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Encyclopedia > Viticulture
wine grapes
wine grapes

Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production and study of grapes which deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard. When the grapes are used for winemaking, it is also known as viniculture. It is one branch of the science of horticulture. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1060x1600, 209 KB) Wine grapes File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible Weinberg Viticulture User talk:Fir0002 Aglianico User:Fir0002/FPCandidates User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery/Featured Pictures Wikipedia:Featured pictures thumbs 03 Wikipedia:Featured picture... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1060x1600, 209 KB) Wine grapes File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible Weinberg Viticulture User talk:Fir0002 Aglianico User:Fir0002/FPCandidates User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery/Featured Pictures Wikipedia:Featured pictures thumbs 03 Wikipedia:Featured picture... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... A common vineyard. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) is classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ...


While the native territory of Vitis Vinifera is a band of area from Western Europe to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, the vine has demonstrated high levels of adaptability and will sometimes mutate to accommodate a new environment after its been introduced. Because of this Viticulture can be found on every continent except Antarctica.[1] The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about mutation in biology, for other meanings see: mutation (disambiguation). ...


Duties of the Viticulturalist include: monitoring and controlling pests and diseases, fertilizing, irrigation, canopy management, monitoring fruit development and characteristics, deciding when to harvest and vine pruning during the winter months. Viticulturalists are often intimately involved with winemakers, because vineyard management and the resulting grape characteristics, provide the basis from which winemaking can begin. Carpet beetle larvae damaging a specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in an entomological collection A pest is an organism which has characteristics that are regarded as injurious or unwanted. ... Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... Soil Fertilization or Crop Fertilization are methods of improving soil quality with a view towards improving soil fertility. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... French typcite, Italian tipicita A term in wine tasting used to describe the degree that a wine reflects it varietal origins, demonstrating the signature characteristics of the grape from which it was produced-i. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In microeconomics, pruning taken as a metaphor from gardening, refers to the removal of excess items from a budget. ...

Contents

History

The history of viticulture is closely related to the history of wine with evidence of man cultivating wild grapes to make wine dating as far back as the Neolithic period. There is evidence that some of the earliest domestication of Vitis vinifera occurred in the area of the modern day country Georgia.[2] There is also evidence of grape domestication occurring Near East in the Early Bronze Age around 3200 BC. The ancient Chinese are believed to have made wine from native wild "mountain grapes" like Vitis thunbergii [3] The history of wine spans thousands of years and is closely intertwined with the history of agriculture, cuisine, civilization and man himself. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Binomial name Vitis vinifera L. For thousands of years, the fruit and plant of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine, have been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value; its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


The earliest act of cultivation appears to have been the favoring of Hermaphroditic members of the Vitis Vinifera species over the barren male vines and the female vines which were dependent on having a nearby male to pollinate. With the ability to pollinate itself, over time the hermaphroditic vines were able to sire offspring that was consistently hermaphroditic itself.[4] In zoology, a hermaphrodite is a species that contains both male and female sexual organs at some point during their lives. ... Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... In biology, offspring are the product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or more parents. ...


At the end of the 5th century BC, the Greek historian Thucydides wrote: Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ...

The people of the Mediterranean began to emerge from barbarism when they learnt to cultivate the olive and the vine.[5]

The time period that Thucydides was most likely referencing was the time between 3000 BC and 2000 BC when viticulture emerged in force in the areas of Asia Minor, Crete, Greece and the Cycladic Islands of the Aegean Sea. It was during this period that grape cultivation moved from being just an aspect of local consumption to an important component of local economies and trade.[6] The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Barbarism may refer to: Barbarism (derived from barbarian), the condition to which a society or civilization may be reduced after a societal collapse, relative to an earlier period of cultural or technological advancement; the term may also be used pejoratively to describe another society or civilization which is deemed inferior... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Crete (Greek Κρήτη — classical transliteration KrÄ“tÄ“, modern Greek transliteration Kríti; Ottoman Turkish گريد (Girit); Classical Latin CrÄ“ta, Vulgar Latin Candia) is the largest of the Greek islands at 8,336 km² (3,219 square miles) and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean. ... The Cyclades (Greek Κυκλάδες) are a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea, south-east of the mainland of Greece; and an administrative prefecture of Greece. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ...


