's death -- strong proof of their popularity. The German pamphlets painted Vlad Tepes as an inhuman monster who terrorized the land and butchered innocents with sadistic glee. The Russian pamphlets took a somewhat different view. The princes of Muscovy were at the time just beginning to build the basis of what would become the autocracy of the tsars. They were also having considerable trouble with disloyal, often troublesome boyars. In Muscovy, Vlad was presented as a cruel but just prince whose actions were directed toward the greater good of his people. Despite the differences in interpretation, the pamphlets, regardless of their land of origin, agree remarkably well as to specifics. The level of agreement has led most historians to conclude that at least the broad outlines of the events covered actually occurred. The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... A tabloid is a newspaper — especially in the United Kingdom — that uses the tabloid format, which is roughly 23½ by 14¾ inches per spread. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... An Autocracy is a form of government in which unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is the official Slavonic title designating Emperor in the following states: Bulgaria in 913–1422 (for later usage in 1908–1946, see below) Serbia in...


Vlad's atrocities against the people of Wallachia were usually attempts to enforce his own moral code upon his country. According to the pamphlets, he appears to have been particularly concerned with female chastity. Maidens who lost their virginity, adulterous wives, and unchaste widows were all targets of Vlad's cruelty. Such women often had their sexual organs cut out or their breasts cut off. They were also often impaled through the vagina on red-hot stakes that were forced through the body until they emerged from the mouth. One report tells of the execution of an unfaithful wife. Dracula had the woman's breasts cut off, then she was skinned and impaled in a square in Târgovişte with her skin lying on a nearby table. Vlad also insisted that his people be honest and hard-working. Merchants who cheated their customers were likely to find themselves mounted on a stake beside common thieves. Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... A maiden may refer to: A female virgin. ... In Roman times, Vestal Virgins were strictly celibate or they were punished by death. ... Man and woman undergoing public exposure for adultery in Japan, around 1860 Adultery is generally defined as consensual sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than his or her lawful spouse. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ...


The vampire myth and the Romanian attitudes

It is unclear why Bram Stoker chose this Wallachian prince as the model for his fictional vampire. Stoker was friends with a Hungarian professor from Budapest, and many have suggested that Vlad's name might have been mentioned by this friend. Regardless of how the name came to Stoker's attention, the cruel history of the Impaler would have readily loaned itself to Stoker's purposes. The events of Vlad's life were played out in a region of the world that was still basically medieval even in Stoker's time. The Balkans had only recently shaken off the Turkish yoke when Stoker started working on his novel and ancient superstitions were still prevalent. Transylvania had long been a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, but it too had endured a long period of Turkish domination and its culture was still largely medieval. Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires (or vampiress, for female) are mythical or folkloric creatures, typically held to be the re-animated corpses of human beings and said to subsist on human and/or animal blood (hematophagy). ... Flag Seal Nickname: Paris of the East, Pearl of the Danubeor Queen of the Danube Location Location of Budapest in Hungary Government Country   County Hungary / E.U.   none Mayor Gábor Demszky (SZDSZ) Geographical characteristics Area     City 525,16 km²     Land   n/a km²     Water   n/a km² Population... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


Recent research suggests that Stoker knew little of the Prince of Wallachia. Some have claimed that the novel owes more to the legends about Elizabeth Báthory. (See Dracula - Historical connections for more detail). A portrait of the Bloody Lady of ÄŒachtice Elizabeth Báthory (Báthory Erzsébet in Hungarian, Alžbeta Bátoriová(-NádaÅ¡dy) in Slovak, August 7?, 1560 – August 21, 1614), the Bloody Lady of ÄŒachtice, was a Hungarian countess that lived in the ÄŒachtice Castle near Trenčín... Dracula (1897) is a novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, and the name of the worlds most famous vampire character. ...


