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Encyclopedia > Vitamins
Retinol (Vitamin A)
Retinol (Vitamin A)
Food Portal

Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. Nor does the term refer to the large number of other nutrients that promote health, but are not strictly essential. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1697x532, 17 KB) Chemical structure of retinol created with ChemDraw. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1697x532, 17 KB) Chemical structure of retinol created with ChemDraw. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... A nutrient is either element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ... Dietary minerals are chemical elements required by living organisms. ... Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that are required in the human diet. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


Vitamins act both as catalysts and substrates in chemical reactions. When acting as a catalyst, vitamins are bound to enzymes and are called cofactors, for example vitamin K forms part of the proteases involved in blood clotting. Vitamins also act as coenzymes to carry chemical groups between enzymes, for example folic acid carries various forms of carbon groups (methyl, formyl or methylene) in the cell. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... A chemical reaction occurs when vapours of hydrogen chloride and ammonia meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride Chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances [1]. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Cofactor may refer to any of the following: Minor (linear algebra) as an alternative name for the determinant of a smaller matrix than that which it describes Cofactor (biochemistry) is a substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme for a certain reaction to take place. ... Proteases (proteinases, peptidases, or proteolytic enzymes) are enzymes that break peptide bonds between amino acids of proteins. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... Coenzymes are a small organic non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of a water-soluble B vitamin. ...


Until the 1900s, vitamins were obtained solely through food intake. Many food sources contain different ratios of vitamins. Therefore, if the only source of vitamins is food, a seasonal, yearly or even daily change in diet also alters the ratio of ingested vitamins. Many vitamins can be stored by the body over a range of dosages and short term deficiencies (e.g. during a particular food growing season), do not always result in disease.


Vitamins have been produced as commodity chemicals and made widely available as inexpensive pills for several decades[2] allowing for consistent supplementation to dietary intake.

Fruits and vegetables are often a good source of vitamins.
Fruits and vegetables are often a good source of vitamins.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 251 KB) Taken on July 5th in Barcelona photo by Dungodung File links The following pages link to this file: Market ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 251 KB) Taken on July 5th in Barcelona photo by Dungodung File links The following pages link to this file: Market ...

History

The value of eating certain foods to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. The ancient Egyptians knew that feeding a patient liver would help cure night blindness, now known to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency. In 1747, the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy, a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed, and is characterized by poor wound healing, bleeding of the gums, and severe pain.[3] In 1753, Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy, which recommended using lemons and limes to avoid scurvy, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy. This led to the nickname Limey for sailors of that organization. Lind's discovery, however, was not widely accepted by individuals in the Royal Navy's Arctic expeditions in the 19th century, where it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by practicing good hygiene, regular exercise, and by maintaining the morale of the crew while on board, rather than by a diet of fresh food.[3] As a result, Arctic expeditions continued to be plagued by scurvy and other deficiency diseases. In the early 20th century, when Robert Falcon Scott made his two expeditions to the Antarctic the prevailing medical theory was that scurvy was caused by "tainted" canned food.[3] Liver of a sheep: (1) right lobe, (2) left lobe, (3) caudate lobe, (4) quadrate lobe, (5) hepatic artery and portal vein, (6) hepatic lymph nodes, (7) gall bladder. ... Nyctalopia (literally night blindness) is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in the dark. ... Retinol, the dietary form of vitamin A, is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... Motto: (Eng: No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... James Lind (1716 – 1794), born in Edinburgh, Scotland was a Surgeon in the Royal Navy (1739-1748); physician to the Royal Naval Hospital at Haslar (1758-1783); founder of naval hygiene in the United Kingdom and promoter of the use of citrus fruits and fresh vegetables to prevent and cure... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus maxima- Pomelo Citrus medica- Citron Citrus reticulata- Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus × sinensis- Sweet Orange Citrus × aurantium- Bitter Orange Citrus × paradisi- Grapefruit Citrus × limon- Lemon Citrus × latifolia- Persian lime Citrus × aurantifolia- Key lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus is a common term... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... The gingivae (sing. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Look up limey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the area around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctican area around the South Pole. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hygiene is commonly understood as preventing infection through cleanliness. ... Morale is a term for the capacity of people to maintain belief in an institution or a goal. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Robert Falcon Scott Robert Falcon Scott (6 June 1868 – 29 March 1912) was a Royal Naval officer and Antarctic explorer. ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... Canning is a method of preserving food by first heating it to a temperature that destroys contaminating microorganisms, and then sealing it in air-tight jars, cans or pouches. ...


