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Encyclopedia > Vizier

ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally "burden-bearer" or "helper", is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph, Amir, Malik (king) or Sultan. The Middle Persian ancestor of this word was Vichir. “Farsi” redirects here. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... Emir (also sometimes rendered as Amir or Ameer, Arabic commander) is a title of nobility historically used in Islamic nations of the Middle East and North Africa. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Melik. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ...


In modern usage the term has been used in the East generally for certain important officials under the sovereign. It is also used anachronistically or in a modern Islamic republic's cabinet. ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...

Vizier

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Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 351 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1134 × 1933 pixel, file size: 749 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 351 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1134 × 1933 pixel, file size: 749 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Historical ministerial titles

This word entered English in 1562, from the Turkish vezir ("counsellor"), from the Persian vazier, literally "one who bears (the burden of office)".


The Muslim office of vizier, which spread from the Persians to the Arabs, Turks, Mongols and neighbouring peoples (regardless of the style of the ruler), arose under the first Abbasid caliphs and took shape during its tenure by the Barmecides as the chief minister or representative of the caliph. The vizier stood between sovereign and subjects, representing the former in all matters touching the latter. This withdrawal of the head of the state from direct contact with his people was unknown to the Omayyads, and was certainly an imitation of Persian usage. It has even been plausibly conjectured that the name is simply the Arabic adaptation of a pre-Islamic Persian title, vichir (Middle Persian for Vizier), who was a minister to the Shah. According to Klein, the Arabic word wazir is derived from Avestan vicira "arbitrator, judge" and replaced the Arabic kātib, "writer" in the sense of "secretary of state". Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... The Barmakids (Persian: برمكيان BarmakÄ«yān; Arabic: البرامكة al-barāmika, also called Barmecides) were a noble Persian family which attained great power under the Abbasid caliphs. ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... The Umayyad dynasty (Banu Umayyah), deriving its name from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of Muawiyah I, was the first great dynasty of the Muslim Caliphate, 661–750. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ...


However, the term has been used in two very different ways: either for a unique position, the prime minister at the head of the monarch's government (the term Grand Vizier always refers to such a post), or as a shared 'cabinet rank', rather like a British secretary of state. If one such vizier is the prime minister, he may hold the title of Grand Vizier or another title. A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ...


In some Muslim societies, unsuccessful viziers were commonly eliminated — justifiably or as scapegoats. This was particularly common during much of Ottoman history; for example, one of the most brutal sultans, Selim I, had seven viziers executed during his eight-year rule; others were deposed but merely demoted; and some even returned to office. Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish: ); also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim (October 10, 1465 in Amasya – September 22, 1520 in Edirne) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ...


