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Encyclopedia > Visigoths
A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672)
A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672)

The Visigoths (Latin: Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. Together these tribes were among the Germanic peoples who disturbed the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period, following a Visigothic force led by Alaric I's sacking of Rome in 410. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 608 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,168 × 1,152 pixels, file size: 714 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 608 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,168 × 1,152 pixels, file size: 714 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... An icon of Aghia Paraskevi with votive offerings hung beside it. ... Reccesuinth (Recceswinth, Recceswint, Reccaswinth, Recdeswinth, Recesvinto, Reccesvinthus) ruled as a king of the Visigoths from 649–672: jointly with his father from 649 and as sole king from 653. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... The tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between 600 - 300 BC. In historical times these tribes were differentiated as Goths, Burgundians and Vandals among others. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... An anachronistic fifteenth-century miniature depicting the sack of 410. ...


After the collapse of the western Roman Empire, the Visigoths played a major role in western European affairs for another two and a half centuries. The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Division of the Goths: Tervingi and Vesi

The division of the Goths is first attested in 291.[1] The Tervingi are first attested around that date, the Greuthungi, Ostrogothi, and Vesi are all attested no earlier than 388.[1] The first mention of the Tervingi occurs in a eulogy of the emperor Maximian (285–305), delivered in or shortly after 291 (or perhaps delivered at Trier on 20 April 292[2]) and traditionally ascribed to Claudius Mamertinus,[3] which says that the "Tervingi, another division of the Goths" (Tervingi pars alia Gothorum) joined with the Taifali to attack the Vandals and Gepidae. The term "Vandals" may have been erroneous for "Victohali" because around 360 the historian Eutropius reports that Dacia was currently (nunc) inhabited by Taifali, Victohali, and Tervingi.[4] The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Map of Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogoths (Greuthung, Gleaming Goths or Eastern Goths), in distinction from the Visigoths (Noble Goths or Western Goths), were a Germanic tribe that influenced political events of the late Roman Empire. ... Look up eulogy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... [edit] Events [edit] By Place [edit] Roman Empire Constantius Chlorus divorces Helena, mother of Constantine the Great (approximate date). ... Claudius Mamertinus (flourished mid-late 4th century) was an official in the Roman Empire. ... The dragon-and-pearl device of the shields of the Equites Taifali unit based in Britain. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... Eutropius was an Ancient Roman Pagan historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century. ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ...


According to Wolfram, in the Notitia Dignitatum the Vesi are equated with the Tervingi in a reference to the years 388–391;[1] this is not clear from the Notitia itself. The Greuthungi are first named by Ammianus Marcellinus, writing no earlier than 392 and perhaps later than 395, and basing his account of the words of a Tervingian chieftain who is attested as early as 376.[1] The Ostrogoths are first named in a document dated September 392 from Milan.[1] Claudian mentions that they together with the Gruthungi inhabit Phrygia.[5] According to Herwig Wolfram, the primary sources either use the terminology of Tervingi/Greuthungi or Vesi/Ostrogothi and never mix the pairs.[1] All four names were used together, but the pairing was always preserved, as in Gruthungi, Austrogothi, Tervingi, Visi.[6] That the Tervingi were the Vesi/Visigothi and the Greuthungi the Ostrogothi is also supported by Jordanes.[7] He identified the Visigothic kings from Alaric I to Alaric II as the heirs of the fourth-century Tervingian king Athanaric and the Ostrogothic kings from Theodoric the Great to Theodahad as the heirs of the Greuthungian king Ermanaric. This interpretation, however, though very common among scholars today, is not universal. Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Claudius Claudianus, Anglicized as Claudian, was the court poet to the Emperor Honorius and Stilicho. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... Alaric II, also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish or Alaricus in Latin (d. ... Athanaricus[1] (died 381) was king of several branches of the Thervings for at least two decades in the fourth century. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... Theodahad (d. ... The green area is the traditional extent of Götaland and the dark pink area is the island of Gotland. ...