In 1881, Russian surgeon Nikolai Lunin studied the effects of scurvy while at the University of Tartu (in present day Estonia).[4] He fed mice an artificial mixture of all the separate constituents of milk known at that time, namely the proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and salts. The mice that received only the individual constituents died, while the mice fed by milk itself developed normally. He made a conclusion that "a natural food such as milk must therefore contain, besides these known principal ingredients, small quantities of unknown substances essential to life".[4] However, his conclusions were rejected by other researchers when they were unable to reproduce his results. One difference was that he had used table sugar (sucrose), while other researchers had used milk sugar (lactose) which still contained small amounts of vitamin B. 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Feral mouse A mouse (Plural mice) is a mammal that belongs to one of numerous species of small rodents. ... A glass of cows milk Milk is the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see Fat (disambiguation). ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) A salt, in chemistry, is any ionic compound composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is neutral (without a net charge). ... Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ...


In 1897, Christiaan Eijkman discovered that eating unpolished rice instead of the polished variety helped to prevent the disease beriberi. The following year, Frederick Hopkins postulated that some foods contained "accessory factors"—in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fats, etc.—that were necessary for the functions of the human body.[3] Hopkins was awarded the 1929 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, with Christiaan Eijkman, for their discovery of several vitamins. 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Christiaan Eijkman (August 11, 1858—November 5, 1930) was a Dutch physician and pathologist whose demonstration that beriberi is caused by poor diet led to the discovery of vitamins. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice is two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans[1]. (The term wild rice can refer to wild species... Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by a deficiency of Vitamin B1 (thiamine), the symptoms of which may include weight loss, emotional disturbances, impaired sensory perception (Wernickes encephalopathy), weakness and pain in the limbs, and periods of irregular heartbeat. ... Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (June 20, 1861 – May 16, 1947) was an English biochemist, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929 with Christiaan Eijkman for the discovery of vitamins. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ...


Kazimierz Funk was the first to isolate the water-soluble complex of micronutrients, whose bioactivity Fletcher had identified, and Funk proposed the complex be named "Vitamine".[5] The name soon became synonymous with Hopkins' "accessory factors", and by the time it was shown that not all vitamins were amines, the word was already ubiquitous. In 1920, Jack Cecil Drummond proposed that the final "e" be dropped, to deemphasize the "amine" reference, after the discovery that vitamin C had no amine component. Kazimierz Funk (February 23, 1884 - January 19, 1967), commonly anglicized as Casimir Funk, was a Polish biochemist, generally credited with the first formulation of the concept of Vitamins in 1912, which he called vital amines or vitamines. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... 3D representation of vitamin C Chemical structure of vitamin C Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient and human vitamin essential for life and for maintaining optimal health, used by the body for many purposes. ...

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

Throughout the early 1900s, the use of deprivation studies allowed scientists to isolate and identify a number of vitamins. Initially, lipid from fish oil was used to cure rickets in rats, and the fat-soluble nutrient was called "antirachitic A". The irony here is that the first "vitamin" bioactivity ever isolated, which cured rickets, was initially called "vitamin A", the bioactivity of which is now called vitamin D,[6] What we now call "vitamin A" was identified in fish oil because it was inactivated by ultraviolet light. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Corrected version is drawn in bkchem and GIMP. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Corrected version is drawn in bkchem and GIMP. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Fish Oil is oil derived from fishes. ... Osteomalacia, also known as rickets , is among the most frequent childhood diseases in developing countries. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than soft X-rays. ...


