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Encyclopedia > Vitamin D
Ergocalciferol (D2). Note double bond at top center.
Ergocalciferol (D2). Note double bond at top center.
Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol). Active form. Note extra OH groups at upper right and lower left.
Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol). Active form. Note extra OH groups at upper right and lower left.

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble prohormones, the two major forms of which are vitamin D2 (or ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (or cholecalciferol).[1] The term vitamin D also refers to metabolites and other analogues of these substances. Vitamin D3 is produced in skin exposed to sunlight, specifically ultraviolet B radiation. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 526 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (658 × 750 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 526 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (658 × 750 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D3. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ergocalciferol (Deltalin®, Eli Lilly and Company) is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D2. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... Image File history File links Calcitriol. ... Image File history File links Calcitriol. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Ergocalciferol (Deltalin®, Eli Lilly and Company) is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D2. ... Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D3. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ...


Vitamin D plays an important role in the maintenance of organ systems.[2] This article is about the biological unit. ...

Vitamin D deficiency can result from inadequate intake coupled with inadequate sunlight exposure, disorders that limit its absorption, conditions that impair conversion of vitamin D into active metabolites, such as liver or kidney disorders, or, rarely, by a number of hereditary disorders.[2] Deficiency results in impaired bone mineralization, and leads to bone softening diseases, rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, and possibly contributes to osteoporosis. Vitamin D deficiency may also be linked to many forms of cancer. For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Mineralization is the process of depositing minerals or naturally occuring inorganic chemicals. ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen: a. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Rickets is a softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. ... Osteomalacia is a softening of the bones, resulting from defective bone mineralisation. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ...

Contents

Forms

Several forms of vitamin D have been described. The two major forms are vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol, and vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol. Ergocalciferol (Deltalin®, Eli Lilly and Company) is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D2. ... Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D3. ...

Chemically, the various forms of vitamin D are secosteroids; i.e. broken-open steroids.[3] The structural difference between vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 is in their side chains. The side chain of D2 contains a double bond between carbons 22 and 23, and a methyl group on carbon 24. Ergocalciferol (Deltalin®, Eli Lilly and Company) is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D2. ... Lumisterol is a naturally occurring compound that is part of the Vitamin D family of steriod compounds. ... Ergocalciferol (Deltalin®, Eli Lilly and Company) is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D2. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol), a sterol, is the biological precursor to Vitamin D2. ... Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D3. ... In the skin 7-dehydrocholesterol (sometimes known as provitamin D3) is synthesized from cholesterol. ... 7-Dehydrositosterol is a sterol which serves as a precursor for sitocalciferol (vitamin D5). ... Cholecalciferol (D3) Ergocalciferol (D2) Steroid skeleton. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... The term Side chain can have different meanings depending on the context: In chemistry and biochemistry a side chain is a part of a molecule attached to a core structure. ...


Vitamin D2 is derived from fungal and plant sources, and is not produced by the human body. Vitamin D3 is derived from animal sources and is made in the skin when 7-dehydrocholesterol reacts with UVB ultraviolet light at wavelengths between 270–290 nm.[4] These wavelengths are present in sunlight at sea level when the sun is more than 45° above the horizon, or when the UV index is greater than 3.[5] At this solar elevation, which occurs daily within the tropics, daily during the spring and summer seasons in temperate regions, and almost never within the arctic circles, adequate amounts of vitamin D3 can be made in the skin only after ten to fifteen minutes of sun exposure at least two times per week to the face, arms, hands, or back without sunscreen. With longer exposure to UVB rays, an equilibrium is achieved in the skin, and the vitamin simply degrades as fast as it is generated.[1] Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... In the skin 7-dehydrocholesterol (sometimes known as provitamin D3) is synthesized from cholesterol. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... The UV index is an international standard measurement of how strong the ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is at a particular place on a particular day. ... A tropic is either of two circles of latitude: Tropic of Cancer, at 23½°N Tropic of Capricorn, at 23½°S Tropic is also the name of a town in Utah, United States. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ...


In most mammals, including humans, D3 is more effective than D2 at increasing the levels of vitamin D hormone in circulation; D3 is at least 3-fold, and likely closer to 10-fold, more potent than D2.[6] However, in some species, such as rats, vitamin D2 is more effective than D3.[7] Both vitamin D2 and D3 are used for human nutritional supplementation, and pharmaceutical forms include calcitriol (1alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), doxercalciferol and calcipotriene.[8] Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Calcipotriene, or calcipotriol, is a topical medication used for the treatment of psoriasis. ...


Biochemistry

Vitamin D is a prohormone, that is, it has no hormone activity itself, but is converted to a hormone 1,25-D which does, through a tightly regulated synthesis mechanism.


Production in the skin

The epidermal strata of the skin. Production is greatest in the stratum basale (colored red in the illustration) and stratum spinosum (colored orange).
The epidermal strata of the skin. Production is greatest in the stratum basale (colored red in the illustration) and stratum spinosum (colored orange).