Herwig Wolfram concludes that the terms Tervingi and Greuthungi were geographical identifiers used by each tribe to describe the other.[6] This terminology therefore dropped out of use after the Goths were displaced by the Hunnic invasions. In support of this, Wolfram cites Zosimus as referring to a group of "Scythians" north of the Danube who were called "Greutungi" by the barbarians north of the Ister.[8] Wolfram concludes that this people was the Tervingi who had remained behind after the Hunnic conquest.[8] He further believes that the terms "Vesi" and "Ostrogothi" were used by the peoples to boastfully describe themselves.[6] The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns. ... For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Ister is a 2004 film directed by David Barison and Daniel Ross. ...


The nomenclature of Greuthungi and Tervingi fell out of use shortly after 400.[1] In general, the terminology of a divided Gothic people disappeared gradually after they entered the Roman Empire.[6] The last indication that the Goths whose king reigned at Toulouse considered themselves Vesi is found in a panegyric on Avitus by Sidonius Apollinaris dated 1 January 456.[6] The term "Visigoth", however, was an invention of the sixth century. Most recent scholars (notably Peter Heather) argue that Visigothic group identity emerged only within the Roman Empire.[9] Roger Collins believes the Visigoths were a creation of the Gothic War of 376-382 and began as a collection of foederati (Wolfram's "federate armies") under Alaric I in the eastern Balkans, composed of largely Tervingi with Greuthungian and other barbarian contingents.[10] They were thus multiethnic and cannot lay claim to an exclusively Tervingian heritage. Collins points out that no contemporaries directly link the Tervingi and Vesi.[10] A Panegyric is a formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally high studied and undiscriminating eulogy. ... Avitus on a tremissis. ... Gaius Sollius Modestus Sidonius Apollinaris (c. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capua is destroyed by the Vandals. ... Peter Heather is a teacher at Worcester College, University of Oxford who is considered a leading authority on the barbarians of the Roman era. ... Combatants Roman Empire Goths, local rebels, Alanic raiders, Hunnish raiders Commanders Valens, Theodosius Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax, Farnobius See also Gothic War (535–552) for the war in Italy. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... Balkan redirects here. ...


Cassiodorus, a Roman in the service of Theodoric the Great, invented the term "Visigothi" to match that of "Ostrogothi", which terms he thought of as "western Goths" and "eastern Goths" respectively.[6] The western-eastern division was a simplification and a literary device of sixth-century historians where political realities were more complex.[11] Furthermore, Cassiodorus used the term "Goths" to refer only to the Ostrogoths, whom he served, and reserved the geographical term "Visigoths" for the Gallo-Spanish Goths. This usage, however, was adopted by the Visigoths themselves in their communications with the Byzantine Empire and was in use in the seventh century.[11] Cassiodorus at his Vivarium library ( in Codex Amiatinus, 8th century). ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Other names for the Goths abounded. A "Germanic" Byzantine or Italian author referred to one of the two peoples as the Valagothi, meaning "Roman Goths" and in 469 the Visigoths were called the "Alaric Goths".[11]


Etymology of Tervingi and Vesi/Visigothi

The name "Tervingi" may mean "forest people".[6] This is supported by evidence that geographic descriptors were commonly used to distinguish people living north of the Black Sea both before and after Gothic settlement there, by evidence of forest-related names among the Tervingi, and by the lack of evidence for an earlier date for the name pair Tervingi-Greuthungi than the late third century.[12] That the name "Tervingi" has pre-Pontic, possibly Scandinavian, origins still has support today.[12]


The Visigoths are called Wesi or Wisi by Trebellius Pollio, Claudian, and Sidonius Apollinaris.[13] The words are Gothic ones meaning "the good or noble people",[6] similar to Gothic iusiza, "better". W. H. Stevenson remarks that the term seems to be the Germanic representative of Indo-European *wesu-s ("good"), comparing Sanskrit vásu-ş and Gaulish vesu-. While Jordanes refers to a river which gave its name to the Vesi, this is probably just legend, like his similar story about the Greuthung name.[12] The name "Visigothi" is an invention of Cassiodorus, who combined "Visi" and "Gothi" and intended to mean "west Goths". The Augustan History (Lat. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ...