Roman viticulture

Between 1200 BC to 900 BC the Phoenician developed viticulture practices that were later utilized in Carthage. Around 500 BC, the Carthaginian writer Mago recorded these practices in 28 volume work that was one of the few artifacts to survive the Roman destruction of Carthage during the Third Punic War. The Roman statesman Cato the Elder was influenced by these text and around 160 BC wrote De Agri Cultura which expounded on Roman viticulture and agriculture.[7] The Roman writer Columella produced the most detailed work on Roman viticulture with his twelve volume AD 65 text De Re Rustica. Columella work is one of the earliest to detail trellis systems for getting vines off the ground. Columella advocated the use of stakes versus the previously accepted practice of training the vines to grow up along tree trunks. The benefits of using stakes over trees was largely to minimize the dangers associates with climbing trees to prune the dense foliage to give the vines sunlight and later to harvest.[8] Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon & Syria [2] Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC, between... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Mago was a Carthaginian writer, author of an agricultural manual in Punic which was a record of the farming knowledge of Carthage. ... Roman or Romans may refer to: A thing or person of or from the city of Rome. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Republic of... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... De Agri Cultura (On Farming or On Agriculture), written around 150 BC by Cato the Elder, is the first surviving work of Latin prose. ... Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (Gades in Hispania Baetica, 4 AD - ca. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... “Foliage” redirects here. ...


Roman expansion across Western Europe also brought Roman viticulture to the areas that would be home to some of the world most well known wine-growing regions-the Spanish Rioja, the German Mosel-Saar-Ruwer, and the French Bordeaux, Burgundy and Rhône. The Romans were one of the earliest viticulturalists to identify steep hillsides as one of the more ideal locations to plant vines because cool air runs downhill and gathers at the bottom of valleys. While some cool air is beneficial, too much can rob the vine of the heat it needs for photosynthesis and in the wintertime increase the hazard for frost.[9] The history of ancient Rome—originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD—was often closely entwined with its military history. ... This list of wine-producing regions catalogues significant growing regions where vineyards are planted. ... Rioja is a municipality of Almería province, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. ... Mosel-Saar-Ruwer is a German wine-growing-region in the valleys of the rivers Moselle, Saar and Ruwer near Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... The Rhône wine region is first divided into north and south. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ...


Medieval viticulture

In the Middle Ages, Catholic monks (particularly the Cistercians) were the most prominent viticulturist of the time period. Around this time, an early system of Metayage emerged in France with laborers (Prendeur) working the vineyards under contractual agreements with the landowners (Bailleur). In most cases, the prendeurs were giving flexibility in selecting their crop and developing their own vineyard practice.[10] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... St. ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ... Metayage System, the cultivation of land for a proprietor by one who receives a proportion of the produce. ... A prendeur, a French term, is a labourer working as part of an early Middle Age share cropping system known as complant, a precursor to the métayage system. ... A bailleur, a French term, is a land owner who outsourced uncultivated parcels of land as part of an early Middle Age share cropping system known as complant — a precursor to the métayage system. ...


Many of the viticultural practices developed in this time period would become staples of European Viticulture till the 18th century. Varietals were studied more intently to see which vines were the most suitable for a particular area. Around this time an early concept of terroir emerged as wines from particular places began to develop a reputation for uniqueness. The concept of pruning for quality over quantity emerged though it would create conflict between the rich landowners who wanted higher quality wines and the peasant laborers who livelihood dependent on the quantity of wine they could sell.[11] Varietal describes wines made from a single named grape variety. ... Terroir was originally a French term in wine and coffee appreciation used to denote the special characteristics of geography that bestowed individuality upon the food product. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Burgundy, the Cistercian monks developed the concept of cru vineyards as homogeneous pieces of land that consistent produces wines each vintage that are similar. In areas like the Côte-d'Or the monks divided the land into separate vineyards, many of which are still around today-like Montrachet and La Romanée.[12] Grand Cru is the highest level of classification of AOC wines from Burgundy or Alsace, those that come from a single vineyard. ... Look up Homogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Vintagers, after a miniature of the Dialogues de Saint Gregoire (thirteenth century)—manuscript of the Royal Library of Brussels. ... For other uses, see Côte dOr (disambiguation). ... Looking down the vines of Chevalier-Montrachet with Le Montrachet below and Batard-Montrachet just beyond. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Growing vines