The legend of the vampire was and still is deeply rooted in that region. There have always been vampire-like creatures in the mythologies of many cultures. However, the vampire, as he became known in Europe, largely originated in Southern Slavic and Greek folklore — although the myth is virtually absent in Romanian culture. A veritable epidemic of vampirism swept through Eastern Europe beginning in the late 17th century and continuing through the 1700s. The number of reported cases rose dramatically in Hungary and the Balkans. From the Balkans, the "plague" spread westward into Germany, Italy, France, England, and Spain. Travelers returning from the Balkans brought with them tales of the undead, igniting an interest in the vampire that has continued to this day. Philosophers in the West began to study the phenomenon. It was during this period that Dom Augustine Calmet wrote his famous treatise on vampirism in Hungary. It was also during this period that authors and playwrights first began to explore the vampire myth. Stoker's novel was merely the culminating work of a long series of works that were inspired by the reports coming from the Balkans and Hungary. The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe. ... Folklore is the body of verbal expressive culture, including tales, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs current among a particular population, comprising the oral tradition of that culture, subculture, or group. ... Further reading Christopher Frayling - Vampyres: Lord Byron to Count Dracula 1992. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... Undead is the collective name for all types of supernatural entities that are deceased yet behave as if alive. ... Antoine Augustin Calmet (1672-1757), French Benedictine, was born at Ménil-la-Horgne, near Commercy, Lorraine, France on the 26th of February 1672. ...


Given the history of the vampire myth in Europe it is perhaps natural that Stoker should place his great vampire in the heart of the region that gave birth to the myth. Once Stoker had determined on a locality Vlad Dracula would stand out as one of the most notorious rulers of the selected region. He was obscure enough that few would recognize the name and those who did would know him for his acts of brutal cruelty; Dracula was a natural candidate for vampirism. Why Stoker chose to relocate his vampire from Wallachia to the north of Transylvania remains a mystery.


The vampire myth is still widespread in Eastern Europe. Similarly, the name of Dracula is still remembered in the Romanian oral tradition but that is the end of any connection between Dracula and the vampire myth in folklore. Outside of Stoker's novel the name of Dracula was never linked with the myth of the vampire. Despite his inhuman cruelty, in Romania Dracula is remembered as a national hero who resisted the Turkish conquerors and asserted Romanian national sovereignty against the powerful Hungarian kingdom. He is also remembered in a similar manner in other Balkan countries, as he fought against the Turks.


There are some legends saying that Vlad, after being taken captive by the Hungarians, had his eyes taken out and then was buried alive. The next day, they dug up the spot where he was buried and found no corpse. Several years later, there were numerous mysterious deaths at his castle.


It is somewhat ironic that Vlad's name has often been thrown into the political and ethnic feuds between Hungarians and Romanians, because he was ultimately far from an enemy of Hungary. While he certainly had violent conflicts with some Hungarian nobles, he had just as many Hungarian friends and allies, and his successes in battle with the Turks largely benefited Hungary in the long term. Hungary later found itself under siege but was never entirely penetrated by Ottoman forces. Though neither the first nor the last powerful ruler to take on the Ottoman Empire, Dracula's demoralizing battle tactics were quite influential in damaging the illusion of Turkish invincibility and reversing the European aura of appeasement.


It should be taken into account that Romanian folklore and poetry paints Vlad Dracula not as a vampire but as a killer of vampires. His favorite weapon being the stake, coupled with his reputation in his native country as a man who stood up to both foreign and domestic "bloodsuckers," gives Dracula the virtual opposite symbolism of Bram Stoker's vampire. For this reason, the association of his name with vampirism does not make sense to Romanians. In Romania he is still considered by some to be a "savior" to the people of his country. He is also considered one of the greatest leaders and defenders of Romania.


A good description of Vlad Dracula survives courtesy of Nicholas of Modrussa, who wrote:

He was not very tall, but very stocky and strong, with a cruel and terrible appearance, a long straight nose, distended nostrils, a thin and reddish face in which the large wide-open green eyes were enframed by bushy black eyebrows, which made them appear threatening. His face and chin were shaven but for a moustache. The swollen temples increased the bulk of his head. A bull's neck supported the head, from which black curly locks were falling to his wide-shouldered person.

His famous contemporary portrait, rediscovered by Romanian historians in the late 1800s, had been featured in the gallery of horrors at Innsbruck's Ambras Castle. It is significant for the Romanian counter-myth that the Romanian intellectual Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, claiming to apply Johann Kaspar Lavater's method to Vlad's depiction in one of the woodcuts, concluded that his subject mostly resembled the likes of William Shakespeare and Cesare Borgia. Events and Trends Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1803 - 1815). ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... Petriceicu_Hasdeu: photograph and signature Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu (February 16, 1836_September 7, 1907) a Romanian philologist, was born at Hotin in Bessarabia in 1836, and studied at the university of Kharkiv. ... Johann Kaspar Lavater (November 15, 1741 - January 2, 1801), was a poet and physiognomist. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Cesare Borgia. ...