The skin consists of two primary layers: the inner layer called the dermis, composed largely of connective tissue, and the outer thinner epidermis. The epidermis consists of five strata; from outer to inner they are: the stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale. Image File history File links Skinlayers. ... Image File history File links Skinlayers. ... The dermis is a layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The stratum corneum (the horny layer) is the outermost layer of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin). ... The Stratum Lucidum is one of the layers of the Epidermis. ... Stratum granulosum contains 3 to 5 rows of flattened cells whose cytoplasm contains small granules. ... It is a multiple-layered arrangement of cuboidal cells containing molecular bridges that conect them to adjacent cells. ... Stratum germinativum or stratum basale is the layer of keratinocytes that lies at the base of the epidermis immediately above the dermis. ...


Vitamin D3 is produced photochemically in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol. The highest concentrations of 7-dehydrocholesterol are found in the epidermal layer of skin, specifically in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum.[4] The production of pre-vitamin D3 is therefore greatest in these two layers, whereas production in the other layers is reduced. Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... In the skin 7-dehydrocholesterol (sometimes known as provitamin D3) is synthesized from cholesterol. ...


Synthesis in the skin involves UVB radiation which effectively penetrates only the epidermal layers of skin. 7-Dehydrocholesterol absorbs UV light most effectively at wavelengths between 270–290 nm and thus the production of vitamin D3 will only occur at those wavelengths. The two most important factors that govern the generation of pre-vitamin D3 are the quantity (intensity) and quality (appropriate wavelength) of the UVB irradiation reaching the 7-dehydrocholesterol deep in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum.[4] Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ...


A critical determinant of vitamin D3 production in the skin is the presence and concentration of melanin. Melanin functions as a light filter in the skin, and therefore the concentration of melanin in the skin is related to the ability of UVB light to penetrate the epidermal strata and reach the 7-dehydrocholesterol-containing stratum basale and stratum spinosum. Under normal circumstances, ample quantities of 7-dehydrocholesterol (about 25-50 mg/cm² of skin) are available in the stratum spinosum and stratum basale of human skin to meet the body's vitamin D requirements,[4] and melanin content does not alter the amount of vitamin D that can be produced.[9] Thus, individuals with higher skin melanin content will simply require more time in sunlight to produce the same amount of vitamin D as individuals with lower melanin content.
Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ...


Synthesis mechanism (form 3)

1. Vitamin D3 is synthesized from 7-dehydrocholesterol, a derivative of cholesterol, which is then photolyzed by ultraviolet light in 6-electron conrotatory electrocyclic reaction. The product is pre-vitamin D3.
2. Pre-vitamin D3 then spontaneously isomerizes to Vitamin D3 in a antarafacial hydride [1,7]Sigmatropic shift.
3. Whether it is made in the skin or ingested, vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is then hydroxylated in the liver to 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3 or calcidiol) by the enzyme 25-hydroxylase produced by hepatocytes, and stored until it is needed.

25-hydroxycholecalciferol is further hydroxylated in the kidneys by the enzyme 1α-hydroxylase, into two dihydroxylated metabolites, the main biologically active hormone 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3 or calcitriol) and 24R,25(OH)2D3. This conversion occurs in a tightly regulated fashion.

Calcitriol is represented below right (hydroxylated Carbon 1 is on the lower ring at right, hydroxylated Carbon 25 is at the upper right end).

In the skin 7-dehydrocholesterol (sometimes known as provitamin D3) is synthesized from cholesterol. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... In a conrotatory mode of an electrocyclic reaction (a class of organic chemical reactions) the substituents located at the termini of a conjugated double bond system move in the same (clockwise or counter clockwise) direction during ring opening or ring closure. ... An electrocyclic reaction is a type of pericyclic rearrangement reaction where the net result is one pi bond being converted into one sigma bond. ... Previtamin D3 is an intermediate in the production of Vitamin D. Categories: | ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Antarafacial and suprafacial are two topological concepts in organic chemistry describing the relationship between two simultaneous chemical bond making and/or bond breaking processes in or around a reaction center [1]. The reaction center can be a p-orbital, a conjugated system or even a sigma bond. ... A Sigmatropic reaction is a pericyclic reaction where the net result is one sigma bond being changed to another sigma bond. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Hydroxylation is any chemical process that introduces one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) into a compound (or radical) thereby oxidising it. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Calcidiol, calcifediol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, or 25–hydroxy–vitamin D, is a prehormone which is produced by the metabolism of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and which is converted by the kidneys into calcitriol (1,25-vitamin D), a steroid hormone. ... CYP27A1is a gene associated with cerebrotendineous xanthomatosis. ... Hepatocytes make up 60-80% of the cytoplasmic mass of the liver. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme in the proximal tubule which converts calcidiol to calcitriol (the bioactive form of Vitamin D. MeSH 25-Hydroxyvitamin+D3+1-alpha-Hydroxylase Categories: | | ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Mechanism of action

Once vitamin D is produced in the skin or consumed in food, it is converted in the liver and kidney to form 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D, (1,25(OH)2D) the physiologically active form of vitamin D (when "D" is used without a subscript it refers to either D2 or D3). Following this conversion, the hormonally active form of vitamin D is released into the circulation, and by binding to a carrier protein in the plasma, vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), it is transported to various target organs.[3] For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ...


The hormonally active form of vitamin D mediates its biological effects by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is principally located in the nuclei of target cells.[3] The binding of calcitriol to the VDR allows the VDR to act as a transcription factor that modulates the gene expression of transport proteins (such as TRPV6 and calbindin), which are involved in calcium absorption in the intestine. The calcitriol receptor, also known as the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the steroid hormone family of receptors. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... TRPV6 is a membrane calcium channel which is responsible for the first step in calcium absorption in the intestine. ... Calbindin describes calcium binding proteins first described as the vitamin D-dependent calcium binding proteins in intestine and kidney. ...