History

Migrations of the main column of the Visigoths
Migrations of the main column of the Visigoths

Image File history File links Visigoth_migrations. ... Image File history File links Visigoth_migrations. ...

War with Rome (376–382)

Main article: Gothic War (376-382)

The Goths remained in Dacia until 376, when one of their leaders, Fritigern, appealed to the Roman emperor Valens to be allowed to settle with his people on the south bank of the Danube. Here, they hoped to find refuge from the Huns. Valens permitted this. However, a famine broke out and Rome was unwilling to supply them with the food they were promised nor the land; open revolt ensued leading to 6 years of plundering and destruction throughout the Balkans, the death of a Roman Emperor and the destruction of an entire Roman army. Combatants Roman Empire Goths, local rebels, Alanic raiders, Hunnish raiders Commanders Valens, Theodosius Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax, Farnobius See also Gothic War (535–552) for the war in Italy. ... Events Visigoths appear on the Danube and request entry into the Roman Empire in their flight from the Huns Births Cyril of Alexandria, theologian Deaths Categories: 376 ... Frithugairns (Gothic for desiring peace) or Fritigern (died ca. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg, Germany... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


The Battle of Adrianople in 378 was the decisive moment of the war. The Roman forces were slaughtered; the Emperor Valens was killed during the fighting, shocking the Roman world and eventually forcing the Romans to negotiate with and settle the Barbarians on Roman land, a new trend with far reaching consequences for the eventual fall of the Roman Empire. For other uses, see Battle of Adrianople (disambiguation). ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ...


Reign of Alaric I

Main article: Alaric I

The new emperor, Theodosius I, made peace with the rebels, and this peace held essentially unbroken until Theodosius died in 395. In that year, the Visigoths' most famous king, Alaric I, took the throne, while Theodosius was succeeded by his incapable sons: Arcadius in the east and Honorius in the west. An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... Idealising bust of Arcadius in the Theodosian style combines elements of classicism with the new hieratic style (Istanbul Archaeology Museum) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Arcadius For the Greek grammarian, see Arcadius of Antioch. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ...


Over the next 15 years, years of uneasy peace were broken by occasional conflicts between Alaric and the powerful German generals who commanded the Roman armies in the east and west, wielding the real power of the empire. Finally, after the western general Stilicho was executed by Honorius in 408 and the Roman legions massacred the families of 30,000 barbarian soldiers serving in the Roman army, Alaric declared war. After two defeats in Northern Italy and a siege of Rome ended by a negotiated pay-off, Alaric was cheated by another Roman faction. He resolved to cut the city off by capturing its port. On August 24, 410, however, Alaric's troops entered Rome through the Salarian Gate, to plunder its riches in the sack of Rome. While Rome was no longer the official capital of the Western Roman Empire (it had been moved to Ravenna for strategic reasons), its fall severely shook the empire's foundations. Stilicho (right) with his wife Serena and son Eucherius Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca. ... Events Theodosius II succeeds his father Arcadius as Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire In the summer of this year, the usurper Constantine III captures Spain, destroying the loyalist forces defending it. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... Porta Salaria in an etching by Giuseppe Vasi (18th century). ... An anachronistic fifteenth-century miniature depicting the sack of 410. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ...


