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Encyclopedia > Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh

from the film Fire Over England (1937)
Born November 5, 1913
Darjeeling, West Bengal, British India (now India)
Died July 8, 1967 (aged 53)
Flag of England London, England
Years active 1935–1967
Spouse(s) Herbert Leigh Holman (1932–1940)
Laurence Olivier (1940–1960)
Academy Awards
Best Actress
1939 Gone with the Wind
1951 A Streetcar Named Desire
Tony Awards
Best Leading Actress in a Musical
1963 Tovarich
BAFTA Awards
Best Actress
1951 A Streetcar Named Desire

Vivien Leigh, Lady Olivier (November 5, 1913July 8, 1967) was a two-time Academy Award winning English actress. She won two Oscars playing "southern belles": Scarlett O'Hara in Gone with the Wind (1939) and Blanche DuBois in A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), a role she had also played in London's West End. She was a prolific stage performer, frequently in collaboration with her husband, Laurence Olivier, who directed her in several of her roles. During her thirty-year stage career, she played parts that ranged from the heroines of Noël Coward and George Bernard Shaw comedies to classic Shakespearean characters such as Ophelia, Cleopatra, Juliet and Lady Macbeth. Image File history File links FireOverEnglandVivienLeigh. ... Fire Over England is a 1937 film drama produced by London Film Productions. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Darjeeling (Nepali: , Bangla: দার্জিলিং) is a town in the Indian state of West Bengal. ... West Bengal   (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ, Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (22 May 1907–11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... The Academy Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role is one of the awards given to actresses working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... Gone with the Wind is a 1939 film adapted from Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel of the same name. ... A Streetcar Named Desire is an Academy Award-winning 1951 film adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name by Tennessee Williams. ... What is popularly called the Tony Award (formally, the Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre) is an annual award celebrating achievements in live American theater, including musical theater, primarily honoring productions on Broadway in New York. ... The Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical is awarded to the actress who was voted as the best actress in a musical, whether a new production or a revival. ... Original Broadway Cast CD Tovarich is a 1963 musical play in two acts with book by David Shaw; music by Lee Pockriss and lyrics by Anne Croswell; based on the comedy by Jacques Deval and Robert E. Sherwood, translation from the original French of Jacques Deval by Bettina Liebowitz Knapp... BAFTA Award The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), is a British organisation that hosts annual awards shows for film, television, childrens film and television, and interactive media. ... The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role has been presented to its winners since 1952 and actresses of all nationalities are eligible to receive the award. ... A Streetcar Named Desire is an Academy Award-winning 1951 film adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name by Tennessee Williams. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... A southern belle (derived from the French belle, beautiful is an archetype for a young woman of the American Old Souths antebellum upper class. ... Scarlett OHara (full name Katie Scarlett OHara Hamilton Kennedy Butler) of French-Irish ancestry is the protagonist in Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel, Gone with the Wind, and in the later film of the same name. ... Gone with the Wind is a 1939 film adapted from Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel of the same name. ... Vivien Leigh as Blanche DuBois in the film version of A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), with Marlon Brando as Stanley Kowalski Blanche DuBois is the principal character in Tennessee Williams play A Streetcar Named Desire. ... A Streetcar Named Desire is an Academy Award-winning 1951 film adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name by Tennessee Williams. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... West End theatre is a popular term for mainstream professional theatre in London, or sometimes more specifically for shows staged in the large theatres of Londons Theatreland. Along with New Yorks Broadway theatre, West End theatre is usually considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (22 May 1907–11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Noel Coward Sir Noel Peirce Coward (December 16, 1899 – March 26, 1973) was an English actor, playwright, and composer of popular music. ... George Bernard Shaw (born 26 July 1856, Dublin, Ireland died November 2, 1950, Hertfordshire, England) was an Irish writer. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ophelia is a female character from Hamlet by William Shakespeare. ... // Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC–12 August 30 BC) was a Hellenistic co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes) and later with her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. She later became the supreme ruler of Egypt, consummated a liaison with Gaius... Juliet is: The fictional character Juliet Capulet in William Shakespeares play Romeo and Juliet. ... Lady Macbeth by George Cattermole, 1850 Lady Macbeth is a character in Shakespeares play Macbeth. ...


Lauded for her beauty, Leigh felt that it sometimes prevented her from being taken seriously as an actress, but ill health proved to be her greatest obstacle. Affected by bipolar disorder for most of her adult life, she gained a reputation for being a difficult person to work with, and her career went through periods of decline. She was further weakened by recurrent bouts of tuberculosis, with which she was first diagnosed in the mid-1940s. She and Olivier divorced in 1960, and Leigh worked sporadically in film and theatre until her death from tuberculosis. For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...

Contents

Early life and acting career

Leigh was born Vivian Mary Hartley in Darjeeling, British India to Ernest Hartley, a British Officer in the Indian Cavalry, and Gertrude Robinson Yackje, whose heritage is in question. She claimed to be of Irish descent, but it is likely that she also had Armenian-Parsee Indian ancestry.[1] They were married in Kensington, London in 1912.[2] In 1917, Ernest Hartley was relocated to Bangalore, while Gertrude and Vivian stayed in Ootacamund.[3] Vivian Hartley made her first stage appearance at the age of three, reciting "Little Bo Peep" for her mother's amateur theatre group. Gertrude Hartley tried to instill in her daughter an appreciation of literature, and introduced her to the works of Hans Christian Andersen, Lewis Carroll and Rudyard Kipling, as well as stories of Greek mythology. An only child, Vivian Hartley was sent to the "Convent of the Sacred Heart" in Roehampton in England, in 1920. Her closest friend at the convent was the future actress Maureen O'Sullivan, to whom she expressed her desire to become "a great actress".[4] Darjeeling (Nepali: , Bangla: দার্জিলিং) is a town in the Indian state of West Bengal. ... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial... A group of native Indian muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... A Parsi (Gujarati: PārsÄ«, IPA: ), sometimes spelled Parsee, is a member of the close-knit Zoroastrian community based in the Indian subcontinent. ... Kensington is an area to the west of Central London in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. ... , Bangalore (to be renamed as BengalÅ«ru) (Kannada: ; pronunciation: in Kannada and in English) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Ooty  , short for Ootacamund   (the official name is Udhagamandalam, sometimes abbreviated to Udhagai), is a city, a municipality and the district capital of The Nilgiris district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... William Wallace Denslows illustrations for Little Bo Pee, from a 1901 edition of Mother Goose Little Bo Peep, according to Denslow Little Bo Peep is an eponymous character from a nursery rhyme. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) - believed to be a self-portrait Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (January 27, 1832 – January 14, 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman, and photographer. ... This article is about the British author. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Roehampton is a place in south London, in the London Borough of Wandsworth. ... Maureen OSullivan as Jane in Tarzan and His Mate Maureen O’Sullivan (17 May 1911 – 23 June 1998) was an Irish actress. ...


Vivian Hartley completed her later education in Europe, returning to her parents in England in 1931. She discovered that one of Maureen O'Sullivan's films was playing in London's West End and told her parents of her ambitions to become an actress. Both were highly supportive, and her father helped her enroll at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) in London.[5] World map showing the location of Europe. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The interior of Covent Garden Market in the West End The West End of London is an area of central London, containing many of the citys major tourist attractions, businesses, and administrative headquarters. ... RADAs theatre in London The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) in Bloomsbury, London, is generally regarded as the most prestigious drama school in the world. ...


