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Encyclopedia > Vitreous enamel

In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. The powder melts and flows to harden as a smooth, durable vitreous coating on metal, glass or ceramic. It is often applied in a paste form and may be transparent or opaque when fired. Vitreous enamel can be applied to most metals. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a level of technological mastery sufficient to leave the surface of the planet for the first time and explore space. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... Look up substrate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ...


Also, an "enamel" is a decorative object, usually very small, having an enamel coating, such as a piece of champlevé or cloisonné.

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An enamel sign of a street in Germany

Vitreous enamel has many excellent properties: it is smooth, hard, chemically resistant, durable, can take on long-lasting, brilliant colors, and cannot burn. Disadvantages are its tendency to crack or shatter when the substrate is stressed or bent. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1457x346, 223 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vitreous enamel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1457x346, 223 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vitreous enamel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to...


The durability of enamel has given it many functional applications, including: early 20th century advertising signs, interior walls of ovens, speckleware cooking pots, exterior walls of high quality kitchen appliances, cast iron bathtubs, storage silos on farms and process equipment such as chemical reactors and tanks for the chemical and pharmaceutical process industries. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Billboards and street advertising in Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan, (2005) Advertising is typically paid communication through a non-personal medium in which the sponsor is identified and the message is controlled. ... Oven depicted in a painting by Millet An oven is an enclosed compartment for heating, baking or drying. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cookware and bakeware. ... Home appliances are electrical/mechanical appliances which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking or cleaning. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... A bathtub A bathtub (or simply bath) is a plumbing fixture used for bathing. ... Concrete stave silo used for corn silage Storage silos are structures for storing bulk materials. ... Bales of hay on a farm near Ames, Iowa A farm is the basic unit in agriculture. ...


Enamelling is an old and widely-adopted technology. The ancient Egyptians applied enamels to pottery and stone objects. Other practitioners include the ancient Greeks, Celts, Russians, and the Chinese. Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around one thousand years and was extinguished by the newly-powerful Christianity. ... Celts redirects here. ...


The bright, jewel-like colors have also made enamel a favored choice for designers of jewelry and bibelots, such as ancient beads, the fantastic eggs of Peter Carl Fabergé, enameled copper boxes of Battersea enamellers, and artists such as George Stubbs and other painters of portrait miniatures. Enameling was a favorite technique of the Art Nouveau jewellers. Bouquet of Lilies or Madonna Lily Egg by Fabergé Peter Carl Fabergé original name Carl Gustavovich Fabergé (May 30, 1846–September 24, 1920) was a Russian jeweller, best known for the fabulous Fabergé eggs, made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than... A self portrait by George Stubbs George Stubbs (born in Liverpool on August 25, 1724 – died in London July 10, 1806) was a British painter, best known for his paintings of horses. ... Some links to this page should perhaps link to miniature (illuminated manuscript). ... Poster by Alfons Mucha Art Nouveau (IPA: , anglicised ) (French for new art) is an international style of art, architecture and design that peaked in popularity at the beginning of the 20th century. ...


According to some sources, the word enamel comes from the High German word smelzan (to smelt) via the Old French esmail. Some techniques of enameling: Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ...

  • Basse-taille, from the French word meaning "low-cut". The surface of the metal is decorated with a low relief design which can be seen through translucent and transparent enamels.
  • Champlevé, French for "raised field", where the surface is carved out to form pits in which enamel is fired, leaving the original metal exposed.
  • Cloisonné, French for "cell", where thin wires are applied to form raised barriers, which contain different areas of enamel applied above the original metal form.
  • Grisaille, French term meaning "greying", where dark, often blue or black background is applied, then limoges or opalescent (translucent) enamel is applied on top, building up designs in a monochrome gradient, paler as the thickness of the layer of light color increases.
  • Limoges, named after the town in France where it was invented, is the technique of "painting" with an especial enamel called "blanc de limoges" over a dark enamelled surface to form a detailed picture, often human figure. It is a form of Grisaille.
  • Plique-à-jour, French for "braid letting in daylight" where the enamel is applied in cells, similar to champlevé, but with no backing, so light can shine through the transparent or translucent enamel. It has a stained-glass like appearance.
  • Ronde bosse, French for "round bump". A 3D type of enameling where a sculptural form is completely or partly enameled.
  • Stenciling, where a stencil is placed over the work and the powdered enamel is sifted over the top. The stencil is removed before firing, the enamel staying in a pattern, slightly raised.
  • Sgrafitto, where an unfired layer of enamel is applied over a previously fired layer of enamel of a contrasting color, and then partly removed with a tool to create the design.
  • Counter enameling, not strictly a technique, but a necessary step in many techniques, is to apply enamel to the back of a piece as well - sandwiching the metal - to create less tension on the glass so it does not crack.