Visigothic kingdom

Main article: Visigothic Kingdom
Greatest extent of the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse, c. 500
Greatest extent of the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse, c. 500

The Visigothic Kingdom was a Western European power in the 5th to 7th centuries, created in Gaul by the German people of the Visigoths when the Romans lost their control of their empire. From 407 to 409 the Vandals, with the allied Alans and Germanic tribes like the Suevi, swept into the Iberian peninsula. In response to this invasion of Roman Hispania, Honorius, the emperor in the West, enlisted the aid of the Visigoths to regain control of the territory. In 418, Honorius rewarded his Visigothic federates by giving them land in Gallia Aquitania on which to settle. This was probably done under hospitalitas, the rules for billeting army soldiers (Heather 1996, Sivan 1987). The settlement formed the nucleus of the future Visigothic kingdom that would eventually expand across the Pyrenees and onto the Iberian peninsula. The Visigothic Kingdom was an European power in the 5e en de 7e censury, created yn Gaul by the German people of the Visigoths when the Romains lost their control of their empire. ... Download high resolution version (599x611, 80 KB)Map drawn by Lupo, published here under the terms of the GFDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (599x611, 80 KB)Map drawn by Lupo, published here under the terms of the GFDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... // Events Gunderic becomes king of the Vandals and the Alans after the death of his father Godgisel Gratianus of Britain is assassinated and Constantine III takes his place at the head of the mutinous Roman garrison in Britain. ... For the cleaning product 409®, see butoxyethanol. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Flavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Roman Emperor (393- 395) and then Western Roman Emperor from 395 until his death. ... // Events December 28 - Boniface succeeds Zosimus as Pope Council of Carthage - discussion of Biblical canon Births Deaths December 26 - Pope Zosimus In Other Fields 418 is the area code for telephone numbers in the Quebec City region of the province of Quebec of Canada. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... Gallia Aquitania, a province of The Roman Empire Gallia Aquitania, in ancient geography, was a province of the Roman Empire, located in present-day southwest France and bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania Tarraconensis. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ...


The Visigoths' second great king, Euric, unified the various quarreling factions among the Visigoths and, in 475, forced the Roman government to grant them full independence. At his death, the Visigoths were the most powerful of the successor states to the Western Roman Empire. Euric, also known as Evaric, Erwig, or Eurico in Spanish, (c. ... See also 475 (number) Events Orestes forces western Roman emperor Julius Nepos to flee and declares his son Romulus Augustus to be emperor. ...


The Visigoths also became the dominant power in the Iberian Peninsula, quickly crushing the Alans and forcing the Vandals into north Africa. By 500, the Visigothic Kingdom, centred at Toulouse, controlled Aquitania and Gallia Narbonensis and most of Hispania with the exception of the Suevic kingdom in the northwest and small areas controlled by the Basques. However, in 507, the Franks under Clovis I defeated the Visigoths in the Vouillé and wrested control of Aquitaine. King Alaric II was killed in battle. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This article is about the year. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern... The Battle of Vouill or Campus Vogladensis was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at a small place near Poitiers, (Gaul) in the spring 507. ... Alaric II, also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish or Alaricus in Latin (d. ...


After Alaric's death, Visigothic nobles spirited his heir, the child-king Amalaric, first to Narbonne, which was the last Gothic outpost in Gaul, and further across the Pyrenees into Hispania. The center of Visigothic rule shifted first to Barcelona, then inland and south to Toledo. From 511 to 526, the Visigoths were ruled by Theodoric the Great of the Ostrogoths as de jure regent for the young Amalaric. Amalaric, or in Spanish and Portuguese, Amalarico, (502[1] – 531) was a son of king Alaric II and of Theodegotho, daughter of Theodoric the Great and his first wife. ... Narbonne (Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, commonly Narbo especially when referring to the Ancient Rome era) is a town and commune of southwestern France in the Languedoc-Roussillon région. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Events Frankish kingdom split in four after the death of Clovis I; Childebert I becomes king of Paris, Clotaire I becomes king of Soissons, Chlodomer becomes king of Orléans, and Theuderic I becomes king of Reims and Austrasia. ... Events May 20 - Syria and Antioch. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ...


In 554, Granada and southernmost Hispania Baetica were lost to representatives of the Byzantine Empire (to form the province of Spania) who had been invited in to help settle a Visigothic dynastic struggle, but who stayed on, as a hoped-for spearhead to a "Reconquest" of the far west envisaged by emperor Justinian I. Events The Byzantine general Narses reconquers all of Italy. ... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 CE In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent under Justinian I. Justinians inherited empire in pink with his conquests, including Spania, in orange. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ...