In late 1931 she met Herbert Leigh Holman, known as Leigh, a barrister thirteen years her senior. Despite his disapproval of "theatrical people", they were married on December 20, 1932, and upon their marriage she terminated her studies at RADA. On October 12, 1933, she gave birth to a daughter, Suzanne, but felt stifled by her domestic life. Her friends suggested her for a small part in the film Things Are Looking Up, which marked her film debut. She engaged an agent, John Gliddon, who believed that the name "Vivian Holman" was not suitable for an actress, and after rejecting his suggestion, "April Morn", she took "Vivian Leigh" as her professional name. Gliddon recommended her to Alexander Korda as a possible film actress, but Korda rejected her as lacking potential.[6] December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Sir Alexander Korda (September 16, 1893 - January 23, 1956) was a film director and producer, a leading figure in the British film industry and the founder of London Films. ...


Cast in the play The Mask of Virtue in 1935, Leigh received excellent reviews followed by interviews and newspaper articles, among them one from the Daily Express in which the interviewer noted "a lightning change came over her face", which was the first public mention of the rapid changes in mood that became characteristic of her.[7] John Betjeman, the future Poet Laureate, also wrote about her, describing her as "the essence of English girlhood".[8] Korda, who attended her opening-night performance, admitted his error and signed her to a film contract, with the spelling of her name revised to "Vivien Leigh". She continued with the play, but when Korda moved it to a larger theatre, Leigh was found to be unable to project her voice adequately, or to hold the attention of so large an audience, and the play closed soon after.[9] In 1960 Leigh recalled her ambivalence towards her first experience of critical acclaim and sudden fame, commenting, "some critics saw fit to be as foolish as to say that I was a great actress. And I thought, that was a foolish, wicked thing to say, because it put such an onus and such a responsibility onto me, which I simply wasn't able to carry. And it took me years to learn enough to live up to what they said for those first notices. I find it so stupid. I remember the critic very well, and have never forgiven him."[10] For other uses, see Daily Express (disambiguation). ... A collection of Betjemans poetry, published by John Murray in January 2006 Sir John Betjeman CBE (28 August 1906 – 19 May 1984) was an English poet, writer and broadcaster who described himself in Whos Who as a poet and hack. He was born to a middle-class family... A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for state occasions and other government events. ...


Meeting Laurence Olivier

Leigh with Laurence Olivier in Fire Over England (1937), their first collaboration
Leigh with Laurence Olivier in Fire Over England (1937), their first collaboration

Laurence Olivier saw Leigh in The Mask of Virtue, and a friendship developed after he congratulated her on her performance. While playing lovers in the film Fire Over England (1937), Olivier and Leigh developed a strong attraction, and after filming was completed, they began an affair. During this time Leigh read the Margaret Mitchell novel Gone with the Wind and instructed her American agent to suggest her to David O. Selznick, who was planning a film version. She remarked to a journalist, "I've cast myself as Scarlett O'Hara", and the film critic C. A. Lejeune recalled a conversation of the same period in which Leigh "stunned us all" with the assertion that Olivier "won't play Rhett Butler, but I shall play Scarlett O'Hara. Wait and see."[11] Image File history File links FireOverEnglandVivienLeighLaurenceOlivier. ... Image File history File links FireOverEnglandVivienLeighLaurenceOlivier. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (22 May 1907–11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Fire Over England is a 1937 film drama produced by London Film Productions. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (22 May 1907–11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Fire Over England is a 1937 film drama produced by London Film Productions. ... For the Canadian politician see Margaret Mitchell (politician) Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell (November 8, 1900 – August 16, 1949) was the American author, who won the Pulitzer Prize in 1937 for her immensely successful novel, Gone with the Wind, which was published in 1936. ... Gone with the Wind, an American novel by Margaret Mitchell, was published in 1936 and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1937. ... David O. Selznick David Oliver Selznick (May 10, 1902–June 22, 1965), was one of the icon Hollywood producers of the Golden Age. ... Scarlett OHara (full name Katie Scarlett OHara Hamilton Kennedy Butler) of French-Irish ancestry is the protagonist in Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel, Gone with the Wind, and in the later film of the same name. ... Rhett Butler is a handsome, dashing hero of Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell. ...


Leigh played Ophelia to Olivier's Hamlet in an Old Vic Theatre production, and Olivier later recalled an incident during which her mood rapidly changed as she was quietly preparing to go onstage. Without apparent provocation, she began screaming at him, before suddenly becoming silent and staring into space. She was able to perform without mishap, and by the following day, she had returned to normal with no recollection of the event. It was the first time Olivier witnessed such behaviour from her.[12] They began living together; Holman and Olivier's wife, the actress Jill Esmond, each having refused to grant either a divorce. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hamlet and Horatio in the cemetery by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... The Old Vic is a theatre in the Waterloo area of London. ... Jill Esmond (January 26, 1908 – July 28, 1990) was a British actress. ...


Leigh appeared with Robert Taylor, Lionel Barrymore and Maureen O'Sullivan in A Yank at Oxford (1938), the first of her films to receive attention in the United States. During production she developed a reputation for being difficult and unreasonable, and Korda instructed her agent to warn her that her option would not be renewed if her behaviour did not improve.[13] Her next role was in St. Martin's Lane (1938) with Charles Laughton. Robert Taylor (August 5, 1911, Filley, Nebraska - June 8, 1969, Santa Monica, California), was an American actor. ... Lionel Barrymore (born Lionel Herbert Blythe on April 28, 1878 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – November 15, 1954 in Van Nuys, California) was an American actor of stage, radio and film. ... A Yank at Oxford is a 1938 film drama produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. ... St. ... Charles Laughton (1 July 1899 – 15 December 1962) was an English stage and film actor. ...


Achieving international success

Olivier had been attempting to broaden his film career; despite his success in Britain, he was not well-known in the United States and earlier attempts to introduce him to the American market had failed. Offered the role of Heathcliff in Samuel Goldwyn's production of Wuthering Heights (1939), he travelled to Hollywood, leaving Leigh in London. Goldwyn and the film's director, William Wyler, offered Leigh the secondary role of Isabella, but she refused it, saying she would only play Cathy, a role already assigned to Merle Oberon.[14] Heathcliff may refer to any of these : Heathcliff is a character from the book Wuthering Heights Heathcliff (musical) is a musical based on Wuthering Heights Heathcliff is a comic strip about a cat of the same name Dr. Heathcliff Cliff Huxtable, the lead character on The Cosby Show This is... Samuel Goldwyn (July 1882 (some sources say 17 August 1882, others 1879 [1]) – 31 January 1974) was an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning producer, also a well-known Hollywood motion picture producer and founding contributor of several motion picture studios. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... William Wyler (July 1, 1902–July 27, 1981) was a prolific, Oscar-winning motion picture director. ... Merle Oberon (February 19, 1911 – November 23, 1979), born Estelle Merle OBrien Thompson, was an Academy Award-nominated Anglo-Indian film actress. ...

Leigh in a 1939 publicity photograph for Gone with the Wind.