In 1931, Albert Szent-Györgyi and his research fellow Joseph Svirbely, determined that "hexuronic acid" was actually vitamin C and noted its anti-scorbutic activity, and 1937 Szent-Györgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery. In 1943 Edward Adelbert Doisy and Henrik Dam were awarded the Nobel Prize for their discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure. 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Albert Szent-Györgyi at the time of his appointment to the National Institutes of Health Albert Szent-Györgyi (September 16, 1893 – October 22, 1986) was a Hungarian physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937. ... 3D representation of vitamin C Chemical structure of vitamin C Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient and human vitamin essential for life and for maintaining optimal health, used by the body for many purposes. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Dr. Edward Adelbert Doisy (November 3, 1893 - October 23, 1986) was an American biochemist, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1943 with Henrik Dam for their discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure. ... Henrik Dam (Full name Carl Peter Henrik Dam) (February 21, 1895 – April 18, 1976) was a Danish biochemist and physiologist. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Vitamin K denotes a group of 2-methilo-naphthoquinone derivatives. ...


Human vitamins

Vitamins are classified as either water soluble, meaning that they dissolve easily in water, or fat soluble, and are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids. Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions and therefore, most have multiple functions.[7] Water is a tasteless, odourless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known as the universal solvent. ... For other uses, see Fat (disambiguation). ... The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Lipids are a class of hydrocarbon-containing organic compounds. ...


In humans there are thirteen vitamins, divided into two groups; four fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), and nine water-soluble vitamins (eight B vitamins and vitamin C).

Vitamin name Chemical name Solubility Deficiency disease Recommended Dietary Allowances
(male, age 19–70)
[8]
Upper Intake Level
(UL/day)[8]
Vitamin A Retinoids (include: retinol,
retinal, retinoic acid,
3-dehydroretinol and its derivatives)
Fat Night-blindness,
Keratomalacia[9]
900 µg 3,000 µg
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Water Beriberi 1.2 mg (N/D)[10]
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Water Ariboflavinosis 1.3 mg N/D
Vitamin B3 Niacin Water Pellagra 16.0 mg 35.0 mg
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Water Paresthesia 5.0 mg [11] N/D
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine Water Anemia[12] 1.3-1.7 mg 100 mg
Vitamin B7 Biotin Water n/a 30.0 µg N/D
Vitamin B9 Folic acid Water Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects. 400 µg 1,000 µg
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin Water Megaloblastic anaemia[13] 2.4 µg N/D
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Water Scurvy 90.0 mg 2,000 mg
Vitamin D2–D4 Lumisterol, Ergocalciferol,
Cholecalciferol, Dihydrotachysterol,
7-Dehydrocholesterol
Fat Rickets 5.0 µg-10 µg [14] 50 µg
Vitamin E Tocopherol, Tocotrienol Fat deficiency is very rare, mild hemolytic anemiain newborn infants [15] 15.0 mg 1,000 mg
Vitamin K Naphthoquinone (not to be confused with ketamine) Fat Bleeding diathesis 120 µg N/D