The last Arian Visigothic king, Liuvigild, conquered the Suevic kingdom in 585 and most of the northern regions (Cantabria) in 574 and regained part of the southern areas lost to the Byzantines, which King Suintila reconquered completely in 624. The kingdom survived until 711, when King Roderic (Rodrigo) was killed while opposing an invasion from the south by the Umayyad Muslims in the Battle of Guadalete on July 19. This marked the beginning of the Muslim conquest of Hispania in which most of peninsula came under Islamic rule by 718. Statue in Madrid (F. Corral, 1750-53). ... Events Famine in Gaul. ... Events Emperor Justin II retires, choosing Tiberius II Constantine as his heir. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Statue in Madrid (J. Bustos, 1750-53). ... Events Justus becomes Archbishop of Canterbury. ... See also: phone number 711. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Combatants Visigoths Ummayads Commanders Roderic Tariq ibn Ziyad Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Guadalete took place July 19, 711, at the Guadalete River (or La Janda lake) in the southern extreme of the Iberian peninsula. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of Northwest Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ...


A Visigothic nobleman, Pelayo, is credited with beginning the Christian Reconquista of Iberia in 718, when he defeated the Umayyads in battle and established the Kingdom of Asturias in the northern part of the peninsula. Other Visigoths, refusing to adopt the Muslim faith or live under their rule, fled north to the kingdom of the Franks, and Visigoths played key roles in the empire of Charlemagne a few generations later. Pelayo (690–737) was the first King of Asturias, ruling from 718 until his death. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Combatants Kingdom of Asturias Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Pelayo of Asturias Munuza † Alqama † Strength 300[1] 800 Casualties 289 dead 600 dead The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors conquest of that region in 711. ... Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ...


During their long reign in Spain, the Visigoths were responsible for the only new cities founded in Western Europe between the fifth and eighth centuries. It is certain (through contemporary Spanish accounts) that they founded four: Reccopolis, Victoriacum, Luceo, and Olite. There is also a possible fifth city ascribed to them by a later Arabic source: Baiyara (perhaps modern Montoro). All of these cities were founded for military purposes and three of them in celebration of victory. The Visigothic Kingdom was an European power in the 5e en de 7e censury, created yn Gaul by the German people of the Visigoths when the Romains lost their control of their empire. ... View of Montoro Montoro is a city and municipality in the Córdoba Province of southern Spain, in the north-central part of the autonomous community of Andalusia. ...


Visigothic religion

Capital from the Visigothic church of San Pedro de la Nave.
Capital from the Visigothic church of San Pedro de la Nave.
See also: Visigothic script

There was a religious gulf between the Visigoths, who had for a long time adhered to Arianism, and their Catholic subjects in Hispania. The Iberian Visigoths continued to be Arians until 589. For the role of Arianism in Visigothic kingship, see the entry for Liuvigild. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... View from the southwest The Visigothic church of San Pedro de la Nave (St. ... Visigothic script was a type of medieval script, so called because it originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Spain. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Events October 17 - The Adige River overflows its banks, flooding the church of St. ... Statue in Madrid (F. Corral, 1750-53). ...


There were also deep sectarian splits among the Catholic population of the peninsula. The ascetic Priscillian of Avila was martyred by orthodox Catholic forces in 385, before the Visigothic period, and the persecution continued in subsequent generations as "Priscillianist" heretics were rooted out. At the very beginning of Leo I's pontificate, in the years 444-447, Turribius, the bishop of Astorga in León, sent to Rome a memorandum warning that Priscillianism was by no means dead, reporting that it numbered even bishops among its supporters, and asking the aid of the Roman See. The distance was insurmountable in the 5th century.[14] Nevertheless Leo intervened, by forwarding a set of propositions that each bishop was required to sign: all did. But if Priscillianist bishops hesitated to be barred from their sees, a passionately concerned segment of Christian communities in Iberia were disaffected from the more orthodox hierarchy and welcomed the tolerant Arian Visigoths. The Visigoths scorned to interfere among Catholics but were interested in decorum and public order. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Priscillian of Avila (died 385) was a Spanish theologian and the founder of a party which advocated strong asceticism. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Events February 11 - Oldest Pope elected: Siricius, bishop of Tarragona. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... Pope Leo I or Leo the Great, was pope of Rome from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461) He was a Roman aristocrat and the first Pope to whom the title the Great. ... Episcopal Palace of Astorga Astorga (Latin Asturica Augusta) is a city in the province of León, Spain. ... León province León (Llión in Asturian-leonese language) is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. ... While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy, the expression the Holy See (without further specification) is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church)[1] to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop...


