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Encyclopedia > Vitis vinifera
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Vitis vinifera

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Vitales
Family: Vitaceae
Genus: Vitis
Species: V. vinifera
Binomial name
Vitis vinifera
L.

For thousands of years, the fruit and plant of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine, have been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value; its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine. Vitis vinifera Source: da:Billede:Vitis-vinifera. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Genera See text The Vitaceae (or Vitidaceae) are a family of dicots including the grape and Virginia creeper. ... Genera Acareosperma Ampelocissus Ampelopsis (peppervine) Cayratia Cissus (treebind, treebine) Clematicissus Cyphostemma Nothocissus Parthenocissus (creeper) Pterisanthes Pterocissus Rhoicissus Tetrastigma Vitis (grape) Vua The Vitaceae (or Vitidaceae) are a family of dicots including the grape and Virginia creeper. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Crops have been harvested by hand throughout most of human history. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ...

Contents

History

]9hormb;njshlun;ruhCalifornia]]. But due to the research of Konstantin Frank, it is now widely grown even in the harsher climate of New York State and Southern Ontario. Dr. Helmut Becker's work in the early 1980s brought vitis vinifera to the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Dr. Konstantin Frank Dr. Konstantin Frank (1897-1985) was a viticulturist and winemaker in the Finger Lakes region of New York. ... NY redirects here. ... Southern Ontario is the portion of the Canadian province of Ontario which lies south of the French River and Algonquin Park. ... Helmut Becker (1927-1989), German viticulturist, was chief of the Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute. ... The regional districts that comprise the Okanagan are shown in red. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735 km² 925,186 km² 19,549 km...


In March 2007, scientists from Australia's CSIRO working in the Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture reported[1] they found that "extremely rare and independent mutations in two genes [VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2] [of red grapes] produced a single white grapevine that was the parent of almost all of the world’s white grape varieties. If only one gene had been mutated, most grapes would still be red and we would not have the more than 3000 white grape cultivars available today."[2] 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is the national government body for scientific research in Australia. ...


The plant has large, jagged leaves, and its stem bark tends to peel. The grapes may be green, red, or purple.


Uses

Use of grapes goes back at least 6,000 years when Mesopotamians and Ancient Egyptians had farming plans for the vines.[3] Greek philosophers praised the healing powers of grapes both whole and in the form of wine. Vitis vinifera cultivation and winemaking in China began during the Han Dynasty in the second century BC[4] with the importation of the species from Ta-Yuan. However, wild vine "mountain grapes" like Vitis thunbergii were being used for wine making before that time.[5] Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis lincecumii Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Classical (or early) Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... Later Han redirects here. ... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events BC 168 Battle of Pydna -- Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans BC 148 Rome conquers Macedonia BC 146 Rome destroys Carthage in the Third Punic War BC 146 Rome conquers... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ...


Using the sap of grapevines, European folk healers cured skin and eye diseases. Other historical uses include the leaves being used to stop bleeding, pain and inflammation of hemorrhoids. For treating sore throats unripe grapes were used, and raisins were given as treatments for consumption (tuberculosis), constipation and thirst. For the treatment of cancer, cholera, smallpox, nausea, skin and eye infections as well as kidney and liver diseases, ripe grapes were used. “Foliage” redirects here. ... Hemorrhoids (also haemorrhoids or piles) are varicosities or swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to eliminate; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... William-Adolphe Bouguereaus Thirst (1886) Thirst is the basic need or instinct of humans or animals to drink. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Renal anomalies and Renal plasma threshold be merged into this article or section. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including vertebrates (and therefore humans). ...


Seedless grape varieties were developed to appeal to consumers, but researchers are now discovering that many of the healthful properties of grapes may actually come from the seeds themselves.


Modern research on resveratrol, a chemical found in grape skins, as a tool against cardiovascular disease, cancer and aging, has begun to back up some of the assertions of the folk healers. The research says, "Resveratrol has been shown to modulate the metabolism of lipids, and to inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and the aggregation of platelets."[6] Grape seed oil, from the crushed seeds is used for its perceived wide range of health benefits. Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced by several plants that is sold as a nutritional supplement. ... A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Grape oil (also grapeseed oil) is a vegetable oil pressed from the seeds of various varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes, an abundant by-product of wine making. ...


Grapevine leaves are used filled with minced beef, rice and onions in the making of Balkan traditional Dolma. Dolma is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes in the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and surrounding regions, including the Middle East, the Balkans, Greece, and Central Asia. ...


See also

This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana). ...

References

  1. ^ White grapes arose through the mutation of two similar and adjacent regulatory genes Amanda R. Walker, Elizabeth Lee, Jochen Bogs, Debra A. J. McDavid, Mark R. Thomas and Simon P. Robinson, The Plant Journal, Volume 49 Issue 5 Page 772 - March 2007 [1] accessed 2 March 2007
  2. ^ Finding the white wine difference [2] accessed 2 March 2007
  3. ^ History-of-wine.com. (June 10, 2004). The History of Wine
  4. ^ Plocher, T; Rouse, G; Hart, M. (2003). Discovering Grapes and Wine in the Far North of China
  5. ^ Eijkhoff, P. (2000). Wine in China; its history and contemporary developments.
  6. ^ Chan, WK; Delucchi, AB. Resveratrol, a red wine constituent, is a mechanism-based inactivator of cytochrome P450 3A4 Life Sci. 2000 Nov 10;67(25):3103-12.
  • China Wine Online. The History of China Wine.
  • Daniel Zohary, Maria Hopf (2000). Domestication of plants in the Old World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850356-3.  Authoritative source on evolution and domestication of the grapevine.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Vitis vinifera

  Results from FactBites:
 
List of grape varieties - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (259 words)
This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana).
Vitis riparia (wine grape rootstock and hybridization source)
Hybrid grape varieties or "hybrids" is, in fact, the popular term for a subset of what are properly known as hybrids, specifically crossings between one species of the genus vitis and another.
Wines & Vines: Vitis vinifera survives the Finger Lakes: is it the rootstock or the climate? (1456 words)
Wines and Vines: Vitis vinifera survives the Finger Lakes: is it the rootstock or the climate?
Vitis vinifera survives the Finger Lakes: is it the rootstock or the climate?
For instance, no one doubts Vitis riparia rootstock offers protection from phylloxera, but Poole notes that it may offer more, pointing to a recent study by one of his colleagues that indicates rootstocks with considerable Vitis riparia in their line seem less prone to certain bacteria common in the Northeast.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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