Color in enamel is obtained by the addition of various minerals, often metal oxides cobalt, praseodymium, iron, or neodymium. The last creates delicate shades ranging from pure violet through wine-red and warm gray. Enamel can be either transparent, opaque or opalescent (translucent), which is a variety that gains a milky opacity the longer it is fired. Different enamel colours cannot be mixed to make a new colour, in the manner of paint. This produces tiny specks of both colours; although the eye can be tricked by grinding colors together to an extremely fine, flour-like, powder. Baisse-taille is an enamelling technique in which the artist creates a low-relief pattern in metal, usually silver or gold, by engraving or chasing. ... Champlevé in the decorative arts, an enameling technique or an object made by the champlevé process, which consists of cutting away troughs or cells in a metal plate and filling the depressions with pulverized vitreous enamel. ... Cloisonné is a multi-step enamel process used to produce jewelry, vases, and other decorative items. ... Location within France Limoges (Limòtges in Occitan) is a city and commune in France, the préfecture of the Haute-Vienne département, and the administrative capital of the Limousin région. ... Location within France Limoges (Limòtges in Occitan) is a city and commune in France, the préfecture of the Haute-Vienne département, and the administrative capital of the Limousin région. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Atomic mass 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Atomic mass 144. ...


"Enamel" paint

Some paints are called "enamel paints". This is a commonly used, yet fanciful term, implying that an ordinary latex or oil-based paint has the same properties as true, fired enamel. This sign at Leytonstone tube station is a typical enamel-painted metal sign An enamel paint is a paint that dries to an especially hard, usually glossy, finish. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Bicycle frames and similar steel objects are traditionally stove enamelled in countries such as the UK. The paint is baked on but the temperatures are much lower than for true vitreous enamel - approximately 200 degrees Celsius. The process should not be confused with powder coating as the enamel paint is sprayed on "wet". Steel frame and carbon fiber fork of 2000 LeMond Zurich racing bicycle A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted. ... Powder coating is a method of applying paint as a free-flowing, dry powder without using solvents. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Enamel

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Cloisonné is a multi-step enamel process used to produce jewelry, vases, and other decorative items. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... The kremlin in Rostov Rostov (Russian: Росто́в) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 3, p Appearance as coarse powder, dark gray with bluish tinge Atomic mass 28. ...

External links



Metalworking:

Jewellery making: Image File history File links Blacksmith-hammer-anvil-50x50. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Callaïs | Casting | Centrifugal casting | Cloisonné | Doming technique | Draw plate | Engraving | Filigree | Findings | Fretwork | Goldwork | Lapidary | Metal clay | Millesimal fineness | Omega chain | Persian weave | Relief | Repoussé and chasing | Soldering | Vacuum casting | Water torch | Wire wrap jewellery Callaïs is the name of a green stone used for making beads by western European cultures of the later Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Centrifugal casting or rotocasting is a casting technique which has application across a wide range of industrial and artistic applications: It is used as a means of casting small, detailed parts or jewelry. ... Cloisonné is a multi-step enamel process used to produce jewelry, vases, and other decorative items. ... doming blocks and punch The technique of doming (or dapping) is used to make spheres or hemispheres of metal. ... Draw plate front Draw plate back Draw plate top edge Draw plates are used to draw wire to make it thinner. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Filigree (formerly written filigrann or filigrane) is a jewel work of a delicate kind made with twisted threads usually of gold and silver. ... Findings refers to jewellery components used to put together the jewelry. ... Fretwork is an interlaced decorative design that is either carved in low relief on a solid background, or cut out with a fretsaw, jigsaw or scrollsaw. ... Goldwork is a type of metalwork particularly concerned with gold and its use in jewellery and coinage. ... A lapidary (the word means concerned with stones) is an artisan who practices the craft of working, forming and finishing stone, mineral, gemstones, and other suitably durable materials (amber, shell, jet, pearl, copal, coral, horn and bone, glass and other synthetics) into functional and/or decorative, even wearable, items (e. ... Metal clay, a clay-like medium used to make jewelry, beads and small sculpture, consists of very small particles of precious metals (such as silver, gold or platinum) mixed with an organic binder and water. ... Millesimal fineness is a system of denoting the purity of platinum, gold and silver alloys by parts per thousand of pure metal in the alloy. ... An Omega chain is a pseudo-chain made by assembling metallic links on a wire or woven mesh. ... Persian weave is a methode of weave used in jewelry and other art forms. ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... Repoussé bracelet by Thomas Feeser, ©2005. ... (De)soldering a contact from a wire. ... Vacuum casting is a means of casting small metal parts or jewelry that have fine detail or for casting various plastic materials. ... A water torch, sometimes called a water welder, is a device that produces a high-temperature directed flame and is used for precision welding, brazing, and cutting of metals typically employed in the making of jewelry,electronics boards and parts, and fiber optic applications. ... Wire wrap jewellery is a type of design and method of hand jewellery fabrication. ...


Metalworking topics:  

Casting | CNC | Cutting tools | Drilling and threading | Fabrication | Finishing | Grinding | Jewellery | Lathe (tool) | Machining | Machine tooling | Measuring | Metalworking | Hand tools | Metallurgy | Milling | Occupations | Press tools | Smithing | Terminology | Welding This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A CNC Turning Center A CNC Milling Machine The abbreviation CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control, and refers specifically to a computer controller that reads G-code instructions and drives the machine tool, a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate metal components by the selective removal of metal. ... a Cutting Tool, in the context of Metalworking is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. ... Drilling is the process of using a drill bit in a drill to produce holes. ... A typical steel fabrication shop Fabrication is an industrial term generally applied to the building of metal machines and structures. ... Metalworking finishing is the activity of making things out of metal in a skillful manner. ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ... Earring Jewellery (jewelry in American English) is any piece of fine material used to adorn the human body. ... Conventional metalworking lathe In woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking, a lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material so that when abrasive, cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the block, it can be shaped to produce an object which has rotational symmetry about an axis... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Metalworking hand tools are hand tools that are used in the metalworking field. ... Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Cutters for a milling machine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Smith (metalwork). ... Power press with a fixed barrier guard A press, or a machine press is a tool used to work metal (typically steel) by changing its shape and internal structure. ... A smith, or metalsmith, is a person involved in the shaping of metal objects. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vitreous enamel composition containing palladium powder - Patent 4150995 (3700 words)
The vitreous enamel composition according to claim 1, in which said organic vehicle is contained in an amount of 3- 10 parts by weight based on 1 part by weight of the vitreous enamel solid component.
The vitreous enamel composition of this invention is prepared by diluting the glass enamel solid component with an organic vehicle in an amount of 1 to 20 times, preferably 1 to 10 times the solid component.
The vitreous enamel compositions of this invention are readily applicable to glass and ceramic articles over the entire surface or desired portion thereof by any of the usual methods such as ordinary screen printing, transfer printing, spraying or like coating method, depending on the kind and proportion of the organic vehicle used in the composition.
Enamel Techniques & Materials for Cuff Links (1655 words)
White enamel is produced by adding stannic and arsenious acids to the frit, the quantity of the acid affecting the density, or opacity, of the enamel.
Although these enamels are still applied in their wet, powdered state, the adjacent patch of colored enamel is first allowed to dry to avoid one running into the other and so blurring the outline between them.
In the Grisaille enamel painting technique or monochromatic painting, pulverized white vitreous enamel is made into a paste by mixing it with water, turpentine, oil of lavender, or petroleum oil and is then applied to a dark enamel ground, usually colored fl or blue.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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