The Arian Visigoths were also tolerant of Jews, a tradition that lingered in post-Visigothic Septimania, exemplified by the career of Ferreol, Bishop of Uzès (died 581). Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigothic kingdom in 462, when Septimania was ceded to Theodoric II, king of the Visigoths. ... Saint Ferréol (Ferreolus) of Uzès (died 581) was bishop of Uzès and possibly of Nîmes (Catholic Encyclopedia Nîmes) (553-581). ...


In 589, King Reccared (Recaredo) converted his people to Catholicism. With the Catholicization of the Visigothic kings, the Catholic bishops increased in power, until, at the Fourth Council of Toledo in 633, they took upon themselves the nobles' right to select a king from among the royal family. Visigothic persecution of Jews began after the conversion to Catholicism of the Visigothic king Reccared. In 633 the same synod of Catholic bishops that usurped the Visigothic nobles' right to confirm the election of a king declared that all Jews must be baptised. Coin of Reccared The Visigothic king Reccared (ruled 586—601) was the younger son of Liuvigild by his first marriage. ... The Fourth Council of Toledo occurred in 633. ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... Coin of Reccared The Visigothic king Reccared (ruled 586—601) was the younger son of Liuvigild by his first marriage. ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


Visigothic culture

Belt buckle. Gilt and silvered bronze and glass paste, Visigothic Aquitaine, 6th century. Found in 1868 in the Visigothic necropolis of Tressan, Provence (Musée national du Moyen Âge)
Belt buckle. Gilt and silvered bronze and glass paste, Visigothic Aquitaine, 6th century. Found in 1868 in the Visigothic necropolis of Tressan, Provence (Musée national du Moyen Âge)

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1850 × 1233 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1850 × 1233 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Musée de Cluny as viewed from the nearby park The Lady and the Unicorn tapestry Thermes de Cluny: caldarium The Musée de Cluny, officially known as Musée National du Moyen Âge, is a museum in Paris, France. ...

Law

The Visigothic Code of Law (forum judicum), which had been part of aristocratic oral tradition, was set in writing in the early 7th century— and survives in two separate codices preserved at the Escorial. It goes into more detail than a modern constitution commonly does and reveals a great deal about Visigothic social structure. The Visigothic Code (Latin, Forum Iudicum) are a set of laws that the Visigoth kings of Iberia codified in a legal body around 654 A.D. The laws combine the Catholic Churchs canon law, and has a strongly theocratic tone. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the...


Art and architecture

Main article: Visigothic art and architecture

The Visigoths entered Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal) in 415, and they rose to be the dominant people there until the Moorish invasion of 711 brought their kingdom to an end. ...

Kings of the Visigoths

Terving kings

These kings and leaders, with the exception of Fritigern, and the possible exception of Alavivus, were pagans.

  • Athanaric (369381)
    • Rothesteus, sub-king
    • Winguric, sub-king
  • Alavivus (c. 376), rebel against Valens
  • Fritigern (c. 376–c. 380), rebel against Athanaric and Valens

Athanaricus[1] (died 381) was king of several branches of the Thervings for at least two decades in the fourth century. ... Athanaric, a Visigoth ruler, fights against Valens at Isaccea. ... A deputation from the Roman Senate delivers to Gratianus the robe of the Pontifex Maximus, which had been worn by every Roman Emperor since Augustus. ... Events Visigoths appear on the Danube and request entry into the Roman Empire in their flight from the Huns Births Cyril of Alexandria, theologian Deaths Categories: 376 ... Frithugairns (Gothic for desiring peace) or Fritigern (died ca. ... Events Visigoths appear on the Danube and request entry into the Roman Empire in their flight from the Huns Births Cyril of Alexandria, theologian Deaths Categories: 376 ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ...