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Retinol, the dietary form of vitamin A, is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... The Retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are related chemically to vitamin A. Retinoids are used in medicine, primarily due to the way they regulate epithelial cell growth. ... Retinol, the dietary form of vitamin A, is a yellow fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... In the vision system, retinal, technically called retinene1 or retinaldehyde, is a light-sensitive retinene molecule found in the photoreceptor cells of the retina. ... Retinoic acid, or Retin-A or vitamin A acid, is a carotenoid organic compound that is a component of visual pigments. ... For other uses, see Fat (disambiguation). ... Nyctalopia (literally night blindness) is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in the dark. ... Keratomalacia is a eye disorder that leads to a dry cornea. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... For the similarly-spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17N4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Water is a tasteless, odourless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known as the universal solvent. ... Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by a deficiency of Vitamin B1 (thiamine), the symptoms of which may include weight loss, emotional disturbances, impaired sensory perception (Wernickes encephalopathy), weakness and pain in the limbs, and periods of irregular heartbeat. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2 or vitamin G, is an easily absorbed, water-soluble micronutrient with a key role in maintaining human health. ... Riboflavin deficiency is seen in association with: protein and energy malnutrition alcoholism The clinical features include: dry mucus membranes, affecting: mouth eyes genitalia normochromic, normocytic anaemia Treatment with riboflavin, 6 mg per day. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease caused by dietary lack of niacin (vitamin B3) and protein, especially proteins containing the essential amino acid tryptophan. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5, is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life. ... Paresthesia or paraesthesia (paraesthesia in British English) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of a persons skin with no apparent long-term physical effect, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Pyridoxine is one of the compounds that can be called vitamin B6, along with Pyridoxal and Pyridoxamine. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Biotin, also known as vitamin H or B7 and C10H16N2O3S (Biotin; Coenzyme R, Biopeiderm), is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin which is composed of an ureido (tetrahydroimidizalone) ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of a water-soluble B vitamin. ... A pregnant woman near the end of her term Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more embryos or fetuses by female mammals, including humans, inside their bodies. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... The name vitamin B12 (or B12 for short) is used in two different ways. ... Megaloblastic anemia is anemia resulting from a deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid. ... 3D representation of vitamin C Chemical structure of vitamin C Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient and human vitamin essential for life and for maintaining optimal health, used by the body for many purposes. ... This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Lumisterol is a naturally occurring compound that is part of the Vitamin D family of steriod compounds. ... Chemical structure of ergocalciferol Ergocalciferol is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D2. ... Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D3. ... Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid hormone precursor that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... In the skin 7-dehydrocholesterol (sometimes known as provitamin D3) is synthesized from cholesterol. ... Osteomalacia, also known as rickets , is among the most frequent childhood diseases in developing countries. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... α-Tocopherol (Vitamin E) Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Chemical structure of Tocotrienol Tocotrienols – Together with Tocopherols, compose the vitamin E family. ... Hemolytic anemia is anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the body (extravascular). ... Vitamin K denotes a group of 2-methilo-naphthoquinone derivatives. ... Naphthoquinone, or more precisely 1,4-naphthoquinone, is an organic compound. ... For the collaborative acoustic project, see Katamine. ... In medicine (hematology), a bleeding diathesis is a propensity to bleeding (hemorrhage) due to a defect in the system of coagulation. ...

Vitamins in nutrition and disease

Vitamins are essential for normal growth and development. Using the genetic blueprint inherited from its parents, a fetus begins to develop, at the moment of conception, from the nutrients it absorbs. Fetus at eight weeks For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ...


The developing fetus requires certain vitamins and minerals to be present at certain times. These nutrients facilitate the chemical reactions that produce, among other things, skin, bone, and muscle. If there is serious deficiency in one or more of these nutrients, a child may develop a deficiency disease. Minor deficiencies also have the potential to cause permanent damage, and may be associated with reduced life expectancy.[16] In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... For other uses, see Bone (disambiguation), including Bones which redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muscular system. ...


For the most part, vitamins are obtained through food sources. However, a few vitamins are obtained by other means: for example, microorganisms in the intestine - commonly known as "gut flora" - produce vitamin K and biotin, while one form of vitamin D is synthesized in the skin with the help of natural ultraviolet in sunlight. Some vitamins can be obtained from precursors that are obtained in the diet. Examples include vitamin A, which can be produced from beta carotene and niacin from the amino acid tryptophan.[8] Gut flora, or intestinal bacteria, are the bacteria that normally live in the digestive tract and perform a number of useful functions involving digestion for their hosts. ... In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than soft X-rays. ... It has been suggested that solar radiation be merged into this article or section. ... Retinol, the dietary form of vitamin A, is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... Carotene is a terpene, an orange photosynthetic pigment, important for photosynthesis. ... The general structure of an amino acid molecule, with the amine group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right. ... Tryptophan is an amino acid and essential in human nutrition. ...


Once growth and development are completed, vitamins remain essential components of the healthy maintenance of the cells, tissues, and organs that make up the human body, and enable the body to efficiently use the calories provided by the food that we eat, and to help process proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.