Hollywood was in the midst of a widely publicised search to find an actress to portray Scarlett O'Hara in David O. Selznick's production of Gone with the Wind (1939). Leigh's American agent was the London representative of the Myron Selznick Agency (Myron was David's brother), and in February 1938 she asked that her name be placed in consideration for the role of Scarlett. That month, David Selznick watched her two most recent pictures, Fire Over England and A Yank at Oxford, and from that time she became a serious contender for the part. Between February and August, Selznick screened all of her English pictures, and by August he was in negotiation with producer Alexander Korda, to whom Leigh was under contract, for her services later that year. On October 18, Selznick wrote in a confidential memo to director George Cukor, "I am still hoping against hope for that new girl."[15] Leigh travelled to Los Angeles, ostensibly to be with Olivier. When Leigh met Olivier's American agent Myron Selznick, he felt that she possessed the qualities his brother David O. Selznick was searching for. Myron Selznick took Leigh and Olivier to the set where the burning of the Atlanta Depot scene was being filmed, and introduced Leigh. The following day, Leigh read a scene for Selznick, who organised a screen test and wrote to his wife, "She's the Scarlett dark horse and looks damn good. Not for anyone's ear but your own: it's narrowed down to Paulette Goddard, Jean Arthur, Joan Bennett and Vivien Leigh". The director George Cukor concurred and praised the "incredible wildness" of Leigh, who was given the part soon after.[16] Image File history File links Vivien-Leigh_publicity_still_Gone-with-the-Wind. ... Image File history File links Vivien-Leigh_publicity_still_Gone-with-the-Wind. ... Scarlett OHara (full name Katie Scarlett OHara Hamilton Kennedy Butler) of French-Irish ancestry is the protagonist in Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel, Gone with the Wind, and in the later film of the same name. ... David O. Selznick David Oliver Selznick (May 10, 1902–June 22, 1965), was one of the icon Hollywood producers of the Golden Age. ... Gone with the Wind is a 1939 film adapted from Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel of the same name. ... // Movie historians and film buffs often look back on the year 1939 as the greatest year in film history (see below: 1939 in film#Films released in 1939, for a list with over 20 classics). ... Myron Selznick (October 5, 1898 – March 23, 1944) was an American film producer and talent agent. ... Sir Alexander Korda (September 16, 1893 - January 23, 1956) was a film director and producer, a leading figure in the British film industry and the founder of London Films. ... George Dewey Cukor (July 7, 1899 – January 24, 1983) was an American film director. ... Agency is an area of law dealing with a contractual or quasi-contractual relationship between at least two parties in which one, the principal, authorizes the other, the agent, to represent her or his legal interests and to perform legal acts that bind the principal. ... Myron Selznick (October 5, 1898 – March 23, 1944) was an American film producer and talent agent. ... Screen Test was a British childrens quiz show produced by the BBC which ran from 1969 to 1984. ... Paulette Goddard (June 3, 1910 – April 23, 1990), an Oscar-nominated American film and theatre actress. ... Jean Arthur (October 17, 1900 – June 19, 1991) was an Oscar-nominated American actress and a major film star in the 1930s and 1940s. ... Joan Bennett on the December, 1945 issue of Movie Story Magazine Joan Geraldine Bennett (February 27, 1910 – December 7, 1990) was an American film actress who also achieved success later in life as a television actress. ...


Filming proved difficult for Leigh; Cukor was dismissed and replaced by Victor Fleming, with whom Leigh frequently quarrelled. She and Olivia de Havilland secretly met with Cukor at night and on weekends for his advice about how they should play their parts. She befriended Clark Gable, his wife Carole Lombard and de Havilland, but she clashed with Leslie Howard, with whom she was required to play several emotional scenes. Adding to her distress, she was sometimes required to work seven days a week, often late into the night, and she missed Olivier who was working in New York. She wrote to Leigh Holman, "I loathe Hollywood.... I will never get used to this – how I hate film acting."[17] Victor Fleming (February 23, 1883 - January 6, 1949) (sometimes Vic Fleming) was an American film director. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... William Clark Gable (February 1, 1901 – November 16, 1960) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... Carole Lombard (October 6, 1908 – January 16, 1942) was an American actress. ... Leslie Howard (April 3, 1893 - June 1, 1943) was an English stage and film actor. ...


In 2006 de Havilland responded to claims of Leigh's manic behaviour during filming Gone with the Wind, published in a biography of Laurence Olivier. She defended Leigh, saying, "Vivien was impeccably professional, impeccably disciplined on Gone with the Wind. She had two great concerns: doing her best work in an extremely difficult role and being separated from Larry [Olivier], who was in New York."[18]


Gone with the Wind brought Leigh immediate attention and fame, but she was quoted as saying, "I'm not a film star – I'm an actress. Being a film star – just a film star – is such a false life, lived for fake values and for publicity. Actresses go on for a long time and there are always marvellous parts to play."[19] Among the ten Academy Awards won by Gone with the Wind was a Best Actress award for Leigh, who also won a New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress. In 1993, her Academy Award statuette was sold at auction for $510,000.[20] Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... The Academy Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role is one of the awards given to actresses working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... The New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress is one of the awards given by the New York Film Critics Circle to honor the finest achievements in filmmaking. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Marriage and joint projects

In February 1940 Jill Esmond agreed to divorce Olivier, and Holman also agreed to divorce Leigh, although they maintained a strong friendship for the rest of Leigh's life. Esmond was granted custody of Tarquin, her son with Olivier, and Holman was granted custody of Suzanne, his daughter with Leigh. On August 30 Olivier and Leigh were married in Santa Barbara, California, in a ceremony attended only by their witnesses, Katharine Hepburn and Garson Kanin. August 30 is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Santa Barbara is situated on the southward-facing coast at far right. ... Katharine Houghton Hepburn (May 12, 1907 – June 29, 2003) was an iconic four-time Academy Award-winning American star of film, television and stage, widely recognized for her sharp wit, New England gentility and fierce independence. ... Garson Kanin (November 24, 1912 – March 13, 1999) was an American writer and director of plays and films. ...


Leigh hoped to star with Olivier and made a screentest for Rebecca, which was to be directed by Alfred Hitchcock with Olivier in the leading role, but after viewing her screentest Selznick noted that "she doesn't seem right as to sincerity or age or innocence", a view shared by Hitchcock, and Leigh's mentor, George Cukor.[21] Selznick also observed that she had shown no enthusiasm for the part until Olivier had been confirmed as the lead actor, and subsequently cast Joan Fontaine. He also refused to allow her to join Olivier in Pride and Prejudice (1940), and Greer Garson took the part Leigh had envisioned for herself. Waterloo Bridge (1940) was to have starred Olivier and Leigh, however Selznick replaced Olivier with Robert Taylor, then at the peak of his success as one of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's most popular male stars. Leigh's top-billing reflected her status in Hollywood, and despite her reluctance to participate without Olivier, the film not only proved to be popular with audiences and critics, but it also became her favorite film. Rebecca is an Academy Award–winning 1940 psychological thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock as his first American project. ... Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE (August 13, 1899 – April 29, 1980) was a highly influential British film director and producer who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and thriller genres. ... Joan Fontaine (born October 22, 1917) is an Academy Award-winning Japanese-born British actress, who became an American citizen in April 1943. ... Jane Austens novel Pride and Prejudice (1813) has been the subject of numerous television and film adaptations. ... Eileen Evelyn Greer Garson, CBE (September 29, 1904 - April 6, 1996) was an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning actress, most known for being the leading lady in many pictures co-starring Walter Pidgeon. ... The film Waterloo Bridge is a popular Broadway drama written by Robert E. Sherwood and directed by Mervyn LeRoy. ... Robert Taylor (August 5, 1911, Filley, Nebraska - June 8, 1969, Santa Monica, California), was an American actor. ... For alternate meanings of MGM, see MGM (disambiguation). ...


She and Olivier mounted a stage production of Romeo and Juliet for Broadway. The New York press discussed the adulterous nature that had marked the beginning of Olivier and Leigh's relationship, and questioned their ethics in not returning to England to help with the war effort, and the critics were hostile in their assessment of the production. Brooks Atkinson for the New York Times wrote, "Although Miss Leigh and Mr Olivier are handsome young people they hardly act their parts at all."[22] While most of the blame was attributed to Olivier's acting and direction, Leigh was also criticised, with Bernard Grebanier commenting on the "thin, shopgirl quality of Miss Leigh's voice." The couple had invested almost their entire savings into the project, and its failure was a financial disaster for them.[23] Romeo and Juliet in the famous balcony scene by Ford Madox Brown For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ... Broadway theatre[1] is the most prestigious form of professional theatre in the U.S., as well as the most well known to the general public and most lucrative for the performers, technicians and others involved in putting on the shows. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Brooks Atkinson (November 28, 1894-January 14, 1984) was the theater critic for The New York Times from 1925 to 1960. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Bernard Grebanier (1903 – 1977) was an American drama historian, critic, writer and poet, most notable for his studies of the works of William Shakespeare. ...


