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Encyclopedia > Vitamin E
The α-tocopherol form of vitamin E.
The α-tocopherol form of vitamin E.
Main articles: tocopherol and tocotrienol

Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of 8 related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant properties.[1][2] Of these, α-tocopherol has been most studied as it has the highest bioavailability, with the body preferentially absorbing and using this form.[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Chemical structure of Tocotrienol Tocotrienols – Together with Tocopherols, compose the vitamin E family. ... Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Chemical structure of Tocotrienol Tocotrienols – Together with Tocopherols, compose the vitamin E family. ... Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ...


It has been claimed that α-tocopherol is the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, and that it protects cell membranes from oxidation by reacting with lipid radicals produced in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction.[1][4] This would remove the free radical intermediates and prevent the oxidation reaction from continuing. The oxidised α-tocopheroxyl radicals produced in this process may be recycled back to the active reduced form through reduction by other antioxidants, such as ascorbate, retinol or ubiquinol.[5] The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells. ... Mechanism of lipid peroxidation. ... A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Ascorbic acid is an organic acid with antioxidant properties. ... Retinol, the animal form of vitamin A, is a yellow fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... Ubiquinone Coenzyme Q10 (also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, or CoQ10) is a benzoquinone, where the Q and the 10 in the name refer to the quinone chemical group and the 10 isoprenyl chemical subunits, respectively. ...


The functions of the other forms of vitamin E are less well-studied, although γ-tocopherol is a nucleophile that may react with electrophilic mutagens,[3] and tocotrienols may have a specialized role in protecting neurons from damage.[6] However, the roles and importance of the various forms of vitamin E are presently unclear,[7][8] and it has even been suggested that the most important function of vitamin E is as a signaling molecule, and that it has no significant role in antioxidant metabolism.[9][10] In chemistry, a nucleophile (literally nucleus lover) is a reagent which is attracted to centres of positive charge. ... In chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron-lover) is a reagent attracted to electrons that participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond to a nucleophile. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. ...


Most studies about Vitamin E have supplemented only alpha-tocopherol, but doing so leads to reduced serum gamma- and delta-tocopherol concentrations. For more info, read article tocopherol. Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ...


Food sources of Vitamin E

Particularly high levels of vitamin E can be found in the following foods:

  • Asparagus
  • Avocado
  • Nuts
  • Peanuts
  • Olives
  • Red Palm Oil
  • Seeds
  • Spinach and other green leafy vegetables
  • Vegetable oils -- corn, sunflower, soybean, cottonseed
  • Wheat germ

Source: USDA National Nutrient Database


References

  1. ^ a b Herrera E, Barbas C (2001). "Vitamin E: action, metabolism and perspectives". J Physiol Biochem 57 (2): 43 – 56. PMID 11579997. 
  2. ^ Packer L, Weber SU, Rimbach G (2001). "Molecular aspects of alpha-tocotrienol antioxidant action and cell signalling". J. Nutr. 131 (2): 369S–73S. PMID 11160563. 
  3. ^ a b Brigelius-Flohé R, Traber M (1999). "Vitamin E: function and metabolism". FASEB J 13 (10): 1145 – 55. PMID 10385606. 
  4. ^ Traber MG, Atkinson J (2007). "Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 43 (1): 4–15. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.03.024. PMID 17561088. 
  5. ^ Wang X, Quinn P (1999). "Vitamin E and its function in membranes". Prog Lipid Res 38 (4): 309 – 36. PMID 10793887. 
  6. ^ Sen C, Khanna S, Roy S (2006). "Tocotrienols: Vitamin E beyond tocopherols". Life Sci 78 (18): 2088 – 98. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.12.001. PMID 16458936. 
  7. ^ Brigelius-Flohé R, Davies KJ (2007). "Is vitamin E an antioxidant, a regulator of signal transduction and gene expression, or a 'junk' food? Comments on the two accompanying papers: "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action" by A. Azzi and "Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more" by M. Traber and J. Atkinson". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 43 (1): 2–3. PMID 17561087. 
  8. ^ Atkinson J, Epand RF, Epand RM (2007). "Tocopherols and tocotrienols in membranes: A critical review". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 44 (5): 739-764. PMID 18160049. 
  9. ^ Azzi A (2007). "Molecular mechanism of alpha-tocopherol action". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 43 (1): 16–21. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.03.013. PMID 17561089. 
  10. ^ Zingg JM, Azzi A (2004). "Non-antioxidant activities of vitamin E". Curr. Med. Chem. 11 (9): 1113–33. PMID 15134510. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

  • Vitamin E Medline Plus, Medical Encyclopedia, U.S. National Library of Medicine
  • Vitamin E Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health
  • Jane Higdon, "Vitamin E", Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute
Oregon State University (OSU) is a coeducational, public research university located in Corvallis, Oregon, United States. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (2478 words)
Alpha-tocopherol is the only form of vitamin E that is actively maintained in the human body and is therefore, the form of vitamin E found in the largest quantities in the blood and tissue (1).
Although true vitamin E deficiency is rare, suboptimal intake of vitamin E is relatively common in the U.S. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) examined the dietary intake and blood levels of alpha-tocopherol in 16,295 multi-ethnic adults over the age of 18.
However, further breakdown of the risk by vitamin E dose and adjustment for other vitamin and mineral supplements revealed that the increased risk of death was statistically significant only at a dose of 2,000 IU/day, which is higher than the UL for adults.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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