The vast majority of the world's wine producing regions are found within between the temperate latitudes of 30° and 50° in both hemispheres. In these bands the annual mean temperatures are between 50°F and 68°F. The presence of large bodies of water and mountain ranges can have positive effects on the climate and vines. Nearby lakes and rivers can serve as protection for drastic temperature drops at night by releasing the heat it has stored during the day to warm the vines. The vine needs approximately 1300-1500 hours of sunshine during the growing season and around 27 inches of rainfall throughout the year in order to produce grapes suitable for winemaking. In ideal circumstances the vine will receive most of the rainfall during the winter and spring months. Rain during the harvest time can create many hazards such as fungal diseases and berries splitting. The optimum weather during the growing season is a long, warm summer that allows the grapes the opportunity to fully ripen and develop a balance between the acid and sugar levels in the grape.[13] The following is a list of regions where wine grapes are grown and wine is made from them. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Latitude, denoted φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... The term hemisphere is used in three different meanings: one-half of the Earth (or other planetary or stellar body; see also New World and Old World) Eastern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere. ... In statistics, mean has two related meanings: the arithmetic mean (and is distinguished from the geometric mean or harmonic mean). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German-Dutch physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German-Dutch physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England (Great Britain) A fjord (Lysefjorden) in Norway River Gambia flowing through Niokolokoba National Park Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia A tide pool on Gabriola Island, British Columbia showing ochre sea stars A body of water is any significant accumulation of water such as an ocean, a... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Blowdown Lake in the mountains near Pemberton, British Columbia A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... In agriculture, the growing season is the period of each year when crops can be grown. ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... Acidity redirects here. ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ...


Other factors that Viticulturalist consider is the topography of the area with hillsides and slopes being preferred over flatter terrain. A main reason for this is that vines on an angle can receive a greater strength of the sun rays with the sunshine falling on a perpendicular angle to the slope. With flatter terrain, the strength of the sunlight is diluted as it is spread out across a wider surface area. An additional benefit is the natural drainage that a slope offers so that the vine doesn't sit with too much moisture in the soil. In cooler climate regions of the northern hemisphere, South facing slopes receive more hours of sunlight and are preferred. In warmer climates, north facing slopes are preferred. (In the southern hemisphere these orientations are reversed).[14] For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... In mathematics, the slope (or gradient, especially where three or more dimensions are discussed) of a straight line (within a Cartesian coordinate system) is a measure for the steepness of said line. ... Fig. ...


Hazards

There are many hazards that a Viticulturalist needs to be aware of when growing vines. These hazards can have an adverse affect on the wine produced from the grape or kill the vine itself. When the vine is flowering it is very susceptible to weather hazards such as strong winds and hail. Cold temperatures during this period can also bring the onset of millerandage which produces clusters with no seeds and varying sizes. Too much heat can have the opposite reaction and produce Coulure that causes grape clusters to either drop to the ground or not fully develop.[13] Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms (flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Millerandage is a French term referring to an viticultural problem in which grape bunches contain berries of greatly different size and, most important, different levels of maturity. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Coulure (pronounced coo-LYUR) is the French word for the result of a metabolic and weather conditions that causes the failure of the grapes to develop after flowering. ...


Other Viticultural hazards...'

manual grape gathering
manual grape gathering

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 456 KB) Description: grape gathering in Saxony, Germany Capture date: 15. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 456 KB) Description: grape gathering in Saxony, Germany Capture date: 15. ... This article is about a type of fungal spore. ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ... Powdery mildew Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants. ... Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, family Phylloxeridae, superfamily Aphidoidea) is a serious pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America. ...

