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Encyclopedia > Visual flight rules

Visual flight rules (VFR) are a set of aviation regulations under which a pilot may operate an aircraft in weather conditions sufficient to allow the pilot, by visual reference to the environment outside the cockpit, to control the aircraft's attitude, navigate, and maintain safe separation from obstacles such as terrain, buildings, and other aircraft. Aviation refers to flying using aircraft, machines designed by humans for atmospheric flight. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aircraft attitude is used to mean two closely related aspects of the situation of an aircraft in flight. ...


The essential collision safety principle guiding the VFR pilot is "see and avoid". Pilots flying under VFR assume responsibility for their separation from all other aircraft and are generally not assigned routes or altitudes by air traffic control. In busier controlled airspace, VFR aircraft are required to have a transponder. Governing agencies establish strict VFR "weather minima" for visibility, distance from clouds, and altitude to ensure that aircraft operating under VFR can be seen from a far enough distance to ensure safety. Air Traffic Control Towers (ATCTs) at Amsterdams Schiphol Airport (Netherlands) Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. ... A Cessna ARC RT-359A Transponder (the beige box) mounted beneath a Bendix/King KY197 VHF communication radio in a light airplane instrument panel A transponder is an electronic device that produces a response when it receives a radio-frequency interrogation. ...


In strictly controlled airspace, air traffic control will separate VFR aircraft from all other aircraft or just from instrument flight rules (IFR) aircraft. In other airspace, a VFR pilot can at his or her discretion request traffic information from air traffic control regarding other aircraft in their vicinity, but the duty of maintaining safe separation still remains with the pilot. It has been suggested that Air traffic control#Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) be merged into this article or section. ...


The minimum meteorological requirements for VFR are termed visual meteorological conditions (VMC). If they are not met then the flight must operate under IFR; to do so, the pilot must hold an instrument rating and meet recency of experience requirements pertaining to instrument flight, the aircraft must be equipped and type-certified for instrument flight. In some types of airspace, generally at higher altitudes, a flight must operate instrument flight rules regardless of the meteorological conditions, as aircraft fly at high speeds at higher altitudes and thus the "see and avoid" method of avoiding conflicting traffic is not adequate to ensure safety. A limitation to VFR is 3 mile vis.. Satellite image of Hurricane Hugo with a polar low visible at the top of the image. ... In aviation, visual meteorological conditions (or VMC) are those in which visual flight rules (VFR) flight is permitted—that is, conditions in which pilots have sufficient visibility to fly the aircraft without reference to instruments and can maintain visual separation from terrain and other aircraft. ... in-flight refueling Instrument flight rules Interface Repository Integral Fast Reactor This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Instrument Rating refers to the qualifications that a pilot must have in order to fly under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ...


Controlled Visual Flight Rules

CVFR flight is used in locations where aviation authorities have determined that VFR flight should be allowed, but that ATC separation minima and guidance are necessary. In this respect, CVFR is similar to Instrument flight rules (IFR) in that ATC will give pilots headings and altitudes at which to fly, and will provide separation and conflict resolution. However, pilots and aircraft do not need to be IFR rated to fly in CVFR areas, which is highly advantageous. An example of airspace where CVFR is common would be Canadian Class B airspace.[citation needed] Air Traffic Control Towers (ATCTs) at Amsterdams Schiphol Airport (Netherlands) Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. ... It has been suggested that Air traffic control#Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) be merged into this article or section. ... Canadian airspace is classified similarly to the standard ICAO airspace classes, but there are a few major differences. ...


The CVFR concept is used in Canada and certain European countries, but not in the U.S., where the Private Pilot certificate itself authorizes the pilot to accept clearances under VFR. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Front side of an airman certificate issued by the FAA. Back side of an airman certificate issued by the FAA. Pilot certification in the United States is under the authority of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ...


See also


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Visual flight rules - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (335 words)
Visual flight rules (VFR) are a set of aviation regulations under which a pilot may operate an aircraft, if weather conditions are sufficient to allow the pilot to visually control the aircraft's attitude, navigate, and maintain separation with obstacles such as terrain and other aircraft.
Under VFR, the pilot generally controls the attitude of the aircraft by relying on what can be seen out the window (see visual flight), although this may be supplemented by referring to the instrument panel.
If they are not met then the flight must be flown under instrument flight rules (IFR), the pilot must have an instrument rating and meet recency of experience requirements pertaining to instrument flight, and the aircraft must be equipped and type-certified for instrument flight.
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