Balti dynasty

These kings were Arians, but they tended to succeed their fathers or close relatives on the throne and thus constitute a dynasty. The Balti dynasty existed among the Visigoths, a Germanic people who confronted the Roman Empire in its declining years in the west. ...

An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... Ataulf (sometimes spelled Athaulf) was king of the Visigoths from 410 to 415. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... Sigeric was a Visigoth king for seven days in 415 CE. His predecessor, Ataulf, had been mortally wounded in his bath at the palace of Barcelona by an assassin. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... Wallia or Valia (in Spanish Walia) was king of the Visigoths from 415 to 419, earning a reputation as a great warrior and prudent ruler. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... This article is about the year 419. ... Theodoric I, sometimes called Theodorid and in Spanish Teodorico, was the King of the Visigoths from 419–451. ... This article is about the year 419. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Thorismund (Torismond or in Spanish and Portuguese Turismundo) became king of the Visigoths after his father Theodoric was killed in the Battle of Chalons in 451 CE. He died in 453 and was succeeded by his brother Theodoric II. Edward Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... For other uses, see 453 (disambiguation). ... Theodoric II murdered his older brother Thorismund to become king of the Visigoths in 453 CE. Edward Gibbon writes that he justified this atrocious deed by the design which his predecessor had formed of violating his alliance with the empire. ... For other uses, see 453 (disambiguation). ... Events Huns invade Dacia but are repelled by Leo I of the Byzantine Empire Euric succeeds his brother Theodorid II as king of the Visigoths Peter the Fuller deposed as Patriarch of Antioch; Julian elected as his successor. ... Euric, also known as Evaric, Erwig, or Eurico in Spanish, (c. ... Events Huns invade Dacia but are repelled by Leo I of the Byzantine Empire Euric succeeds his brother Theodorid II as king of the Visigoths Peter the Fuller deposed as Patriarch of Antioch; Julian elected as his successor. ... Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. ... Alaric II, also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish or Alaricus in Latin (d. ... Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. ... Events Battle of Vouillé: Clovis I defeats the Visigoths near Poitiers, ends Visigothic power in Gaul. ... Gesalic was king of the Visigoths from 507 through 511. ... Events Battle of Vouillé: Clovis I defeats the Visigoths near Poitiers, ends Visigothic power in Gaul. ... Events Frankish kingdom split in four after the death of Clovis I; Childebert I becomes king of Paris, Clotaire I becomes king of Soissons, Chlodomer becomes king of Orléans, and Theuderic I becomes king of Reims and Austrasia. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... Events Frankish kingdom split in four after the death of Clovis I; Childebert I becomes king of Paris, Clotaire I becomes king of Soissons, Chlodomer becomes king of Orléans, and Theuderic I becomes king of Reims and Austrasia. ... Events May 20 - Syria and Antioch. ... Amalaric, or in Spanish and Portuguese, Amalarico, (502[1] – 531) was a son of king Alaric II and of Theodegotho, daughter of Theodoric the Great and his first wife. ... Events May 20 - Syria and Antioch. ... Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. ...

Non-Balti kings

The Visigothic monarchy took on a completely elective character with the fall of the Balti, but the monarchy remained Arian until Reccared converted in 587. Only a few sons succeeded fathers in this succession.