Field blend

Mechanical harvesting of Sauvignon Blanc grapes in Côtes de Duras France

A field blend is a wine that is produced from two or more different grape varieties inter planted in the same vineyard. In the days before precise varietal identification, let alone rigorous clonal selection, a vineyard might be planted by taking cuttings from another vineyard and therefore approximately copying its genetic makeup. This meant that one vine could be Zinfandel and the next Carignan. When making wine with little equipment to spare for separate vinification of different varieties, field blends allowed effortless, though inflexible, blending. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (992x609, 202 KB) Mechanical harvesting of sauvignon blanc grapes Photo by French Duck File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (992x609, 202 KB) Mechanical harvesting of sauvignon blanc grapes Photo by French Duck File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety which originates from the Bordeaux region of France. ... Varietal describes wines made from a single named grape variety. ... The clonal selection theory has become a widely accepted model for how the immune system responds to infection and how certain types of B and T lymphocytes are selected for destruction of specific antigens invading the body. ... Plant cuttings are a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the source plant containing at least one stem cell is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. ... Zinfandel, also known as Zin, is a red-skinned wine grape popular in California for its intense fruitiness and lush texture. ... Carignan (in French; Spanish Cariñena, Italian Carignano, Spanish variety of grape that originated in Cariñena, Aragon and was later transplanted to Italy, Algeria, and much of the New World. ...


Fermentation tanks are now cheap enough that the field blend is an anachronism, and almost all wines are assembled by blending from smaller, individual lots. However, in California some of the oldest (and lowest-yielding) Zinfandel comes from vineyards that are field-blended. Ridge Vineyards owns the Lytton Springs vineyards in Sonoma, which were planted from 1900 to 1905 in what Ridge calls "a traditional field blend of about seventy percent Zinfandel, twenty percent Petite Sirah, and ten percent Grenache and Carignan." Ridge Vineyards in a winery located at an elevation of 2,3000 feet on Monte Bello Ridge in the Santa Cruz Mountains south of San Francisco, California. ... Durif (or Dufiff) is a minor variety of red wine grape grown in France, California and Australia. ... Grenache is a sweet red grape variety grown primarily for the making of wine. ...


See also

  • Oenology
  • Diurnal temperature variation
  • List of vineyard soil types

Oenology is the study of wines in general. ... Diurnal temperature variation is a viticultural term that relates to the variation in temperature that occurs from the highs of the day to the cool of nights. ... The soil composition of vineyards is one of the most important viticultural consideration when planting grape vines. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ H. Johnson "Vintage: The Story of Wine" pg 17-19 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0671687026
  2. ^ Roots of the Vine Archeology, Volume 57 Number 2, March/April 2004 by Spencer P.M. Harrington
  3. ^ Eijkhoff, P. Wine in China: its historical and contemporary developments (2 MB PDF)
  4. ^ H. Johnson "Vintage: The Story of Wine" pg 18 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0671687026
  5. ^ H. Johnson "Vintage: The Story of Wine" pg 35 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0671687026
  6. ^ H. Johnson "Vintage: The Story of Wine" pg 35-39 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0671687026
  7. ^ H. Johnson "Vintage: The Story of Wine" pg 61 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0671687026
  8. ^ H. Johnson "Vintage: The Story of Wine" pg 68 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0671687026
  9. ^ H. Johnson "Vintage: The Story of Wine" pg 82-92 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0671687026
  10. ^ H. Johnson "Vintage: The Story of Wine" pg 116 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0671687026
  11. ^ H. Johnson "Vintage: The Story of Wine" pg 121-122 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0671687026
  12. ^ H. Johnson "Vintage: The Story of Wine" pg 131-132 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0671687026
  13. ^ a b T. Stevenson "The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia" pg 14-15 Dorling Kindersley 2005 ISBN 0756613248
  14. ^ T. Stevenson "The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia" pg 16 Dorling Kindersley 2005 ISBN 0756613248

  Results from FactBites:
 
M.S. in Viticulture and Enology (630 words)
The Master of Science in Viticulture and Enology at California State University, Fresno is a 30-unit research oriented program designed to provide advanced studies and in-depth knowledge in the fundamentals of plant physiology, microbiology, and chemistry in relation to grape growing and winemaking.
Students then choose courses in the areas of plant science, botany, chemistry, and viticulture for an emphasis in viticulture, or in chemistry, microbiology, food science, and enology for an emphasis in enology.
Graduate students are required to write a scientific thesis in viticulture-based areas such as vine nutrition, irrigation management, canopy management, evaluation of cultivars, clones, and the use of growth regulators and rootstocks; or in enology-based areas such as microbiology and chemistry of grape juice, wine, and concentrate.
Viticulture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (251 words)
Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) refers to the cultivation of grapes, often for use in the production of wine.
By practice, viticulture is the science, production and study of grapes which deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard.
Lincoln University, Centre for Viticulture and Oenology - Lincoln University, Centre for Viticulture and Oenology
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