In Islam's Core Area

  • In Al-Andalus (the Iberian peninsula under the Arabo-Barbaresque Moors) appointed by the Caliph of Cordoba
    • Similarly in many of the emirates and sultanates of the taifa which the caliphate was broken up into (for example the Abbadids in Seville)
  • In Muslim Egypt, the most populous Arab country:
    • Under the Fatimid Caliphs
    • Again since the end of effective Ottoman rule, remarkably since 1857 (i.e. before the last Wali (governor), Isma`il Pasha, was raised Khedive (circa Viceroy, on 8 June 1867), exchanged for the western Prime ministers on 28 August 1878 (before the formally independent sultanate was proclaimed)
  • During the days of the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier was the — often de facto ruling — prime minister, second only to the Sultan (many of whom left politics to him, indulging in court pleasures) and was the leader of the Divan, the Imperial Council.
  • In Muslim Iran, the Prime Minister under the political authority of the Shahanshah was commonly styled Vazīr-e Azam ('Supreme -, i.e. Grand Vizier'; alternative titles include Atabeg-e Azam and Sardār-e Azam), and various Ministers held cabinet rank as vazir, including a Vazir-i-Daftar (minister for finance) and a Vazir-i-Lashkar (war portfolio).
  • In the Sherifan kingdom of Morocco (historically a sultanate till the incumbent assumed the higher royal style of Malik on 14 August 1957, shortly after the end of the simultaneous French and Spanish protectorates; the additional Islamic title Amir al-Mu´minin "Commander of the Faithful" stayed in use), a Sadr al-A'zam (Grand Vizier) was in office until 22 November 1955, replaced since 7 December 1955 a (part-political) Prime Minister; Vizier was the style of a minister of state (other titles for various portfolios).
  • In Oman the Hami/Sultan's Chief minister was styled Wazir till 1966, but in 1925-1932 there was also or in stead a Chairman of the council of Ministers; since 1970 the style is Prime Minister
  • In the Hashemite Kingdom of the Hejaz, the sole Vizier was (10 June 1916 - 3 October 1924) the future second king Ali ibn Hussein al-Hashimi, under his father Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi (the first to assume the title Malik, i.e. King, in stead of Grand Sharif), maintained after the assumption of the Caliphal style (only 11 March 1924 - 3 October 1924)
  • In the 'regency' of Tunisia, under the Husainid Dynasty, various ministers of the Bey, including
    • Wazir al-Akbar (or El Ouzir El Kébir): 'Great Minister', i.e. Grand Vizier, Chief Minister or Prime Minister.
    • Wazir al-'Amala (or El Ouzir El Amala): Minister for the Interior.
    • Wazir al-Bahr (or El Ouzir El Bahr): Minister 'of the Sea', i.e. for the Navy/ Marine.
    • Wazir al-Harb (or El Ouzir El Harb): Minister for the Army or Minister for War.
    • Wazir al-Istishara (or El Ouzir El Istichara): Minister-Counsellor.
    • Wazir al-Qalam: Minister of the Pen.
    • Wazir ud-Daula (or El Ouzir El Dawla): Minister of State.
    • Wazir us-Shura (or El Ouzir Ech Choura): Privy Counsellor.
  • In Afghanistan, under the Durrani dynasty, the Chief minister was styled Vazīr-e Azam (1801-1880); the Vazīr-e Darbār was the ('House') Minister of the Royal Court.

Location Coordinates : , , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... For the HMS Khedive, see USS Cordova. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... In some Muslim countries, Amir al-Muminin (Arabic أمير المؤمنين) meaning Commander of the Faithful or Prince of the Faithful, has been the title of the ruler and/or supreme religious leader. ... Kumul or Hami (Uyghur: Ù‚Û‡Ù…Û‡Ù„/KÌ¢umul; Chinese: 哈密; Pinyin: Hāmì) is an oasis in Xinjiang (China); it is also the name of a modern city and the sourrounding district. ... The Husainid Dynasty is the former ruling dynasty of Tunisia originally of Cretan origin. ... Durrani (Persian: درانی) or Abdali (Persian: ابدالی) tribe is one of the Pashtun elite, and is also found in large numbers in western Pakistan. ...

In India

  • In India many rulers, even some Hindu princes, had a vizier as chief minister – compare Diwan, Nawab wasir, Pradhan, etcetera.
  • In the (former) sultanate of the Maldives (Divehi language), the Prime Minister was styled Bodu Vizier, and various Ministers held cabinet rank as vazierin (plural), including Hakura'a (portfolio of Public Works), Shahbandar (Navy portfolio, also Admiral in chief), Vela'ana'a (Foreign Affairs).

At various points in Indian history, the title of diwan has designated differing, though similar functions. ... A Nawab was originally the provincial governor or viceroy of a province or region of the Mughal empire. ... Pradhan is a high, generally ministerial title of Sanskrit origin in cultures of Hindu tradition, mainly in and around the Indian subcontinent. ...

In Modern Islamic republics

In Pakistan, the Prime Minister (de facto ruling politician, formally under the President) is called Vazīr-e Azam (Persian for Grand vizier), other Ministers are styled vazirs. A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ...


Anachronistic historical use

It is common, even among historians, to apply 'modern' terms to cultures whose own authentic titles are (or were when the habit took root) insufficiently known, in this case to pre-Islamic Antiquity.

  • In ancient Egypt the highest ranking government official, after the pharaoh, acting as his chief administrator (Egyptian: taty), is called by modern researchers vizier, (and also a vizier for the North, Lower Egypt, the Nile Delta, and a vizier for the South, Upper Egypt). However at times the viceroy of Nubia (a military governor general, sometimes a prince of the Pharaoh's blood) and/or the High Priest of Amun (the temple complex at Thebes gradually amassed sufficient possessions and income to rival the crown) rose to equal or even superior power; some pharaohs are even believed to have lost real political preeminence to the 'kingmakers'.
  • Among the Huns, the 'vizier' (Attila the Hun's was called Onegesius) was the second officer in rank after the great king; no formal status is known, just a class of royal councilors, representatives etc. known by the Greek term logades.

Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Attila (AD 406 - 453), also known as Attila the Hun was Khan of the Hun people from 434 until his death and leader of the Hunnic Empire. ... Onegesius was the vizier of Attila the Hun. ...

Princely title

In the rare case of the Indian princely state of Jafarabad (Jafrabad, founded c.1650), ruled by Thanadars, in 1702 a state called Janjira was founded, with rulers (six incumbents) styled wazir; when, in 1762, Jafarabad and Janjira states entered into personal union, both titles were maintained until (after 1825) the higher style of Nawab was assumed. Jafarabad district is in the south east of Balochistan province of Pakistan. ... Murud-Janjira ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ...


Art

In contemporary literature and pantomime, the "Grand Vizier" is a character stereotype and is usually portrayed as a scheming backroom plotter and the clear power behind the throne of a usually bumbling or incompetent monarch. A well-known example of this is the sinister character of Jafar in the Disney animated film Aladdin, who plots and uses magic to take over the entire Kingdom of Agrabah under the nose of the nation's naïve sultan, just as Jaffar in the 1940 movie The Thief of Bagdad dethroned his master, caliph Ahmad. Others include Zigzag from The Thief and the Cobbler (the original inspiration for the character of Jafar in Disney's Aladdin), the comic book character Iznogoud and the villains of the video games Prince of Persia and King's Quest VI. The Christmas Pantomime colour lithograph bookcover, 1890 Pantomime (informally, panto) refers to a theatrical genre, traditionally found in Great Britain, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand and Ireland, which is usually performed around the Christmas and New Year holiday season. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The phrase power behind the throne refers to a person or group that informally exercises the real power of an office. ... Jafar is a fictional character, voiced by Jonathan Freeman, in the Disney film Aladdin and its sequel, The Return of Jafar. ... The Walt Disney Company (NYSE: DIS) is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world. ... This article is about the Disney film. ... This is about the 1940 film starring Sabu. ... The official logo that was used on posters of the film until Richard Williams departure Arabian Knight redirects here. ... Iznogoud. ... “Computer and video games” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Kings Quest VI is universally known as the high point of the series for its in-depth plot, its landmark 3D graphic introduction movie, and its great voice acting, with actor Robby Benson providing the voice for Alexander, the games protagonist. ...


Perhaps the origin of this character archetype is the biblical account of Esther. The book details the rise of a Jewish woman to Queen of Persia, and her role in stopping the plot of Haman, chief advisor to the Persian king, to wipe out all Jews living in Persia. The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The Punishment of Haman, by Michaelangelo. ...


Throughout history the notion of the sinister Grand Vizier has often been invoked when a political leader appears to be developing a cozy relationship with a spiritual advisor of questionable scruples or talents. This stereotype is frequently mentioned in Terry Pratchett's Discworld series, as for example in both Sourcery and Interesting Times. Cover of an early edition of The Colour of Magic; art by Josh Kirby Discworld is a comedic fantasy book series by the British author Terry Pratchett set on the Discworld, a flat world balanced on the backs of four elephants which are in turn standing on the back of... Sourcery is the fifth Discworld novel by Terry Pratchett, published in 1988. ... Interesting Times is the seventeenth novel in the Discworld series by Terry Pratchett. ...


Fictional Grand Viziers

Ahoshta is a fictional character in the novel The Horse and His Boy by C.S. Lewis. ... Cover of a recent edition of The Horse and His Boy The Horse and His Boy is a novel by C.S. Lewis. ... Iznogoud. ... Jafar is a fictional character, voiced by Jonathan Freeman, in the Disney film Aladdin and its sequel, The Return of Jafar. ... This article is about the Disney film. ... This is about the 1940 film starring Sabu. ... The official logo that was used on posters of the film until Richard Williams departure Arabian Knight redirects here. ... Diablo Diablo II is an action-oriented adventure and role-playing game (RPG) in a hack and slash style designed as a sequel to the popular Diablo. ... Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time is a third-person action adventure video game published by Ubisoft. ...

