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Encyclopedia > Vitosha
Vitosha

Vitosha seen from Sofia
Elevation 2,290 metres (7,513 feet) at Cherni Vrah
Location Sofia Province, west central Bulgaria
Prominence 1100 m
Coordinates 42°34′N 23°17′E
First ascent Unknown
Easiest route Cable car to Aleko (1800 m), chair lift to Malak Rezen (2191 m), easy footpath to Cherni Vrah

Vitosha (Bulgarian: Витоша listen ) is a mountain massif, on the outskirts of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. Vitosha is one of the symbols of Sofia and the closest site for hiking, alpinism and skiing. Convenient bus lines and rope ways render the mountain easily accessible. Vitosha has the outlines of an enormous dome. The territory of the mountain includes Vitosha national park that encompasses the best known and most frequently visited parts. The foothills of Vitosha shelter resort quarters of Sofia; Knyazhevo quarter has mineral springs. Vitosha is the oldest national park in the Balkans. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1077x653, 238 KB) The skyline of Sofia, Bulgaria, with the Vitosha mountain rising in the background. ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Mayor Boyko Borisov Area    - City 1,310 km²  - Land (?) km²  - Water (?) km² Elevation 550 m Population    - City (12 June 2006) 1,203,680  - Density 907/km²  - Metro 1,326,377 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Website... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... Sofia province shown within Bulgaria Sofia is a province of Bulgaria. ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height, shoulder drop or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... Image File history File links Vitosha. ... In geology, a massif is a section of the Earths crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures. ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Mayor Boyko Borisov Area    - City 1,310 km²  - Land (?) km²  - Water (?) km² Elevation 550 m Population    - City (12 June 2006) 1,203,680  - Density 907/km²  - Metro 1,326,377 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Website... Mountaineering is an umbrella term that can variously be used to describe the actions of climbing, hillwalking and scrambling. ... Deep powder skiing An alpine skier Members of the US Air Force skiing (and snowboarding) at Keystone Resorts 14th Annual SnoFest Skiing is the activity of gliding over snow using skis (originally wooden planks, now usually made from fiberglass or related composites), with metal edges, strapped to the feet... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales, UK A national park is a reserve of land, usually declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

View of the Vitosha Mountain from the South Park of Sofia
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View of the Vitosha Mountain from the South Park of Sofia

The mountain emerged as a result of volcanic activity and has been subsequently shaped by the slow folding of the granite rock layers and a series of gradual uplifts of the area. It appears dome shaped at first sight, but the mountain, 19 km long by 17 km wide, actually consists of concentric denudational plateaus rising in tiers one above the other. Vitosha is separated into four main parts whose main ridges gather at a crown known as Cherni Vrah ("Black Peak"). This is the highest point of the mountain at 2290 m and is one of 10 peaks of Vitosha over 2000 m in height. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 720 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 720 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ...


Since the ancient times of the Thracians a large population has always existed at the base of Vitosha. For the last four thousand years the economy of this large settlement has always been connected, in one way or another, with the neighboring mountain. The name Vitosha comes from the two-peaked, twin ridge mountain, which rises above the Sofia field and has acquired its present shape in stages over many millennia. Thracian peltast, 5th to 4th century BC Thracian Horseman Thracians in an ethnic sense refers to various ancient peoples who spoke Dacian and Thracian, a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. ...


A meteorological station was built at the top in 1935, and is still operating. The station also serves as a rest shelter for hikers and is the headquarters for the mountain rescue team. Historical documents show that several centuries ago Vitosha mountain was still covered by the remains of the inaccessible "Great Bulgarian Forest". Today, the natural coniferous forests of Vitosha remain only in the reserve Bistrishko Branishte and around Zlatnite Mostove (The Golden Bridges). The Golden Bridges is an amazing phenomenon known as The Stone River and consists of a ribbon of huge boulders running down the mountainside. This scenic spot is located along the Vladayska River in an area of mixed deciduous and evergreen forest. However, this is only one of the eight stone rivers found in Vitosha and they were once the moraines of ancient glaciers. Their further formation occurred due to the spherical erosion of the sienite rocks and their gradual movement to down stream valleys by the forces of gravity and moving water. A technician checks data from a weather station. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ...


At a time when nature conservation ideas were a long way from the present understanding, some enlightened noblemen took the first step in 1934 by declaring 66 km² of Vitosha a national park, hence Vitosha became the first park of this kind in the Balkans. During the following year, some of the first Bulgarian reserves, Bistrishko Branishte (10.61 km²) and Torfeno Branishte (7.84 km²), were defined within its boundaries. The park boundaries fluctuated over many years and today it encompasses the entire mountain; an area of 266.06 km². 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

The Aleko area with the Aleko hut in the middle
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The Aleko area with the Aleko hut in the middle

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4973x800, 3409 KB) Георги Генчев http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4973x800, 3409 KB) Георги Генчев http://www. ...