They filmed That Hamilton Woman (1941) with Olivier as Horatio Nelson and Leigh as Emma Hamilton. With Britain engaged in World War II, it was one of several Hollywood films made with the aim of arousing a pro-British sentiment among American audiences. The film was popular in the United States, but was an outstanding success in the Soviet Union. Winston Churchill arranged a screening for a party which included Franklin D. Roosevelt and, on its conclusion, addressed the group, saying, "Gentlemen, I thought this film would interest you, showing great events similar to those in which you have just been taking part." The Oliviers remained favourites of Churchill, attending dinners and occasions at his request for the rest of his life, and of Leigh he was quoted as saying, "By Jove, she's a clinker."[24] That Hamilton Woman is a 1941 historical film drama, directed by Alexander Korda, for Alexander Korda Films. ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... Emma Hamilton, in one of dozens of portraits by George Romney, at the height of her beauty in the 1780s Emma Hamilton (Lady Hamilton) (April 26, 1765 - January 16, 1815) is best remembered as the mistress of Lord Nelson. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, soldier in the British Army, orator, and strategist, and is studied as part of the modern British and world history. ... FDR redirects here. ...


The Oliviers returned to England, and Leigh toured through North Africa in 1943, performing for troops before falling ill with a persistent cough and fevers. In 1944 she was diagnosed as having tuberculosis in her left lung, but after spending several weeks in hospital, she appeared to be cured. In spring she was filming Caesar and Cleopatra (1945) when she discovered she was pregnant, but suffered a miscarriage. She fell into a deep depression which reached its nadir when she turned on Olivier, verbally and physically attacking him until she fell to the floor sobbing. This was the first of many major breakdowns related to manic-depression, or bipolar mood disorder. Olivier came to recognise the symptoms of an impending episode – several days of hyperactivity followed by a period of depression and an explosive breakdown, after which Leigh would have no memory of the event, but would be acutely embarrassed and remorseful.[25]  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided by the formidable barrier of the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Caesar and Cleopatra is a 1945 film starring Claude Rains and Vivien Leigh, produced by Gabriel Pascal from the 1901 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ...


She was well enough to resume acting in 1946 in a successful London production of Thornton Wilder's The Skin of Our Teeth, but her films of this period, Caesar and Cleopatra (1945) and Anna Karenina (1948), were not great successes. Image:Thorntonwilderteeth. ... The Skin of Our Teeth is a Pulitzer Prize for Drama-winning play by Thornton Wilder. ... Caesar and Cleopatra is a 1945 film starring Claude Rains and Vivien Leigh, produced by Gabriel Pascal from the 1901 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... Anna Karenina (also known in the UK as Tolstoys Anna Karenina) is a 1948 British film based on the 19th century novel, Anna Karenina, by the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy. ...


In 1947 Olivier was knighted, and Leigh accompanied him to Buckingham Palace for the investiture. She became Lady Olivier, a title she continued to use after their divorce, until she died. Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ...


By 1948 Olivier was on the Board of Directors for the Old Vic Theatre, and he and Leigh embarked on a tour of Australia and New Zealand to raise funds for the theatre. During their six-month tour, Olivier performed Richard III and also performed with Leigh in The School for Scandal and The Skin of Our Teeth. The tour was an outstanding success, and although Leigh was plagued with insomnia and allowed her understudy to replace her for a week while she was ill, she generally withstood the demands placed upon her, with Olivier noting her ability to "charm the press". Members of the company later recalled several quarrels between the couple, with the most dramatic of these occurring in Christchurch when Leigh refused to go on stage. Olivier slapped her face, and Leigh slapped him in return and swore at him before she made her way to the stage. By the end of the tour, both were exhausted and ill, and Olivier told a journalist, "You may not know it, but you are talking to a couple of walking corpses." Later he would comment that he "lost Vivien" in Australia.[26] The Old Vic is a theatre in the Waterloo area of London. ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... The School for Scandal is a comedy of manners written by R. B. Sheridan. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Christchurch (Māori: ) is the regional capital of Canterbury, New Zealand. ...


The success of the tour encouraged the Oliviers to make their first West End appearance together, performing the same works with one addition, Antigone, included at Leigh's insistence because she wished to play a role in a tragedy. The interior of Covent Garden Market in the West End The West End of London is an area of central London, containing many of the citys major tourist attractions, businesses, and administrative headquarters. ... Antigone by Frederic Leighton, 1882 Antigone (Eng. ...

As Blanche DuBois, from the trailer for the film version of A Streetcar Named Desire (1951).
As Blanche DuBois, from the trailer for the film version of A Streetcar Named Desire (1951).

Leigh next sought the role of Blanche DuBois in the West End stage production of Tennessee Williams's A Streetcar Named Desire, and was cast after Williams and the play's producer Irene Mayer Selznick saw her in the The School for Scandal and Antigone, and Olivier was contracted to direct. Containing a rape scene and references to promiscuity and homosexuality, the play was destined to be controversial, and the media discussion about its suitability added to Leigh's anxiety, but she believed strongly in the importance of the work. J. B. Priestley denounced the play and Leigh's performance, and the critic Kenneth Tynan commented that Leigh was badly miscast because British actors were "too well-bred to emote effectively on stage". Olivier and Leigh were chagrined that part of the commercial success of the play lay in audience members attending to see what they believed would be a salacious and sensationalist story, rather than the Greek tragedy that they envisioned, but the play also had strong supporters,[27] among them Noël Coward who described Leigh as "magnificent".[28] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Streetcar Named Desire is an Academy Award-winning 1951 film adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name by Tennessee Williams. ... Vivien Leigh as Blanche DuBois in the film version of A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), with Marlon Brando as Stanley Kowalski Blanche DuBois is the principal character in Tennessee Williams play A Streetcar Named Desire. ... The interior of Covent Garden Market in the West End The West End of London is an area of central London, containing many of the citys major tourist attractions, businesses, and administrative headquarters. ... Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983), better known by the pseudonym Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright and one of the prominent playwrights of the twentieth century. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Irene Mayer Selznick (April 2, 1907 - October 10, 1990) was an American theatrical producer. ... Antigone by Frederic Leighton, 1882 Antigone (Eng. ... John Boynton Priestley, OM (13 September 1894, Bradford - 14 August 1984, Warwickshire) was an English writer and broadcaster . ... Kenneth Peacock Tynan (April 2, 1927 - July 26, 1980), was an influential and often controversial British theatre critic and writer. ... Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama. ... Noël Coward Sir Noel Peirce Coward (spelling his forename Noël with the diaeresis was an affectation of later life, and Peirce is the correct spelling) (December 16, 1899 - March 26, 1973) was an English actor, playwright, and composer of popular music. ...


After 326 performances Leigh finished her run; however, she was soon engaged for the film version. Her irreverent and often bawdy sense of humour allowed her to establish a rapport with her co-star Marlon Brando, but she had difficulty with the director Elia Kazan, who did not hold her in high regard as an actress. He later commented that "she had a small talent", but as work progressed, he became "full of admiration" for "the greatest determination to excel of any actress I've known. She'd have crawled over broken glass if she thought it would help her performance." Leigh found the role gruelling and commented to the Los Angeles Times, "I had nine months in the theatre of Blanche DuBois. Now she's in command of me."[29] The film won glowing reviews for her, and she won a second Academy Award for Best Actress, a BAFTA Award and a New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress. Tennessee Williams commented that Leigh brought to the role "everything that I intended, and much that I had never dreamed of", but in later years, Leigh would say that playing Blanche DuBois "tipped me over into madness".[30] A Streetcar Named Desire is an Academy Award-winning 1951 film adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name by Tennessee Williams. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... Elia Kazan, (Greek: Ηλίας Καζάν, IPA: ), (September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was a Greek-American film and theatre director, film and theatrical producer, screenwriter, novelist and founder of the influential Actors Studio in New York in 1947. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... The Academy Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role is one of the awards given to actresses working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... BAFTA Award The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), is a British organisation that hosts annual awards shows for film, television, childrens film and television, and interactive media. ... The New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress is one of the awards given by the New York Film Critics Circle to honor the finest achievements in filmmaking. ...