The Vitamin D receptor belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily of steroid/thyroid hormone receptors, and VDR are expressed by cells in most organs, including the brain, heart, skin, gonads, prostate, and breast. VDR activation in the intestine, bone, kidney, and parathyroid gland cells leads to the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood (with the assistance of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin) and to the maintenance of bone content.[10] Nuclear receptors are a class of intracellular receptors which function as ligand activated transcription factors which up or down regulate the expression of genes. ... Steroid hormone receptors are generally intracellular (specifically cytoplasmatic) receptors that perform signal transduction for steroid hormones. ... In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular (also known as C) cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ...


The VDR is known to be involved in cell proliferation, differentiation. Vitamin D also affects the immune system, and VDR are expressed in several white blood cells including monocytes and activated T and B cells.[8] The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... “White Blood Cells” redirects here. ... Monocyte A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human bodys immune system that protects against blood-borne pathogens and moves quickly (aprox. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ...


Nutrition

Very few foods are naturally rich in vitamin D, and most vitamin D intake is in the form of fortified products including milk, soy milk and cereal grains.[1] Food fortification is the public health policy of adding Micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to foodstuffs to ensure that minimum dietary requirements are met. ... A glass of cows milk. ... A can of Yeos soy milk, poured into a glass Soy milk foam on top of a Greek Café Frappé Soymilk (also called soya milk or soybean milk) and sometimes referred to as soy drink/beverage and even soy latte) is a beverage made from soybeans originating from China. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ...


A blood calcidiol (25-hydroxy-vitamin D) level is the accepted way to determine vitamin D nutritional status. The optimal level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D remains a point for debate among medical scientists.


The U.S. Dietary Reference Intake for Adequate Intake (AI) of vitamin D for infants, children and men and women aged 19–50 is 5 micrograms/day (200 IU/day).[11] Adequate intake increases to 10 micrograms/day (400 IU/day) for men and women aged 51–70 and to 15 micrograms/day (600 IU/day) past the age of 70.[1] The Dietary Reference Intake is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the USA National Academy (IOM). ... In pharmacology, the International unit (IU, alternatively abbreviated UI, from French unité internationale) is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance, based on measured biological activity (or effect). ...

Milk and cereal grains are often fortified with vitamin D.
Milk and cereal grains are often fortified with vitamin D.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 243 KB) Cornflakes with milk If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license with the terms... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 243 KB) Cornflakes with milk If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license with the terms... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ...

In food

Season, geographic latitude, time of day, cloud cover, smog, and sunscreen affect UV ray exposure and vitamin D synthesis in the skin, and it is important for individuals with limited sun exposure to include good sources of vitamin D in their diet. This article is about the geographical term. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... Sunscreen (also known as sunblock, suntan lotion) is a lotion, spray or other topical product that helps protect the skin from the suns ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and which reduces sunburn and other skin damage, with the goal lowering your risk of skin cancer. ...


In some countries, foods such as milk, yogurt, margarine, oil spreads, breakfast cereal, pastries, and bread are fortified with vitamin D2 and/or vitamin D3, to minimize the risk of vitamin D deficiency.[12] In the United States and Canada, for example, fortified milk typically provides 100 IU per glass, or one quarter of the estimated adequate intake for adults over the age of 50.[1] A glass of cows milk. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pastry the name given to various kinds of dough made from ingredients such as flour, butter and eggs, that are rolled out thinly and used as the base for baked goods. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ...

Fatty fish, such as salmon, are natural sources of vitamin D.
Fatty fish, such as salmon, are natural sources of vitamin D.

Fortified foods represent the major dietary sources of vitamin D, as very few foods naturally contain significant amounts of vitamin D. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 526 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Salmon Mañón Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 526 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Salmon Mañón Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used...


Natural sources of vitamin D include:[1]

  • Fish liver oils, such as cod liver oil, 1 Tbs. (15 mL) provides 1,360 IU
  • Fatty fish species, such as:
    • Catfish, 3 oz provides 425 IU
    • Salmon, cooked, 3.5 oz provides 360 IU
    • Mackerel, cooked, 3.5 oz, 345 IU
    • Sardines, canned in oil, drained, 1.75 oz, 250 IU
    • Tuna, canned in oil, 3 oz, 200 IU
    • Eel, cooked, 3.5 oz, 200 IU
  • Mushrooms provide over 2700 IU per serving (approx. 3 oz or 1/2 cup) of vitamin D2, if exposed to just 5 minutes of UV light after being harvested;[13] this is one of a few natural sources of vitamin D for vegans.
  • One whole egg, 20 IU
  • Yeast [citation needed]

Capsules of Cod Liver Oil Cod liver oil, as its name suggests, is an oil extracted from cod livers. ... This tablespoon has a capacity of about 1 tbsp. ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... The ounce (abbreviation: oz) is the name of a unit of mass in a number of different systems, including various systems of mass that form part of English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... The ounce (abbreviation: oz) is the name of a unit of mass in a number of different systems, including various systems of mass that form part of English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. ... Sardines in the Pacific An open Sardines can Sardines on a plate grilled Sardines For the hide and seek-like game, see Hide and seek. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eel (disambiguation). ... Basidiocarps (mushrooms) of the fungus Leucocoprinus sp. ... The ounce (abbreviation: oz) is the name of a unit of mass in a number of different systems, including various systems of mass that form part of English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol), a sterol, is the biological precursor to Vitamin D2. ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ... An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ...

Deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency can result from: inadequate intake coupled with inadequate sunlight exposure, disorders that limit its absorption, conditions that impair conversion of vitamin D into active metabolites, such as liver or kidney disorders, or, rarely, by a number of hereditary disorders.[2] Deficiency results in impaired bone mineralization, and leads to bone softening diseases, rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, and possibly contributes to osteoporosis.[2] A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Rickets is a softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. ... Osteomalacia is a softening of the bones, resulting from defective bone mineralisation. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ...


Diseases caused by deficiency

The role of diet in the development of rickets was determined by Edward Mellanby between 19181920.[14] In 1921 Elmer McCollum identified an anti-rachitic substance found in certain fats could prevent rickets. Because the newly discovered substance was the fourth vitamin identified, it was called vitamin D.[14] The 1928 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Adolf Windaus, who discovered the steroid, 7-dehydrocholesterol, the precursor of vitamin D. Rickets is a softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. ... Professor Edward Mellanby (1884 - 1955) discovered vitamin D and the role of the vitamin in preventing rickets in 1919. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (1876 - 1959) was a significant German chemist. ...


Vitamin D deficiency is known to cause several bone diseases[15] including:

Prior to the fortification of milk products with vitamin D, rickets was a major public health problem. In the United States, milk has been fortified with 10 micrograms (400 IU) of vitamin D per quart since the 1930s, leading to a dramatic decline in the number of rickets cases.[10] Rickets is a softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. ... The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide, and grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis at an epiphysis at one end of the growing bone. ... Osteomalacia is a softening of the bones, resulting from defective bone mineralisation. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ... A bone mineral density (BMD) test, also called a bone mass measurement, is used to measure bone density and determine fracture risk for osteoporosis. ... In pharmacology, the International unit (IU, alternatively abbreviated UI, from French unité internationale) is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance, based on measured biological activity (or effect). ... For other uses, see Quart (disambiguation). ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ...


Vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to an increased susceptibility to several chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, tuberculosis, cancer, periodontal disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, depression, schizophrenia, seasonal affective disorder and several autoimmune diseases (see role in immunomodulation).[10] For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Periodontitis a disease involving inflammation of the gums (gingiva), often persisting unnoticed for years or decades in a patient, that results in loss of bone around teeth. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, also known as winter depression or winter blues is an affective, or mood, disorder. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ...


Groups at greater risk of deficiency

Vitamin D requirements increase with age, while the ability of skin to convert 7-dehydrocholesterol to pre-vitamin D3 decreases.[16] In addition the ability of the kidneys to convert calcidiol to its active form also decreases with age, prompting the need for increased vitamin D supplementation in elderly individuals. One consensus concluded that for optimal prevention of osteoporotic fracture the blood calcidiol concentration should be higher than 30 ng/mL, which is equal to 75 nmol/L.[17] The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ...


The American Pediatric Associations advises vitamin D supplementation of 200 IU/day (5μg/d) from birth onwards.[1] The Canadian Paediatric Society recommends that pregnant or breastfeeding women consider taking 2000 IU/day, that all babies who are exclusively breastfed receive a supplement of 400 IU/day, and that babies living above 55 degrees latitude get 800 IU/day from October to April.[18] Health Canada recommends 400IU/day (10μg/d).[19] While infant formula is generally fortified with vitamin D, breast milk does not contain significant levels of vitamin D, and parents are usually advised to avoid exposing babies to prolonged sunlight. Therefore, infants who are exclusively breastfed are likely to require vitamin D supplementation beyond early infancy, especially at northern latitudes.[19] Liquid "drops" of vitamin D, as a single nutrient or combined with other vitamins, are available in water based or oil-based preparations ("Baby Drops" in North America, or "Vigantol oil" in Europe). However, babies may be safely exposed to sunlight for short periods; as little as 10 minutes a day without a hat can suffice, depending on location and season. The vitamin D found in supplements and infant formula is less easily absorbed than that produced by the body naturally and carries a risk of overdose that is not present with natural exposure to sunlight. An infant being fed by bottle. ... It has been suggested that the section Benefits for the infant from the article Breastfeeding be merged into this article or section. ... An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ...


Obese individuals may have lower levels of the circulating form of vitamin D, probably because of reduced bioavailability, and are at higher risk of deficiency. To maintain blood levels of calcium, therapeutic vitamin D doses are sometimes administered (up to 100,000 IU or 2.5 mg daily) to patients who have had their parathyroid glands removed (most commonly renal dialysis patients who have had tertiary hyperparathyroidism, but also to patients with primary hyperparathyroidism) or with hypoparathyroidism.[20] Patients with chronic liver disease or intestinal malabsorption disorders may also require larger doses of vitamin D (up to 40,000 IU or 1 mg (1000 micrograms) daily). Obesity is an excess storage of fat and can affect any mammal, such as the mouse on the left. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... This article is about clinical dialysis; for the laboratory technique, see Dialysis (biochemistry) In medicine, dialysis is a method for removing waste such as urea from the blood when the kidneys are incapable of this, i. ... Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is a state of excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) after a long period of secondary hyperparathyroidism and resulting in hypercalcemia. ... Primary hyperparathyroidism causes hypercalcemia (elevated blood calcium levels) through the excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), usually by an adenoma (benign tumors) of the parathyroid glands. ... In medicine (endocrinology), hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands, leading to decreased levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ...