Some famous viziers in history

Amir Kabir (امیرکبیر in Persian), also known as Mirza Taghi Khan Amir_Nezam (میرزا تقی‌خان امیرنظام), was the chancellor of Persia under Nasereddin Shah. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Amir Hasanak-e Vizir (Persian: ‎ ) (about 995-1077) was a famous 11th century vizier in Ghaznavid Empire of Persia. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Tusi Nizam al-Mulk (نظام الملك، ابو علي الحسن الطوسي in Arabic; 1018 - 14 October 1092) was a celebrated Persian vizier of the Seljuk... Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... Yahya ibn Khalid (Arabic: ‎, yaḥyā bin ḫālid) (death 806) was a member of the powerful Persian Barmakids family, son of Khalid ibn Barmak. ... Harun al-Rashid (Arabic هارون الرشيد also spelled Harun ar-Rashid, Haroun al-Rashid or Haroon al Rasheed; English: Aaron the Upright; ca. ... Jafar bin Yahya Barmaki (Arabic: ‎, ja`far ben yaḥyā) (767-803) was the son of Harun al-Rashids Vizier Yahya ibn Khalid, from whom he inherited that position. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Burzoe (Bozorgmehr or Borzoyeh) is a famous Iranian man of learning and politician who lived and worked in the Sassanid Empire of Persia in the sixth century. ... A coin of Khosrau I. Khosrau I, (Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anooshiravan also spelled Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anooshiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل, Anooshiravan-e-ādel) (ruled 531–579), was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I (488–531... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ...

Sources and references

  • Etymology OnLine
  • Ark, dynasties in historical context - see each muslim nation quoted in this article, often in the section 'Glossary'
  • WorldStatesmen - click on each Islamic present state
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.


I LOVE SAM♥ en anne♥ Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Ottoman Empire developed a highly advanced organisation of state over the centuries. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... House of Osman is the name to the administrative structure of the Ottoman Dynasty, which is part of state organization of the Ottoman Empire, however directly linked to dynasty. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Concubine places The Imperial Harem or Harem was one of the most important powers of the Ottoman court. ... Palace school was part of House of Ottoman system that is designated to educate (rise) Ottoman Empires governing elite. ... The Ottoman Empire, at its height, covered a significant portion of the Mediterranean World, including portions of three continents. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Sheikh ul-islam (Sheikhul islam, Shaikh al-Islam, Åžeyhülislam) is a title of superior authority in the issues of Islam. ... The Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire was the government structure added to the Ottoman governing structure during the Second Constitutional Era. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A defence minister ( Commonwealth English) or defense minister ( American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ... Several countries have government departments named the Ministry of Education: Komisja Edukacji Narodowej of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1773. ... List of parties in Ottoman Empire gives an overview of parties in Ottoman Empire. ... Ottoman Empire, 1481-1683 The Ottoman Empire existed from 1299 to 1922 and, at the height of its power in the 16th century, it included nearly 20 million km² in Anatolia (Asia Minor), the Middle East, parts of North Africa, and much of south-eastern Europe, and the Caucasus. ... Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... A religious elder (in Greek, πρεσβυτερος [presbyteros]) is valued for his or her wisdom, in part for their age, on the grounds that the older one is then the more one is likely to know. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
VizieR Service (269 words)
VizieR provides access to the most complete library of published astronomical catalogues and data tables available on line, organized in a self-documented database.
VizieR is a joint effort of CDS (Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg) and ESA-ESRIN (Information Systems Division).
Note that VizieR does not contain all available online catalogues; some catalogues are not suitable and some less frequently used catalogues have not yet been incorporated into the VizieR database.
Vizier - LoveToKnow 1911 (149 words)
The office of vizier, which spread from the Arabs to the Persians, Turks, Mongols, and other Oriental peoples, arose under the first Abbasid caliphs (see Mahommedan Institutions, and Caliphate, C § I) and took shape during its tenure by the Barmecides.
The vizier stood between sovereign and subjects, representing the former in all matters touching the latter.
This withdrawal of the head of the state from direct contact with his people was unknown to the Omayyads, and was certainly an imitation of Persian usage; it has even been plausibly conjectured that the name is but the Arabic adaptation of a Persian title.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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