Continuing illness

In 1951, Leigh and Olivier performed two plays about Cleopatra, William Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra and George Bernard Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra, alternating the play each night and winning good reviews. They took the productions to New York, where they performed a season at the Ziegfeld Theatre into 1952. The reviews there were also mostly positive, but the critic Kenneth Tynan angered them when he suggested that Leigh's was a mediocre talent which forced Olivier to compromise his own. Tynan's diatribe almost precipitated another collapse; Leigh, terrified of failure and intent on achieving greatness, dwelt on his comments, while ignoring the positive reviews of other critics.[31] // Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC–12 August 30 BC) was a Hellenistic co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes) and later with her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. She later became the supreme ruler of Egypt, consummated a liaison with Gaius... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Anthony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. ... George Bernard Shaw (born 26 July 1856, Dublin, Ireland died November 2, 1950, Hertfordshire, England) was an Irish writer. ... Caesar and Cleopatra is a 1901 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... The Ziegfeld Theatre was a Broadway theatre formerly located at the intersection of Sixth Avenue and 54th Street in Manhattan, New York City. ... Kenneth Peacock Tynan (April 2, 1927 - July 26, 1980), was an influential and often controversial British theatre critic and writer. ...


In January 1953 Leigh travelled to Ceylon to film Elephant Walk with Peter Finch. Shortly after filming commenced, she suffered a breakdown, and Paramount Studios replaced her with Elizabeth Taylor. Olivier returned her to their home in England, where between periods of incoherence, Leigh told him that she was in love with Finch, and had been having an affair with him. She gradually recovered over a period of several months. The Glenbrook North High School hazing incident concerned many people worldwide Hazing is often ritualistic harassment, abuse, or humiliation with requirements to perform meaningless tasks, sometimes as a way of initiation into a social group. ... Peter Finch (September 28, 1912 – January 14, 1977) was an English-born actor with strong Australian connections. ... The Paramount Pictures logo used from 1988 to 1989. ... For other persons named Elizabeth Taylor, see Elizabeth Taylor (disambiguation). ...

Olivier and Leigh in the 1955 production of Titus Andronicus
Olivier and Leigh in the 1955 production of Titus Andronicus

As a result of this episode, many of the Oliviers' friends learnt of her problems. David Niven said she had been "quite, quite mad", and in his diary Noel Coward expressed surprise that "things had been bad and getting worse since 1948 or thereabouts."[32] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (884x1136, 182 KB) Summary Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh in the 1955 production of Titus Andronicus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (884x1136, 182 KB) Summary Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh in the 1955 production of Titus Andronicus. ... David Niven (March 1, 1910 – July 29, 1983) was an Academy Award-winning British actor. ... Noel Coward Sir Noel Peirce Coward (December 16, 1899 – March 26, 1973) was an English actor, playwright, and composer of popular music. ...


Leigh recovered sufficiently to play The Sleeping Prince with Olivier in 1953, and in 1955 they performed a season at Stratford-upon-Avon in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, Macbeth and Titus Andronicus. They played to capacity houses and attracted generally good reviews, Leigh's health seemingly stable. Noël Coward was enjoying success with the play South Sea Bubble, with Leigh in the lead role, but she became pregnant and withdrew from the production. Several weeks later, she miscarried and entered a period of depression that lasted for months. She joined Olivier for a European tour with Titus Andronicus, but the tour was marred by Leigh's frequent outbursts against Olivier and other members of the company. After their return to London, her former husband Leigh Holman, who continued to exert a strong influence over her, stayed with the Oliviers and helped calm her. The Sleeping Prince is a 1953 play by Terrence Rattigan. ... Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon is a town in Warwickshire, England. ... Twelfth Night, or What You Will is a comedy by William Shakespeare, named after the Twelfth Night holiday of the Christmas season. ... Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by Théodore Chassériau. ... Title page of the first quarto edition (1594) The Tragedy of Titus Andronicus may be Shakespeares earliest tragedy. ... Noël Coward Sir Noel Peirce Coward (spelling his forename Noël with the diaeresis was an affectation of later life, and Peirce is the correct spelling) (December 16, 1899 - March 26, 1973) was an English actor, playwright, and composer of popular music. ... This article is about the Noel Coward play. ...


In 1958, considering her marriage to be over, Leigh began a relationship with the actor Jack Merivale, who knew of Leigh's medical condition and assured Olivier he would care for her. She achieved a success in 1959 with the Noël Coward comedy Look After Lulu, with The Times critic describing her as "beautiful, delectably cool and matter of fact, she is mistress of every situation."[33] John Herman Merivale, often known as Jack Merivale, (December 1, 1917 &ndash February 6, 1990) was an actor. ...


In 1960 she and Olivier divorced, and Olivier married the actress Joan Plowright. In his autobiography he discussed the years of problems they had experienced because of Leigh's illness, writing, "Throughout her possession by that uncannily evil monster, manic depression, with its deadly ever-tightening spirals, she retained her own individual canniness – an ability to disguise her true mental condition from almost all except me, for whom she could hardly be expected to take the trouble."[34] Joan Ann Olivier, Baroness Olivier DBE (born October 28, 1929), known by her maiden name as Dame Joan Plowright, is a British actress, widow of Laurence Olivier. ...


Final years and death

Leigh photographed in 1958
Leigh photographed in 1958

Merivale proved to be a stable influence for Leigh, but despite her apparent contentment she was quoted by Radie Harris as confiding that she "would rather have lived a short life with Larry [Olivier] than face a long one without him".[35] Her first husband, Leigh Holman, also spent considerable time with her. Merivale joined her for a tour of Australia, New Zealand and Latin America that lasted from July 1961 until May 1962, and Leigh enjoyed positive reviews without Olivier sharing the spotlight with her. Though she was still beset by bouts of depression, she continued to work in the theatre and in 1963 won a Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical for her role in the Broadway musical Tovarich. She also appeared in the films The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone (1961) and Ship of Fools (1965).[36] Image File history File links Vivien_Leigh_1958. ... Image File history File links Vivien_Leigh_1958. ... Radie Harris (October 24, 1904 - February 22, 2001) was a journalist and newspaper columnist noted for her commentary on entertainment. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... What is popularly called the Tony Award (formally, the Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre) is an annual award celebrating achievements in live American theater, including musical theater, primarily honoring productions on Broadway in New York. ... Original Broadway Cast CD Tovarich is a 1963 musical play in two acts with book by David Shaw; music by Lee Pockriss and lyrics by Anne Croswell; based on the comedy by Jacques Deval and Robert E. Sherwood, translation from the original French of Jacques Deval by Bettina Liebowitz Knapp... The Roman Spring of Mrs. ... Ship of Fools is a 1965 film which tells the overlapping stories of several passengers aboard an ocean liner during the 1930s. ...