The use of sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 8 inhibits more than 95% of vitamin D production in the skin.[10][21] Recent studies showed that, following the successful "Slip-Slop-Slap" health campaign encouraging Australians to cover up when exposed to sunlight to prevent skin cancer, an increased number of Australians and New Zealanders became vitamin D deficient.[12] Ironically, there are indications that vitamin D deficiency may lead to skin cancer.[22] To avoid vitamin D deficiency dermatologists recommend supplementation along with sunscreen use. Sunscreen (also known as sunblock, suntan lotion) is a lotion, spray or other topical product that helps protect the skin from the suns ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and which reduces sunburn and other skin damage, with the goal lowering your risk of skin cancer. ... Sunscreen or sunblock is a lotion that is applied to reduce skin damage by blocking ultraviolet radiation from the sun. ... Slip-Slop-Slap is the name for a health campaign in Australia exhorting people to slip on a shirt, slop on sunscreen, and slap on a hat when they go out into the sun in order to prevent skin cancer. ... Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes. ...


The reduced pigmentation of light-skinned individuals tends to allow more sunlight to be absorbed even at higher latitudes, thereby reducing the risk of vitamin D deficiency.[17] However, at higher latitudes (above 30°) during the winter months, the decreased angle of the sun's rays, reduced daylight hours, protective clothing during cold weather, and fewer hours of outside activity, diminish absorption of sunlight and the production of vitamin D. Because melanin acts like a sun-block, prolonging the time required to generate vitamin D, dark-skinned individuals, in particular, may require extra vitamin D to avoid deficiency at higher latitudes. At latitudes below 30° where sunlight and day-length are more consistent, vitamin D supplementation may not be required.[5] Individuals clad in full body coverings during all their outdoor activity, most notably women wearing burquas in daylight, are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. This poses a lifestyle-related health risk mostly for female residents of conservative Muslim nations in the Middle East, but also for strict adherents in other parts of the world.[23] In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Human skin color can range from very dark brown to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ... Afghan woman wearing Afghan burqa Two different items of traditional Muslim womens clothing are known as a burqa, (sometimes misspelled as burka or burqua). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Overdose

For more details on this topic, see hypervitaminosis D.

Vitamin D stored in the human body as calcidiol (25-hydroxy-vitamin D) has a large volume of distribution and a long half-life (about 20 to 29 days).[8] However, the synthesis of bioactive vitamin D hormone is tightly regulated and vitamin D toxicity usually occurs only if excessive doses (prescription or megavitamin) are taken.[24] Although normal food and pill vitamin D concentration levels are too low to be toxic in adults, because of the high vitamin A content in codliver oil it is possible to reach poisonous levels of vitamin A,[25] if taken in multiples of the normal dose in an attempt to increase the intake of vitamin D. Most cases of vitamin D overdose have occurred due to manufacturing and industrial accidents.[26] Hypervitaminosis D is a state of Vitamin D toxicity. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Megavitamin therapy is the use of large amounts of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), to prevent or treat many types of diseases. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Capsules of Cod Liver Oil Cod liver oil, as its name suggests, is an oil extracted from cod livers. ...


Exposure to sunlight for extended periods of time does not cause Vitamin D toxicity.[26] This is because within about 20 minutes of ultraviolet exposure in light skinned individuals (3–6 times longer for pigmented skin) the concentration of vitamin D precursors produced in the skin reach an equilibrium, and any further vitamin D that is produced is degraded.[27] Maximum endogenous production with full body exposure to sunlight is 250 µg (10,000 IU) per day.[26] Look up equilibrium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The exact long-term safe dose of vitamin D is not entirely known, but dosages up to 60 micrograms (2,400 IU) /day in healthy adults are believed to be safe.[8], and all known cases of vitamin D toxicity with hypercalcemia involve intake of or over 1,000 micrograms (40,000 IU)/day[26]. The U.S. Dietary Reference Intake Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of vitamin D for children and adults is 50 micrograms/day (2,000 IU/day). In adults, sustained intake of 2500 μg/day (100,000 IU) can produce toxicity within a few months.[2] For infants (birth to 12 months) the tolerable UL is set at 25 micrograms/day (1000 IU/day), and vitamin D concentrations of 1000 micrograms/day (40,000 IU) in infants has been shown to produce toxicity within 1 to 4 months. In the United States, overdose exposure of vitamin D was reported by 284 individuals in 2004, leading to 1 death.[28] The Dietary Reference Intake is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the USA National Academy (IOM). ...