Ţepeş' image in modern Romanian culture has been established in reaction to foreign perceptions: while Stoker's book did a lot to generate outrage with nationalists, it is the last part of a rather popular previous poem by Mihai Eminescu, Scrisoarea a III-a, that helped turn Vlad's image into modern myth, by having him stand as a figure to contrast with presumed social decay under the Phanariotes and the political scene of the 1800s (even suggesting that Vlad's violent methods be applied as a cure). This judgement was in tune with the ideology of the inward-looking regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu, although the identification did little justice to Eminescu's personal beliefs. Mihai HEminescu Mihai Eminescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ) (January 15, 1850 – June 15, 1889), born Mihail Eminovici, was a late Romantic poet, probably the best-known and most influential Romanian poet. ... Phanariotes or Phanariot Greeks (Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: FanarioÅ£i) - were the members of those principal Greek families who resided in Phanar (Fener in Turkish, from the Greek word Φανάρι, Phanari - Lighthouse), the chief Greek quarter of Istanbul - where the ecumenical patriarchate is situated. ... Events and Trends Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1803 - 1815). ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA ) (January 26, 1918 - December 25, 1989) was the leader of Communist Romania from 1965 until shortly before his execution. ...


All accounts of his life describe him as unrepentantly ruthless, but only the ones originating from his Saxon detractors paint him as exceptionally sadistic or somehow insane. These pamphlets continued to be published long after his death, though usually for lurid entertainment rather than propaganda purposes. It has largely been forgotten until recently that his tenacious efforts against the Ottoman Empire won him many staunch supporters in his lifetime, not just in modern day Romania but in the Kingdom of Hungary, Poland, the Republic of Venice, and even the Holy See, not to take into account Balkan countries. A Hungarian court chronicler reported that King Matthias "had acted in opposition to general opinion" in Hungary when he had Dracula imprisoned, and this played a considerable part in Matthias reversing his unpopular decision. During his time as a "distinguished prisoner" before being fully pardoned and allowed to reconquer Wallachia, Vlad was hailed as a Christian hero by visitors from all over Europe. The Most Serene Republic of Venice (Venetian: Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta; Italian: ) was a Venetian city-state in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ...


Of the recent literary works written in Romania about the real Vlad, only Marin Sorescu's play Vlad Dracula, the Impaler has been translated into English. Marin Sorescu (1936-1997) was a Romanian poet, writer, and novelist. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


References

  • Dracula: Prince of Many Faces (1989). Florescu, Radu R. and Mcnally, Raymond T. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0316286559.
  • In Search of Dracula, Revised (1994). Florescu, Radu R. and Mcnally, Raymond T. Little, Houghton Mifflin.
  • Vlad Dracula: The Life and Times of the Historical Dracula (2000). Treptow, Kurt. Center for Romanian Studies.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Preceded by:
Vladislav II
Prince of Wallachia
1448
Succeeded by:
Vladislav II
Preceded by:
Vladislav II
Prince of Wallachia
1456–1462
Succeeded by:
Radu cel Frumos
Preceded by:
Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân
Prince of Wallachia
1475–1476
Succeeded by:
Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Vladislav II was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia, between the years 1447-1448, and again from 1448 to 1456. ... Below is the list of Wallachian rulers, since the first mentioned until the unification with Moldavia in 1859. ... Radu cel Frumos (Radu the Handsome), (c. ... Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia in the 15th Century, repeating the achievement of Dan II in being elected by the Boyars as Prince on 5 different occasions. ...


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VLAD TEPES - The Historical Dracula (5641 words)
Vlad III’s father thus came to be known as "Vlad Dracul," or "Vlad the dragon." In Romanian the ending "ulea" means "the son of".
Vlad III was born in November or December of 1431 in the Transylvanian city of Sighisoara.
Vlad Dracula was killed in battle against the Turks near the town of Bucharest in December of 1476.
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