In May 1967 she was rehearsing to appear with Michael Redgrave in Edward Albee's A Delicate Balance when she became ill with tuberculosis but, after resting for several weeks, seemed to be recovering. On the night of July 7, Merivale left her as usual, to perform in a play, and returned home around midnight to find her asleep. About thirty minutes later (by now July 8), he returned to the bedroom and discovered her body on the floor.[37] She had been attempting to walk to the bathroom, and as her lungs filled with liquid, she had collapsed.[38] Merivale contacted Olivier, who was receiving treatment for prostate cancer in a nearby hospital. In his autobiography, Olivier described his "grievous anguish" as he immediately travelled to Leigh's residence, to find that Merivale had moved her body onto the bed. Olivier paid his respects, and "stood and prayed for forgiveness for all the evils that had sprung up between us",[39] before helping Merivale make funeral arrangements. Michael Redgrave and Margaret Lockwood in The Lady Vanishes (1938) Sir Michael Scudamore Redgrave, KBE (March 20, 1908 — March 21, 1985) was an English actor and the son of the Australian silent film star Roy Redgrave and the actress Margaret Scudamore. ... Edward Albee, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1961 Edward Franklin Albee III (born March 12, 1928) is an American playwright known for works including Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, The Zoo Story, and The Sandbox. ... A Delicate Balance is a play by Edward Albee was first produced in New York at the Martin Beck Theatre on September 12, 1966, and was revived at the Plymouth Theatre on April 21, 1996. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ...


She was cremated, and her ashes were scattered on the lake at her home, Tickerage Mill, near Blackboys, East Sussex, England. A memorial service was held at St Martin-in-the-Fields, with a final tribute read by John Gielgud. In the United States, she became the first actress honoured by "The Friends of the Libraries at the University of Southern California". The ceremony was conducted as a memorial service, with selections from her films shown and tributes provided by such associates as George Cukor.[40] The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Blackboys is a village located inland from the South Downs, and near the Ashdown Forest in East Sussex. ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... St Martin-in-the-Fields, London Interior of St Martin-in-the-Fields St Martin-in-the-Fields and Charing Cross, circa 1562 The ceiling of the café in the crypt St. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an Emmy, Grammy, Tony and Academy Award-winning English theatre and film actor, and is generally regarded as one of the great British actors in history. ... Doheny Library. ... George Dewey Cukor (July 7, 1899 – January 24, 1983) was an American film director. ...


Critical comments

Vivien Leigh was considered one of the most beautiful actresses of her day, and her directors emphasised this in most of her films. When asked if she believed her beauty had been a handicap, she said, "people think that if you look fairly reasonable, you can't possibly act, and as I only care about acting, I think beauty can be a great handicap, if you really want to look like the part you're playing, which isn't necessarily like you."[41]


George Cukor commented that Leigh was a "consummate actress, hampered by beauty",[42] and Laurence Olivier said that critics should "give her credit for being an actress and not go on forever letting their judgements be distorted by her great beauty."[43] Garson Kanin shared their viewpoint and described Leigh as "a stunner whose ravishing beauty often tended to obscure her staggering achievements as an actress. Great beauties are infrequently great actresses — simply because they don't need to be. Vivien was different; ambitious, persevering, serious, often inspired."[44] George Dewey Cukor (July 7, 1899 – January 24, 1983) was an American film director. ... Garson Kanin (November 24, 1912 – March 13, 1999) was an American writer and director of plays and films. ...


Leigh explained that she played "as many different parts as possible" in an attempt to learn her craft and to dispel prejudice about her abilities. She believed that comedy was more difficult to play than drama because it required more precise timing, and said that more emphasis should be placed upon comedy as part of an actor's training. Nearing the end of her career, which ranged from Noël Coward comedies to Shakespearean tragedies, she observed, "It's much easier to make people cry than to make them laugh."[45] Noël Coward Sir Noel Peirce Coward (spelling his forename Noël with the diaeresis was an affectation of later life, and Peirce is the correct spelling) (December 16, 1899 - March 26, 1973) was an English actor, playwright, and composer of popular music. ...


Her early performances brought her immediate success in Britain, but she remained largely unknown in other parts of the world until the release of Gone with the Wind. In December 1939 the New York Times wrote, "Miss Leigh's Scarlett has vindicated the absurd talent quest that indirectly turned her up. She is so perfectly designed for the part by art and nature that any other actress in the role would be inconceivable",[46] and as her fame escalated, she was featured on the cover of Time Magazine as Scarlett. In 1969 critic Andrew Sarris commented that the success of the film had been largely due to "the inspired casting" of Leigh,[47] and in 1998 wrote that "she lives in our minds and memories as a dynamic force rather than as a static presence."[48] Leonard Maltin described the film as one of the all-time greats, writing in 1998 that Leigh "brilliantly played" her role.[49] The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Andrew Sarris is a film critic and a leading proponent of the Auteur theory of criticism. ... Leonard Maltin (born December 18, 1950 in New York City) is a widely known and respected American film critic. ...


Her performance in the West End production of A Streetcar Named Desire, described by the theatre writer Phyllis Hartnoll as "proof of greater powers as an actress than she had hitherto shown", led to a lengthy period during which she was considered one of the finest actresses in British theatre.[50] Discussing the subsequent film version, Pauline Kael wrote that Leigh and Marlon Brando gave "two of the greatest performances ever put on film" and that Leigh's was "one of those rare performances that can truly be said to evoke both fear and pity."[51] The interior of Covent Garden Market in the West End The West End of London is an area of central London, containing many of the citys major tourist attractions, businesses, and administrative headquarters. ... Phyllis Hartnoll (September 22, 1906 - January 8, 1997) was a British poet and author. ... Pauline Kael (June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic who wrote for The New Yorker magazine. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ...


Kenneth Tynan ridiculed Leigh's performance opposite Olivier in the 1955 production of Titus Andronicus, commenting that she "receives the news that she is about to be ravished on her husband's corpse with little more than the mild annoyance of one who would have preferred foam rubber."[52] He was one of several critics to react negatively to her reinterpretation of Lady Macbeth in 1955, saying that her performance was insubstantial and lacked the necessary fury demanded of the role; however, after her death he revised his opinion, describing his earlier criticism as "one of the worst errors of judgement" he had ever made. He came to believe that Leigh's interpretation, in which Lady Macbeth uses her sexual allure to keep Macbeth enthralled, "made more sense ... than the usual battle-axe" portrayal of the character. In a survey of theatre critics conducted shortly after Leigh's death, several named it as one of her greatest achievements in theatre.[53] Title page of the first quarto edition (1594) The Tragedy of Titus Andronicus may be Shakespeares earliest tragedy. ... Lady Macbeth by George Cattermole, 1850 Lady Macbeth is a character in Shakespeares play Macbeth. ...


In 1969 a plaque to Leigh was placed in the actors' church, St Paul's, Covent Garden, and in 1985 a portrait of her was included in a series of postage stamps, along with Alfred Hitchcock, Charles Chaplin, Peter Sellers and David Niven to commemorate "British Film Year".[54] St Pauls Church, also commonly known as the Actors Church, is a church located in Covent Garden, London, England. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE (August 13, 1899 – April 29, 1980) was a highly influential British film director and producer who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and thriller genres. ... For the Jamaican musician named Charlie Chaplin, see Charlie Chaplin (singer). ... Richard Henry Peter Sellers, CBE (8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was an English comedian, actor, and performer, who came to prominence on the BBC radio series The Goon Show and later became a film star. ... David Niven (March 1, 1910 – July 29, 1983) was an Academy Award-winning British actor. ...


The British Library in London purchased the papers of Laurence Olivier from his estate in 1999. Known as The Laurence Olivier Archive, the collection includes many of Vivien Leigh's personal papers, including numerous letters written by her to Olivier. The papers of Vivien Leigh, including letters, photographs, contracts and diaries, are owned by her daughter, Mrs Suzanne Farrington. In 1994 the National Library of Australia purchased a photograph album, monogrammed "L & V O" and believed to have belonged to the Oliviers, containing 573 photographs of the couple during their 1948 tour of Australia. It is now held as part of the record of the history of the performing arts in Australia.[55] British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... National Library of Australia National Library of Australia as viewed from Lake Burley Griffin The National Library of Australia is located in Canberra, Australia. ...