Serum levels of calcidiol (25-hydroxy-vitamin D) are typically used to diagnose vitamin D overdose. In healthy individuals, calcidiol levels are normally between 25 to 40 ng/mL (60 to 100 nmol/L), but these levels may be as much as 15-fold greater in cases of vitamin D toxicity. Serum levels of bioactive vitamin D hormone (1,25(OH2)D) are usually normal in cases of vitamin D overdose.[2]


The symptoms of vitamin D toxicity are a result of hypercalcemia (an elevated level of calcium in the blood) caused by increased intestinal calcium absorption. Gastrointestinal symptoms of vitamin D toxicity can develop including anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms are often followed by polyuria (excessive production of urine), polydipsia (increased thirst), weakness, nervousness, pruritus (itch), and eventually renal failure. Other signals of kidney disease including elevated protein levels in the urine, urinary casts, and a build up of wastes in the blood stream can also develop.[2] In one study, hypercalciuria and bone loss occurred in four patients with documented vitamin D toxicity.[29] Another study showed elevated risk of ischaemic heart disease when 25D was above 89 ng/mL.[30] Hypercalcaemia is an elevated calcium level in the blood. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Anorexia (deriving from the Greek α(ν)- (a(n)-, a prefix that denotes absence) + όρεξη (orexe) = appetite) is the decreased sensation of appetite. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Polyuria is the passage of a large volume of urine in a given period. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Polydipsia is a medical condition in which the patient ingests abnormally large amounts of fluids by mouth. ... An itch (Latin: pruritus) is a sensation felt on an area of skin that makes a person or animal want to scratch it. ... Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ischaemic (or ischemic) heart disease is a disease characterized by reduced blood supply to the heart. ...


Vitamin D toxicity is treated by discontinuing vitamin D supplementation, and restricting calcium intake. If the toxicity is severe blood calcium levels can be further reduced with corticosteroids or bisphosphonates. In some cases kidney damage may be irreversible.[2] In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... In pharmacology, bisphosphonates (also called: diphosphonates) is a class of drugs that inhibits the resorption of bone. ...


Role in immunomodulation

The hormonally active form of vitamin D mediates immunological effects by binding to nuclear vitamin D receptors (VDR) which are present in most immune cell types including both innate and adaptive immune cells. The VDR is expressed constitutively in monocytes and in activated macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, T and B cells. In line with this observation, activation of the VDR has potent anti-proliferative, pro-differentiative, and immunomodulatory functions including both immune-enhancing and immunosuppressive effects.[31] A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... The innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms, in a non-specific manner. ... The immune system is the collection of organs and tissues involved in the adaptive defense of a body against foreign biological material. ... White blood cells (also called leukocytes or immune cells) are a component of blood. ... Monocyte A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human bodys immune system that protects against blood-borne pathogens and moves quickly (aprox. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros large + phagein eat) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. ... Dendritic cells (DC) are immune cells and form part of the mammal immune system. ... Natural killer cells (NK) are a type of lymphocyte (a white blood cell) and a component of nonspecific immune defense. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... An immunomodulator is a drug used for its effect on the immune system: drugs may be immunosuppressants or immunostimulators. ... Immunostimulators are the drugs which stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ...


Effects of VDR-ligands, such as vitamin D hormone, on T-cells include suppression of T cell activation and induction of regulatory T cells, as well as effects on cytokine secretion patterns.[32] VDR-ligands have also been shown to affect maturation, differentiation, and migration of dendritic cells, and inhibits DC-dependent T cell activation, resulting in an overall state of immunosuppression.[33] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ligand. ... Effector cells are a type of lymphocyte that are actively engaged in secreting antibodies. ... Regulatory T cells (also known as suppressor T cells) are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress activation of the immune system and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self. ... Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. ...


VDR ligands have also been shown to increase the activity of natural killer cells, and enhance the phagocytic activity of macrophages.[8] Active vitamin D hormone also increases the production of cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide that is produced in macrophages triggered by bacteria, viruses, and fungi.[34] Vitamin D deficiency tends to increase the risk of infections, such as influenza and tuberculosis. In a 1997 study, Ethiopian children with rickets were 13 times more likely to get pneumonia than children without rickets.[35] Phagocytosis (literally cell-eating) is a form of endocytosis wherein large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a phagosome, or food vacuole. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros large + phagein eat) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. ... Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide produced in macrophages triggered by bacteria, viruses, and fungi, when the hormone 1,25-D is present. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that that kills or slows the growth of microbes like bacteria (antibacterial activity), fungi (antifungal activity), viruses (antiviral activity), or parasites (antiparasitic activity). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


These immunoregulatory properties indicate that ligands with the potential to activate the VDR, including supplementation with calcitriol (as well as a number of synthetic modulators), may have therapeutic clinical applications in the treatment of; inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis), dermatological conditions (psoriasis, actinic keratosis), osteoporosis, cancers (prostate, colon, breast, myelodysplasia, leukemia, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma), and autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis) and in preventing organ transplant rejection.[31] However the effects of supplementation with vitamin D, as yet, remain unclear, and supplementation may be inadvisable for individuals with sarcoidosis and other diseases involving vitamin D hypersensitivity.[36][26][37] An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... Psoriatic arthritis (or Arthropathic psoriasis) is a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects around 20% of people suffering from the chronic skin condition Psoriasis. ... Dermatology (from Greek δερμα, skin) is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its appendages (hair, sweat glands, etc). ... Actinic keratosis (also called solar keratosis, senile keratosis, or AK) is a premalignant condition of thick, scaly, or crusty patches of skin. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Transplant rejection occurs when the immune system of the recipient of a transplant attacks the transplanted organ or tissue. ...