Vitamin deficiencies

An organism can survive for some time without vitamins, although prolonged vitamin deficits may result in often painful and potentially deadly diseases. Body stores for different vitamins can vary widely; an adult may be deficient in vitamin A and B12 for long periods of time before developing a deficiency condition, while vitamin B3 stores may only last a couple of weeks.[9][15] A disease or medical condition is an abnormality of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, or death to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ...


Deficiencies of vitamins are classified as either primary or secondary. A primary deficiency occurs when you do not get enough of the vitamin in the food you eat. A secondary deficiency may be due to an underlying disorder that prevents or limits the absorption or use of the vitamin, or due to a “lifestyle factor”, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, or the use of medications that interfere with the absorption or the body's use of the vitamin.[15]


Well-known vitamin deficiencies involve thiamine (beriberi), niacin (pellagra), vitamin C (scurvy) and vitamin D (rickets). In much of the developed world, such deficiencies are rare due to; an adequate supply of food and the addition of vitamins and minerals, often called fortification, to common foods.[8] [15] [17] Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by a deficiency of Vitamin B1 (thiamine), the symptoms of which may include weight loss, emotional disturbances, impaired sensory perception (Wernickes encephalopathy), weakness and pain in the limbs, and periods of irregular heartbeat. ... Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease caused by dietary lack of niacin (vitamin B3) and protein, especially proteins containing the essential amino acid tryptophan. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Osteomalacia, also known as rickets , is among the most frequent childhood diseases in developing countries. ...


Vitamin side effects and overdose

Vitamins are classified as fat-soluble or water-soluble based on how they are absorbed by the body. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat soluble, while the water-soluble vitamins include vitamin C and the B-complex vitamins (thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin and folate. For the similarly-spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17N4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2 or vitamin G, is an easily absorbed, water-soluble micronutrient with a key role in maintaining human health. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5, is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life. ... Biotin, also known as vitamin H or B7 and C10H16N2O3S (Biotin; Coenzyme R, Biopeiderm), is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin which is composed of an ureido (tetrahydroimidizalone) ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ...


Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) are often stored in the body and can cause toxicity when ingested in excess. With the exception of vitamin B12, which is stored in the liver[13], water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body. All vitamins have documented side effects. Like side effects from drugs, vitamin side effects increase in severity with increasing dosage. At high enough dosages vitamins can cause extreme side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting.[8] Unlike side effects caused by drugs, vitamin side effects rarely cause any permanent harm.[18] When vitamin side effects emerge, full and rapid recovery is accomplished by reducing the supplement dosage. Furthermore, the concentrations of vitamins an individual can tolerate vary widely, and appear to be related to age and state of health.[19] The skull and crossbones is a common symbol for toxicity. ... Liver of a sheep: (1) right lobe, (2) left lobe, (3) caudate lobe, (4) quadrate lobe, (5) hepatic artery and portal vein, (6) hepatic lymph nodes, (7) gall bladder. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Diarrhea or diarrhoea (see American and British English spelling differences) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; literally meaning to run through). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ...


The likelihood of consuming too much of any vitamin from food is remote, but overdosing from vitamin supplementation does occur. It is for this reason that physicians and scientists carefully review all the clinical data on supplement use in order to determine upper dosage thresholds for each vitamin that can be tolerated as a daily dose by the entire population without side effects. This dosage is known as the tolerable upper intake level (UL).[8]


The supplement controversy

Dietary supplements are often used to ensure that adequate amounts of nutrients are obtained on a daily basis, if the nutrients cannot be obtained through a varied diet. Scientific evidence supporting the benefits of some dietary supplements is well established for certain health conditions, but others need further study.[20] A prescribed dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ...


Supplements are, as required by law, not intended to treat, diagnose, mitigate, prevent, or cure disease.[20] In some cases, dietary supplements may have unwanted effects, especially if taken before surgery, with other dietary supplements or medicines, or if the person taking them has certain health conditions.[20] Vitamin supplements may also contain levels of vitamins many times higher, and in different forms, than one may ingest through food.[21] Before taking a supplement, it is important to check with a knowledgeable health care provider, especially when combining or substituting supplements with other foods or medicine. Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. ... ...