Awards and nominations

Year Award Work
1939 Academy Award for Best Actress (won)
New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress (won)
Gone with the Wind
1952 Academy Award for Best Actress (won)
BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role (won)
Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama (nominated)
New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress (won)
Venice Film Festival - Volpi Cup (won)
A Streetcar Named Desire
1963 Tony Award for Best Leading Actress in a Musical (won) Tovarich
Awards
Preceded by
Bette Davis
for Jezebel
Academy Award for Best Actress
1939
for Gone with the Wind
Succeeded by
Ginger Rogers
for Kitty Foyle
Preceded by
Judy Holliday
for Born Yesterday
Academy Award for Best Actress
1951
for A Streetcar Named Desire
Succeeded by
Shirley Booth
for Come Back, Little Sheba
Preceded by
None
BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role
1951
for A Streetcar Named Desire
Succeeded by
Audrey Hepburn
for Roman Holiday
Preceded by
Eleanor Parker
for Caged
Venice Film Festival Volpi Cup Best Actress
1951
for A Streetcar Named Desire
Succeeded by
Lilli Palmer
for The Four Poster
Preceded by
(tie)
Anna Maria Alberghetti
for Carnival!
and
Diahann Carroll
for No Strings
Tony Award for Best
Leading Actress in a Musical

1963
for Tovarich
Succeeded by
Carol Channing
for Hello, Dolly!

// Movie historians and film buffs often look back on the year 1939 as the greatest year in film history (see below: 1939 in film#Films released in 1939, for a list with over 20 classics). ... The Academy Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role is one of the awards given to actresses working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... The New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress is one of the awards given by the New York Film Critics Circle to honor the finest achievements in filmmaking. ... Gone with the Wind is a 1939 film adapted from Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel of the same name. ... // Events February 20 - The film The African Queen opens (Capitol Theater in New York City). ... The Academy Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role is one of the awards given to actresses working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role has been presented to its winners since 1952 and actresses of all nationalities are eligible to receive the award. ... The Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture - Drama was first awarded by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association as a separate category in 1951. ... The New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress is one of the awards given by the New York Film Critics Circle to honor the finest achievements in filmmaking. ... The Venice Film Festival (it: Mostra Internazionale dArte Cinematografica) is the oldest Film Festival in the World (began in the 1932) and takes place every year in late August/early September on the Lido di Venezia in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi, in Venice, Italy. ... A Streetcar Named Desire is an Academy Award-winning 1951 film adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name by Tennessee Williams. ... The Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical is awarded to the actress who was voted as the best actress in a musical, whether a new production or a revival. ... Original Broadway Cast CD Tovarich is a 1963 musical play in two acts with book by David Shaw; music by Lee Pockriss and lyrics by Anne Croswell; based on the comedy by Jacques Deval and Robert E. Sherwood, translation from the original French of Jacques Deval by Bettina Liebowitz Knapp... Bette Davis (April 5, 1908 – October 6, 1989), born Ruth Elizabeth Davis, was a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress of film, television and theatre. ... Jezebel is a 1938 film that tells the story of a headstrong young Southern woman during the years prior to the American Civil War, and how her actions cost her the love of the man she truly loves. ... The Academy Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role is one of the awards given to actresses working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... Gone with the Wind is a 1939 film adapted from Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel of the same name. ... Ginger Rogers (July 16, 1911 – April 25, 1995) was an Academy Award-winning American film and stage actress and singer. ... Kitty Foyle, subtitled The Natural History of a Woman, is a 1940 film which tells the story of a white-collar girl who falls in love with a young socialite, despite the objections of his family. ... Judy Holliday (June 21, 1921–June 7, 1965) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning American actress. ... For the 1993 remake, see Born Yesterday (1993 film) Born Yesterday is a 1950 film directed by George Cukor, which tells the story of a corrupt tycoon who brings his showgirl mistress with him to Washington when he tries to buy a Congressman. ... A Streetcar Named Desire is an Academy Award-winning 1951 film adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name by Tennessee Williams. ... Shirley Booth (August 30, 1898 – October 16, 1992) was an acclaimed American actress. ... Come Back, Little Sheba is a 1952 film which tells the story of a loveless marriage that is rocked when a young woman rents a room in the couples house. ... The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role has been presented to its winners since 1952 and actresses of all nationalities are eligible to receive the award. ... A Streetcar Named Desire is an Academy Award-winning 1951 film adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name by Tennessee Williams. ... Audrey Hepburn (May 4, 1929 – January 20, 1993) was an Academy Award-winning Anglo-Dutch actress of film and theatre, Broadway stage performer, ballerina, fashion model, and humanitarian. ... Roman Holiday is a 1953 romantic comedy. ... Eleanor Parker was born on June 26, 1922, in Cedarville, Ohio, and was signed by Warner Brothers in 1941 at the tender age of 19 and she debuted that year in They Died With Their Boots On. ... Caged is a 1950 film which tells the story of a young woman who is sent to prison for being an accessory to a robbery. ... A Streetcar Named Desire is a famous American play written by Tennessee Williams. ... Lilli Palmer (born Lillie Marie Peiser on May 24, 1914 in Posen, Prussia, Germany (then - after WW I - PoznaÅ„, Poland) - January 27, 1986 in Los Angeles) was an international actress. ... Italian-born actress and singer Anna Maria Alberghetti won a Tony in 1962 as Best Actress (Musical) for Carnival (she tied with Diahann Carroll for the musical No Strings, which co-starred Richard Kiley). ... Carnival!   was a 1960s Tony-award winning Broadway musical starring Kay Ballard, Jerry Orbach, Anna Maria Alberghetti, Bob Merrill, Henry Lascoe, Richard Chamberlain, and Mel Torme. ... Diahann Carroll, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1955 Diahann Carroll (born July 17, 1935) is an American actress and singer. ... The Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical is awarded to the actress who was voted as the best actress in a musical, whether a new production or a revival. ... Original Broadway Cast CD Tovarich is a 1963 musical play in two acts with book by David Shaw; music by Lee Pockriss and lyrics by Anne Croswell; based on the comedy by Jacques Deval and Robert E. Sherwood, translation from the original French of Jacques Deval by Bettina Liebowitz Knapp... Carol Channing, ca. ... Hello, Dolly! is a musical with lyrics and music by Jerry Herman and a book by Michael Stewart, based on Thornton Wilders 1938 farce The Merchant of Yonkers, which Wilder revised and retitled The Matchmaker in 1955. ...