A 2006 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, reported evidence of a link between Vitamin D deficiency and the onset of Multiple Sclerosis; the authors posit that this is due to the immune-response suppression properties of Vitamin D.[38] JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ...


Role in cancer prevention and recovery

The vitamin D hormone, calcitriol, has been found to induce death of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Although the anti-cancer activity of vitamin D is not fully understood, it is thought that these effects are mediated through vitamin D receptors expressed in cancer cells, and may be related to its immunomodulatory abilities. The anti-cancer activity of vitamin D observed in the laboratory has prompted some to propose that vitamin D supplementation might be beneficial in the treatment or prevention of some types of cancer.[8] Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ...


In 2005, scientists released a metastudy which demonstrated a beneficial correlation between vitamin D intake and prevention of cancer. Drawing from a meta-analysis of 63 published reports, the authors showed that intake of an additional 1,000 international units (IU) (or 25 micrograms) of vitamin D daily reduced an individual's colon cancer risk by 50%, and breast and ovarian cancer risks by 30%.[39] Research has also shown a beneficial effect of high levels of calcitriol on patients with advanced prostate cancer.[40] A randomised intervention study involving 1,200 women, published in June 2007, reports that vitamin D supplementation (1,100 international units (IU) / day) resulted in a 60% reduction in cancer incidence, during a four-year clinical trial, rising to a 77% reduction if cancers diagnosed in the first year (and therefore more likely to have originated prior to the intervention) were excluded.[41][42] A recent study using data on over 4 million cancer patients from 13 different countries showed a marked difference in cancer risk between countries classified as sunny and countries classified as less–sunny for a number of different cancers.[43] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ... A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor (a kind of neoplasm) located on an ovary. ... Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ...


In June 2007, The Canadian Cancer Society began recommending that all adult Canadians consider taking 1000 IU of vitamin D during the fall and winter months (when typically the country's northern latitude prevents sufficient sun-stimulated production of vitamin D). This kind of recommendation is a first for cancer agencies.[44]


Research has also suggested that cancer patients who have surgery or treatment in the summer — and therefore make more endogenous vitamin D — have a better chance of surviving their cancer than those who undergo treatment in the winter when they are exposed to less sunlight.[45]


Role in coronary disease prevention

Research indicates that vitamin D plays a role in preventing or reversing coronary disease. As with cancer incidence, the same qualitative inverse correlations exist between coronary disease incidence and serum vitamin D levels[46], seasonal solar exposure,[47] in temperate latitudes[48] but not tropical latitudes.[49] Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulaation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ...