Governmental regulation of vitamin supplements

Most countries place dietary supplements in a special category under the general umbrella of "foods," not drugs. This necessitates that the manufacturer, and not the government, be responsible for ensuring that its dietary supplement products are safe before they are marketed. Unlike drug products, that must implicitly be proven safe and effective for their intended use before marketing, there are often no provisions to "approve" dietary supplements for safety or effectiveness before they reach the consumer. Also unlike drug products, manufacturers and distributors of dietary supplements are not generally required to report any claims of injuries or illnesses that may be related to the use of their products[22] however, side effects have been reported for several types of supplements.[23]


Names in current and previous nomenclatures

The reason the set of vitamins seems to skip directly from E to the rarely-mentioned K is that the vitamins corresponding to "letters" F-J were either reclassified over time, were discarded as false leads, or were renamed because of their relationship to "vitamin B", which became a "complex" of vitamins. The following table lists chemicals that had previously been classified as vitamins, as well as the earlier names of vitamins that later became part of the B-complex.

Previous vitamin
name [24] [25]
Chemical name[24][25] Current vitamin
name[24]
Reason for name change[24]
Vitamin B4 Adenine N/A No longer classified as a vitamin
Vitamin B8 Adenylic acid N/A No longer classified as a vitamin
Vitamin F Essential fatty acids N/A Needed in large quantaties,
does not fit definition of vitamin.
Vitamin G Riboflavin Vitamin B2 Reclassified as B-complex
Vitamin H/ Vitamin I Biotin Vitamin B7 Reclassified as B-complex
Vitamin J Catechol, Flavin N/A No longer classified as a vitamin
Vitamin L1 Orthoaminobenzoic acid,
Anthranilic acid
N/A No longer classified as a vitamin
Vitamin L2 Adenyl thiomethylpentose N/A No longer classified as a vitamin
Vitamin M Folic acid Vitamin B9 Reclassified as B-complex
Vitamin P Flavonoids N/A No longer classified as a vitamin
Vitamin PP Niacin Vitamin B3 Reclassified as B-complex
Vitamin R, Vitamin B10 Pteroylmonoglutamic acid N/A No longer classified as a vitamin
Vitamin S, Vitamin B11 Pteroylheptaglutamic acid N/A No longer classified as a vitamin
Vitamin U Allantoine N/A No longer classified as a vitamin

Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, adenine binds to thymine via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Adenosine monophosphate, also known as 5-adenylic acid and abbreviated AMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. ... Essential fatty acids are fatty acids that are required in the human diet. ... Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that are required in the human diet. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed, water-soluble micronutrient with a key role in maintaining human health. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2 or vitamin G, is an easily absorbed, water-soluble micronutrient with a key role in maintaining human health. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Biotin, also known as vitamin H or B7 and C10H16N2O3S (Biotin; Coenzyme R, Biopeiderm), is a B-complex vitamin which is important in the catalysis of essential metabolic reactions to synthesize fatty acids, in gluconeogenesis, and to metabolize leucine. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Biotin, also known as vitamin H or B7 and C10H16N2O3S (Biotin; Coenzyme R, Biopeiderm), is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin which is composed of an ureido (tetrahydroimidizalone) ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Choline // Choline is a nutrient, essential for cardiovascular and brain function, and for cellular membrane composition and repair. ... Catechol, also benzene-1,2-diol, is a phenol, with formula C6H4(OH)2. ... Riboflavin Flavin is a tricyclic heteronuclear organic ring based on pteridine whose biochemical source is the vitamin riboflavin. ... Anthranilic acid has the formula C7H7NO2[1] and is an odorless white to yellow crystalline acid, which is freely soluble in water. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of a water-soluble B vitamin. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell. ... Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ... Nicotinic acid redirects here. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... Methylphenidate (MPH) is an amphetamine-like prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of a water-soluble B vitamin. ... Salicylic acid is a colorless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. ... Vitamin U is not a vitamin. ... Allantoin is a botanical extract of the comfrey plant and is used for its healing, soothing, and anti-irritating properties. ...