Ecology

Due to a great variability in elevation, a rich diversity of climates, flora and fauna can be found within the park. Research has revealed that on the comparatively small area of the mountain there are 1,500 species of higher plants, 500 species of fungi, 500 species of algae, 326 species of mosses, and 200 species of lichens. Among them 31 species are Balkan endemics and 52 species are included in the Red Book of Bulgaria. The forests are made up mainly of Norway Spruce and Bulgarian Fir, with some Macedonian Pine, Scots Pine, and at the tree-line, Mountain Pine, and mixed deciduous forest at lower altitudes, mainly beech, birch, aspen and alder. Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... This is an article about the plant. ... For other things named Lichen, see: Lichen (disambiguation). ... Red Book has one of the following meanings. ... Binomial name Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. ... Binomial name Abies borisii-regis Mattf. ... Binomial name Pinus peuce Griseb. ... Binomial name Pinus sylvestris L. The Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris; family Pinaceae) is a common tree ranging from Great Britain and Spain east to eastern Siberia and the Caucasus Mountains, and as far north as Lapland. ... Binomial name Pinus mugo Turra Mountain Pine or Mugo Pine (Pinus mugo) is a high altitude European pine, found in the Pyrenees, Alps, Erzgebirge, Carpathians, northern Appennines and Balkan Peninsula mountains from (mostly) 1,000 m to 2,200 m, occasionally as low as 200 m in the north of... Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off). ... Species Fagus crenata - Japanese Beech Fagus engleriana - Chinese Beech Fagus grandifolia - American Beech Fagus hayatae - Taiwan Beech Fagus japonica - Japanese Blue Beech Fagus longipetiolata - South Chinese Beech Fagus lucida - Shining Beech Fagus mexicana - Mexican Beech or Haya Fagus orientalis - Oriental Beech Fagus sylvatica - European Beech Beech (Fagus) is a genus... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Species Populus adenopoda Populus alba Populus grandidentata Populus sieboldii Populus tremula Populus tremuloides Aspens are trees of the willow family and comprise a section of the poplar genus, Populus sect. ... Species About 20-30 species, see text. ...

The Plateau with Torfeno Branishte
The Plateau with Torfeno Branishte

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1530x1000, 272 KB) Plateau on top of Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria, showing the reserve Torfeno Branishte. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1530x1000, 272 KB) Plateau on top of Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria, showing the reserve Torfeno Branishte. ...

Honours

Vitosha Saddle and Rezen Knoll on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica are named respectively for Mount Vitosha, and for the Vitosha peaks of Malak Rezen and Golyam Rezen. Vitosha Saddle (Vitoshka Sedlovina vi-tosh-ka se-dlo-vi-na) is an ice-covered saddle extending 400m in SW-NE direction between Great Needle Peak (Falsa Aguja) and Vihren Peak in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island, Antarctica. ... Rezen Knoll (Bulgarian: Vrah Rezen vr&h re-zen) is a knoll in eastern Livingston Island, Antarctica. ... Livingston Island (62°36′ S 060°30′ W) is 61 km (38 mi) long and from 3 to 32 km (2 to 20 mi) wide, lying between Greenwich and Snow Islands in the South Shetland Islands. ... The South Shetland Islands or Iles Shetland du Sud or Islas Shetland del Sur or New South Britain or New South Shetland or Shetland Islands or South Shetlands or Sydshetland or Süd-Shetland Inseln are a chain of islands in the Southern Ocean lying about 120 kilometres northward of...

Vitosha is also the name of:

  • Radio Vitosha
  • Vitosha Boulevard - a popular main street in Sofia, with expensive shops, boutiques and restaurants.

Vitosha Boulevard Vitosha Boulevard (often called just Vitoshka) in Bulgaria is Sofias main thoroughfare and is famous for the many brand name shops and boutiques on it. ...

See also

Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains The Balkan mountain range (Bulgarian: Stara Planina, Old Mountain) is an extension of the Carpathian mountain range, separated from it by the Danube River. ...

External links

  • Images from Vitosha
  • National Park Vitosha Web Site
  • Mountain & Ski resort Vitosha - info, hotels, properties
  • The Vitosha mountain - virtual tour

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vitosha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (762 words)
Vitosha is the oldest national park in the Balkans.
The mountain emerged as a result of volcanic activity and has been subsequently shaped by the slow folding of the granite rock layers and a series of gradual uplifts of the area.
Vitosha Saddle and Rezen Knoll on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica are named respectively for Mount Vitosha, and for the Vitosha peaks of Malak Rezen and Golyam Rezen.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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