Notes and References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D. National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 2007-09-10. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Vitamin D The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Last modified November 2005
  3. ^ a b c About Vitamin D Including Sections: History, Nutrition, Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Diseases. University of California Riverside
  4. ^ a b c d Norman, Anthony W. (1998) Sunlight, season, skin pigmentation, vitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D:integral components of the vitamin D endocrine system. Am J Clin Nutr;67:1108–10.
  5. ^ a b Fun with UVB Includes calculations and measurements of UVB levels at various angles of solar rays.
  6. ^ Laura A. G. Armas, Bruce W. Hollis and Robert P. Heaney (2004). "Vitamin D2 Is Much Less Effective than Vitamin D3 in Humans Full Text". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89 (11): 5387–5391. 
  7. ^ Coates, M. E. (1968). "Requirements of different species for vitamins Full Text-pdf". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 27 (2): 143–148. PMID 5755261. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Vitamin D The Physicians Desk Reference. 2006 Thompson Healthcare.
  9. ^ Matsuoka LY, Wortsman J, Haddad JG, Kolm P, Hollis BW. Racial pigmentation and the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. Arch Dermatol 1991;127:536–8.
  10. ^ a b c d Holick MF (2004). "Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Full Text 80 (6): 1678S-1688S. 
  11. ^ In scientific literature, vitamin D dosage in usually reported in micrograms, whereas food and supplement regulations typically require dosages on labels to be in International Units (IU). 1 microgram vitamin D equals 40 IU vitamin D.
  12. ^ a b Nowson C, Margerison C (2002). "Vitamin D intake and vitamin D status of Australians". Med J Aust 177 (3): 149-52. PMID 12149085. 
  13. ^ "Bringing Mushrooms Out of the Dark", MSNBC, April 18 2006. Retrieved on 2007-08-06. 
  14. ^ a b Rajakumar K (2003). "Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective". Pediatrics 112 (2): e132-5. PMID 12897318. 
  15. ^ Grant WB, Holick MF (2005). "Benefits and requirements of vitamin D for optimal health: a review". Altern Med Rev 10 (2): 94-111. PMID 15989379. 
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  18. ^ Canadian mothers and babies don't get enough vitamin D 2007 Canadian Paediatric Society Recommendation
  19. ^ a b Vitamin D Supplementation for Breastfed Infants - 2004 Health Canada Recommendation
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  21. ^ Sayre, Robert M.; John C. Dowdy (2007). "Darkness at Noon: Sunscreens and Vitamin D3". Photochemistry and Photobiology 83 (2): 459. doi:10.1562/2006-06-29-RC-956. 
  22. ^ Grant WB (2002). "An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation". Cancer 94 (6): 1867-75. PMID 11920550. 
  23. ^ Saadi HF, Dawodu A, Afandi BO, Zayed R, Benedict S, Nagelkerke N (2007). "Efficacy of daily and monthly high-dose calciferol in vitamin D-deficient nulliparous and lactating women". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85 (6): 1565-71. PMID 17556694. 
  24. ^ RODENTICIDES, source: Journal of Veterinary Medicine, archives, vol. 27, May, 1998. IPM Of Alaska, Solving Pest Problems Sensibly. Retrieved on 2006-07-07.
  25. ^ Bendich A, Langseth L (1989). "J Clin Nutr Safety of vitamin A" 49 (2): 358-71. PMID 2492745. 
  26. ^ a b c d e Vieth R (1999). "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety". Am J Clin Nutr 69 (5): 842-56. PMID 10232622. 
  27. ^ Holick M (1995). "Environmental factors that influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D". Am J Clin Nutr 61 (3 Suppl): 638S-645S. PMID 7879731. 
  28. ^ 2004 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System.
  29. ^ Adams JS, Lee G (1997). "Gains in bone mineral density with resolution of vitamin D intoxication". Ann Intern Med 127 (3): 203-206. PMID 9245225. 
  30. ^ Rajasree S, Rajpal K, Kartha CC, Sarma PS, Kutty VR, Iyer CS, Girija G (2001). "Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are elevated in South Indian patients with ischemic heart disease Full Text". Eur J Epidemiol 17 (6): 567-71. PMID 11949730. 
  31. ^ a b Nagpal, Sunil, Songqing Naand and Radhakrishnan Rathnachalam (2005) Noncalcemic Actions of Vitamin D Receptor Ligands Full Text Endocrine Reviews 26 (5): 662-687.
  32. ^ Yee YK, Chintalacharuvu SR, Lu J, Nagpal S. (2005). "Vitamin D receptor modulators for inflammation and cancer.". Mini Rev Med Chem. 5 (8): 761–78. PMID 16101412. 
  33. ^ van Etten E, Mathieu C. (2005). "Immunoregulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: basic concepts.". J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 97 (1-2): 93–101. PMID 16046118. 
  34. ^ Janet Raloff, The Antibiotic Vitamin Science News, Vol 170, November 11, 2006, pages 312-317
  35. ^ Muhe, L., et al., Case-control study of the role of nutritional rickets in the risk of developing pneumonia in Ethiopian children. Lancet (June 21, 1997) 349, 1801-1804. PMID 9269215
  36. ^ United Kingdom Food Standards Agency; Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals; Professor Michael Langdon, Chairman. (2003 May). Safe Upper Levels for Vitamins and Minerals. Retrieved Aug. 12, 2006 from http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/vitmin2003.pdf
  37. ^ Abreu MT, et al. (2004). "Measurement of vitamin D levels in inflammatory bowel disease patients reveals a subset of Crohn’s disease patients with elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and low bone mineral density". Gut 53 (8): 1129-1136. PMID 15247180. 
  38. ^ Munger KL. , Levin, LI,Hollis BW , Howard, NS , Ascherio A (2006). "Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis.". Journal of the American Medical Association 296 (23): 2832-2838. PMID 17179460. 
  39. ^ "Vitamin D 'can lower cancer risk'", BBC News, 28 December 2005. Retrieved on 2006-03-23. 
  40. ^ Beer T, Myrthue A (2006). "Calcitriol in the treatment of prostate cancer". Anticancer Res 26 (4A): 2647-51. PMID 16886675. 
  41. ^ Martin Mittelstaedt. "Vitamin D casts cancer prevention in new light", Global and Mail, 28 April 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-28. 
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  43. ^ Tuohimaaa and others. "Does solar exposure, as indicated by the non-melanoma skin cancers, protect from solid cancers: Vitamin D as a possible explanation.". European Journal of Cancer. PMID 17540555. 
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  • Luz E. Tavera-Mendoza and John H. White, "Cell Defenses and the Sunshine Vitamin", Scientific American, November 2007, pages 62-72.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the metric system, a microgram is 1/1,000,000 of a gram, or 1/1000 of a milligram, is one of the smallest units of weight/mass commonly used. ... In pharmacology, the International unit (IU, alternatively abbreviated UI, from French unité internationale) is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance, based on measured biological activity (or effect). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Vitamin D - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3992 words)
Vitamin D (also known as calciferol) is a hormone precursor that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood.
To maintain blood levels of calcium, therapeutic vitamin D doses are sometimes administered (up to 100,000 IU or 2.5 mg daily) to patients who have had their parathyroid glands removed (most commonly renal dialysis patients who have had tertiary hyperparathyroidism, but also patients with primary hyperparathyroidism) or who suffer with hypoparathyroidism.
Serum vitamin D, measured by the precursor, 25D, may appear to be deficient in chronic diseases in which vitamin D dysregulation occurs, because it is being depleted due to excessive conversion into the active 1,25D form by macrophages.
Vitamin D (711 words)
Vitamin D is an essential vitamin required for the proper formation of bones and teeth, and is involved in maintaining proper metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body.
The most common result of vitamin D deficiency in children is stunted bone growth, and a disorder known as rickets (bone malformations), and in adults, osteomalacia, a weakening of bone structure leading to ease of fractures and muscle spasms.
Supplemental vitamin D (or one of its biochemical derivatives) is usually prescribed by a physician, most commonly in pediatric cases for bone disorders resulting from deficiency of the vitamin, and in adults to a lesser degree for similar conditions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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