See also

It has been suggested that Diet (nutrition) be merged into this article or section. ... Avitaminosis is any disease caused by chronic or long-term vitamin deficiency or caused by a defect in metabolic conversion, such as tryptophan to niacin. ... Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen which are ubiquitous in organic molecules. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ... Nootropics, popularly referred to as smart drugs, are substances which boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). ... A nutrient is either element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... A prescribed dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... Dietitians are experts in food and nutrition. ... The term health freedom is generally used to describe the concept of people being free to choose for themselves the type of healthcare therapies and healthcare maintenance that they wish to use to benefit their health. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In nutrition and CAM, megavitamin therapy makes use of large amounts of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), to treat many types of diseases. ... Orthomolecular medicine and optimum nutrition are controversial medical and health approaches[1] that posit that many diseases and abnormalities result from various chemical imbalances or deficiencies and can be prevented, treated, or sometimes cured by achieving optimal levels of naturally occurring chemical substances, such as vitamins, dietary minerals, enzymes, antioxidants... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Vitamin poisoning, or hypervitaminosis, refers to a condition of high storage levels of vitamins, which can lead to toxic symptoms. ... // Whole food supplements comprise a unique class within the food supplement industry. ...

References

  1. ^ Lieberman, S, Bruning, N (1990). The Real Vitamin & Mineral Book. NY: Avery Group, 3.
  2. ^ Kirk-Othmer (1984). Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Third Edition. NY: John Wiley and Sons, Vol. 24:104.
  3. ^ a b c d Jack Challem (1997). "The Past, Present and Future of Vitamins"
  4. ^ a b 1929 Nobel lecture
  5. ^ Funk, C. and H. E. Dubin. The Vitamines. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Company, 1922.
  6. ^ Bellis, Mary. Vitamins - Production Methods The History of the Vitamins. Retrieved 1 Feb 2005.
  7. ^ Kutsky, R.J. (1973). Handbook of Vitamins and Hormones. New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins The National Academies, 2001.
  9. ^ a b Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin A
  10. ^ N/D= "Amount not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake"(see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins).
  11. ^ Plain type indicates Adequate Intakes (A/I). "The AI is believed to cover the needs of all individuals, but a lack of data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake" (see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins).
  12. ^ Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin B6
  13. ^ a b Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin B12
  14. ^ Value represents suggested intake without adequate sunlight exposure (see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins).
  15. ^ a b c d The Merck Manual: Nutritional Disorders: Vitamin Introduction Please select specific vitamins from the list at the top of the page.
  16. ^ Dr. Leonid A. Gavrilov, Pieces of the Puzzle: Aging Research Today and Tomorrow
  17. ^ Vitamin E Fact sheet
  18. ^ Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1999
  19. ^ Healthier Kids [1]
  20. ^ a b c Use and Safety of Dietary Supplements NIH office of Dietary Supplements.
  21. ^ Jane Higdon Vitamin E recommendations at Linus Pauling Institute's Micronutrient Information Center
  22. ^ Overview of Dietary Supplements
  23. ^ FDA Warnings and Safety information
  24. ^ a b c d Every Vitamin Page All Vitamins and Pseudo-Vitamins. Compiled by David Bennett.
  25. ^ a b Vitamins and minerals - names and facts

General References Include:

  • Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Ed. Maureen Barlow Pugh et.al. 27th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.
  • Donatelle, Rebecca J. Health: The Basics. 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. 2005.

External links

  • USDA RDA chart in PDF format
  • Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes Reference Chart for Vitamins
  • NIH Office of Dietary Supplements: Fact Sheets
  • NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplements: Background Information



Vitamins
All B vitamins | All D vitamins
Retinol (A) | Thiamine (B1) | Riboflavin (B2) | Niacin (B3) | Pantothenic acid (B5) | Pyridoxine (B6) | Biotin (B7) | Folic acid (B9) | Cyanocobalamin (B12) | Ascorbic acid (C) | Ergocalciferol (D2) | Cholecalciferol (D3) | Tocopherol (E) | Naphthoquinone (K)

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