See also

The following provides a chronological list of the stage and film performances given by the British actress Vivien Leigh. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Vickers, Hugo. Vivien Leigh, Little, Brown and Company, 1988 edition. Pages 6–7 (This work includes references to Hartley's English background, and Yackje's comments relating to her Irish heritage).
  2. ^ General Register Office of England and Wales, Marriages, June quarter 1912, Kensington vol. 1a, p. 426.
  3. ^ Vickers p.9
  4. ^ Edwards, Anne. Vivien Leigh, A Biography, Coronet Books, 1978 edition. ISBN 0-340-23024-X pp 12–19
  5. ^ Edwards, pp 25–30
  6. ^ Edwards, pp 30–43
  7. ^ Coleman, Terry, Olivier, The Authorised Biography, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0-7475-8306-4 p 74
  8. ^ Coleman, p 75
  9. ^ Edwards, pp 50–55
  10. ^ Actors Talk About Acting - Vivien Leigh interview (1961) Edited by John E. Boothe and Lewis Funke. Retrieved January 7, 2006
  11. ^ Coleman, pp 76–77, 90, 94–95
  12. ^ Coleman, pp 97–98
  13. ^ Coleman, p 97
  14. ^ Berg, A. Scott. Goldwyn, Sphere Books, 1989. ISBN 0-7474-0593-X, p 323
  15. ^ Selznick, David O. (2000). Memo from David O. Selznick. New York: Modern Library, 184. ISBN 0-375-75531-4. 
  16. ^ Haver, Ronald. David O. Selznick's Hollywood, Bonanza Books, New York, 1980. ISBN 0-517-47665-7; p 259
  17. ^ Taylor, John Russell. Vivien Leigh, Elm Tree Books, 1984. ISBN 0-241-11333-4, pp 22–23
  18. ^ The Washington Examiner Bob Thomas, The Associated Press, published January 3, 2006. Retrieved January 7, 2006, quoting Olivia de Havilland
  19. ^ Taylor, pp 22–23
  20. ^ stacks.ajc.com "Mystery voice on phone gets GWTW Oscar for $510,000", citing The Atlanta Journal, published December 16, 1993. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
  21. ^ McGilligan, Patrick. Alfred Hitchcock, A Life in Darkness and Light, Wiley Press, 2003. ISBN 0-470-86973-9, p 238.
  22. ^ Edwards, p 127
  23. ^ Holden, Anthony, Olivier, Sphere Books Limited, 1989, ISBN 0-7221-4857-7, pp 189–190
  24. ^ Holden, pp 202, 205 and 325
  25. ^ Holden, pp 221–222
  26. ^ Holden, pp 295
  27. ^ Coleman, pp 227–231
  28. ^ Holden, p 312
  29. ^ Coleman, pp 233–236
  30. ^ Holden, pp 312–313
  31. ^ Edwards, pp 196–197
  32. ^ Coleman, pp 254–263
  33. ^ Edwards, 219–234 and 239
  34. ^ Olivier, Laurence, Confessions Of an Actor, Simon and Schuster, 1982, ISBN 0-14-006888-0 p 174
  35. ^ Walker, Alexander. Vivien, The Life of Vivien Leigh, Grove Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8021-3259-6 p290
  36. ^ Edwards, pp 266–272
  37. ^ Vivien Leigh's death certificate
  38. ^ Edwards, pp 304–305
  39. ^ Olivier, pp 273–274
  40. ^ Edwards, p 306
  41. ^ Actors Talk About Acting - Vivien Leigh interview (1961) Edited by John E. Boothe and Lewis Funke. Retrieved January 7, 2006
  42. ^ Shipman, David, Movie Talk, St Martin's Press, 1988. ISBN 0-312-03403-2; p 126
  43. ^ Coleman, p 227
  44. ^ Shipman, p 125
  45. ^ Actors Talk About Acting - Vivien Leigh interview (1961) Edited by John E. Boothe and Lewis Funke. Retrieved January 7, 2006
  46. ^ Haver, p 305
  47. ^ Roger Ebert.com quoting Andrew Sarris, The American Cinema: Directors and Directions 1929–1968, retrieved January 6, 2006.
  48. ^ New York Times - Reviews on the Web Quoting Andrew Sarris in You Ain't Heard Nothin' Yet, The American Talking Film: History & Memory, 1927–1949. May 3, 1998. Retrieved January 11, 2006.
  49. ^ Maltin, Leonard, 1998 Movie and Video Guide, Signet Books, 1997, p 522
  50. ^ Hartnoll, Phyllis, The Concise Companion to the Theatre, Omega Books, 1972, ISBN 1-85007-044-X, p 301
  51. ^ Kael, Pauline, 5001 Nights At The Movies, Zenith Books, 1982, ISBN 0-09-933550-6; p 564
  52. ^ Guardian Unlimited Ellis, Samantha, for The Guardian, June 23, 2003 (quoting Kenneth Tynan). Retrieved January 7, 2005
  53. ^ Taylor, p 99
  54. ^ Walker, pp 303,304
  55. ^ National Library of Australia – Gateways ISSN 1443-0568 No. 14 March 1995, retrieved January 7, 2006.

This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (22 May 1907–11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Andrew Sarris is a film critic and a leading proponent of the Auteur theory of criticism. ... Andrew Sarris is a film critic and a leading proponent of the Auteur theory of criticism. ... Leonard Maltin (born December 18, 1950 in New York City) is a widely known and respected American film critic. ... Phyllis Hartnoll (September 22, 1906 - January 8, 1997) was a British poet and author. ... Pauline Kael (June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic who wrote for The New Yorker magazine. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...

References

  • Vickers, Hugo. Vivien Leigh Little, Brown and Company, 1988 edition.
  • Edwards, Anne. Vivien Leigh, A Biography, Coronet Books, 1978 edition. ISBN 0-340-23024-X
  • Coleman, Terry, Olivier, The Authorised Biography, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0-7475-8306-4
  • Berg, A. Scott. Goldwyn, Sphere Books, 1989. ISBN 0-7474-0593-X
  • Selznick, David O. Memo from David O. Selznick, Modern Library, New York, 2000. ISBN 0-375-75531-4
  • Haver, Ronald. David O. Selznick's Hollywood, Bonanza Books, New York, 1980. ISBN 0-517-47665-7
  • Taylor, John Russell. Vivien Leigh, Elm Tree Books, 1984. ISBN 0-241-11333-4
  • McGilligan, Patrick. Alfred Hitchcock, A Life in Darkness and Light, Wiley Press, 2003. ISBN 0-470-86973-9
  • Holden, Anthony, Olivier, Sphere Books Limited, 1989, ISBN 0-7221-4857-7
  • Olivier, Laurence, Confessions Of an Actor, Simon and Schuster, 1982, ISBN 0-14-006888-0
  • Walker, Alexander. Vivien, The Life of Vivien Leigh, Grove Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8021-3259-6
  • Shipman, David, Movie Talk, St Martin's Press, 1988. ISBN 0-312-03403-2
  • Hartnoll, Phyllis, The Concise Companion to the Theatre, Omega Books, 1972, ISBN 1-85007-044-X
  • Kael, Pauline, 5001 Nights At The Movies, Zenith Books, 1982, ISBN 0-09-933550-6

Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (22 May 1907–11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Phyllis Hartnoll (September 22, 1906 - January 8, 1997) was a British poet and author. ... Pauline Kael (June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic who wrote for The New Yorker magazine. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Leigh, Vivien
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Hartley, Vivian Mary
SHORT DESCRIPTION actress
DATE OF BIRTH November 5, 1913
PLACE OF BIRTH Darjeeling, India
DATE OF DEATH July 7, 1967
PLACE OF DEATH London, England

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Turner Classic Movies (TCM) is a cable television channel featuring commercial-free classic movies, mostly from the Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. ... Internet Broadway Database The Internet Broadway Database (IBDb) is an online database of Broadway theatre productions and their personnel. ... The University of Bristol is a university in Bristol, England. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Darjeeling (Nepali: , Bangla: দার্জিলিং) is a town in the Indian state of West Bengal. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vivien Leigh at Reel Classics (238 words)
FIRE OVER ENGLAND (1937), a historical drama made in Britain for producer Alexander Korda, was Leigh's first of three films in which she appeared opposite actor Laurence Olivier whom she married in 1940.
In A YANK AT OXFORD (1938), made in Britain by MGM, Leigh plays a coy, flirtatious young bride who distracts American Robert Taylor and his Oxford classmates from their academic and athletic pursuits.
Against a competitive field of hundreds of talented American actresses, Leigh won the coveted role of Katie Scarlett O'Hara in GONE WITH THE WIND (1939), the most famous role of her career and the performance for which she won her first Academy Award for Best Actress.
Vivien Leigh: A Who2 Profile (130 words)
Vivien Leigh didn't make many films, but she made movie history with her portrayal of Scarlett in Gone With the Wind (1939, opposite Clark Gable), winning her first Oscar.
Leigh's affair and marriage to actor Laurence Olivier was just as famous as her ambitious effort to play the lead in what was then -- and maybe still is -- Hollywood's biggest event.
Her marriage to Olivier ended in 196O, and Leigh's final years were spent battling manic-depression and tuberculosis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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