A list of Visigothic kings was quoted in Spain as an egregious example of rote memorization in school during the time of Francisco Franco's dictatorship. Theudis (in Spanish, Teudis) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania from 531-548 CE. (Theudis is the name assigned him by Isidore of Seville, his real name was probably Theodoric. ... Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. ... Events Belisarius is relieved of command over the Byzantine forces in Italy and replaced with Narses. ... Theudigisel or Theudegisel (in Latin Theudigisclus and in Spanish Teudiselo, Teudigiselo, or Teudisclo) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania for one year (548-549). ... Events Belisarius is relieved of command over the Byzantine forces in Italy and replaced with Narses. ... Events Emperor Jinwen succeeds Emperor Wu as ruler of the Liang Dynasty in China. ... Agila redirects here. ... Events Emperor Jinwen succeeds Emperor Wu as ruler of the Liang Dynasty in China. ... Events The Byzantine general Narses reconquers all of Italy. ... Athanagild (d. ... Events The Byzantine general Narses reconquers all of Italy. ... Events April 1 - King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy; refugees fleeing from them go on to found Venice. ... Liuva I (Leova; d. ... Events April 1 - King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy; refugees fleeing from them go on to found Venice. ... Events Emperor Bidatsu ascends the throne of Japan. ... Statue in Madrid (F. Corral, 1750-53). ... Events The Nubian kingdom of Alodia is converted to Christianity, according to John of Ephesus. ... Events Reccared succeeds his father Leovigild as king of the Visigoths. ... Triunfo de San Hermenegildo (1654), by Francisco de Herrera Saint Hermenegild (d. ... Ethelbert becomes king of Kent. ... Events Famine in Gaul. ... The Visigothic king Reccared (ruled 586—601) was the younger son of Liuvigild by his first marriage. ... Ethelbert becomes king of Kent. ... For other uses, see 601 (disambiguation). ... Segga was a Visigothic usurper who briefly claimed the kingship in 587 before being put down by the legitimate sovereign, Reccared I. Following Reccareds conversion from Arianism to Catholicism, a conspiracy, led by Sunna, the Arian bishop of Mérida, arose to place the Arian Segga on the throne... Events Reccared succeeds his father Leovigild as king of the Visigoths. ... Events End of the Nan Liang Dynasty in China. ... Liuva II, youthful son of Reccared, was king of the Visigoths in Hispania from 601 to 603. ... For other uses, see 601 (disambiguation). ... Events Battle of Degsastan: Aethelfrith of Northumbria defeats Aedan of Dalriada. ... Witteric (in Spanish Witerico) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania from 603 to 610. ... Events Battle of Degsastan: Aethelfrith of Northumbria defeats Aedan of Dalriada. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... Gundemar, here a statue of him from the Jardines del Retiro de Madrid, in a place popularly called El paseo de las estatuas. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... Events Saint Columbanus moves to Italy to establish the monastery of Bobbio (approximate date). ... Sisebur (Sisebut) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania (612—621 CE). ... Events Saint Columbanus moves to Italy to establish the monastery of Bobbio (approximate date). ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Byzantine Emperor Heraclius invades Persia Europe Suinthila succeeds Sisebut as king of the Visigoths. ... Reccared II (in Spanish, Recaredo) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania briefly in 621. ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Byzantine Emperor Heraclius invades Persia Europe Suinthila succeeds Sisebut as king of the Visigoths. ... Statue in Madrid (J. Bustos, 1750-53). ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Byzantine Emperor Heraclius invades Persia Europe Suinthila succeeds Sisebut as king of the Visigoths. ... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... Sisenand, or Sisinand, in Spanish Sisenando, was king of the Visigoths in Hispania (631-636). ... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... Chintila, here a statue of him from the Jardines del Retiro de Madrid, in a place popularly called El paseo de las estatuas. ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... Events May 28 - Severinus becomes pope, but dies the same year. ... Tulga (or Tulca) was a king of the Visigoths in Hispania from 640 to 642, if his father died in December 640, as some sources state. ... Events May 28 - Severinus becomes pope, but dies the same year. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Chindasuinth (Chindaswinth, Chindaswind, Chindasuinto, Chindasvindo, or Khindaswinth; in Spanish, Chindasvinto; and in Latin, Chintasvintus) (c. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Events Pope Martin I arrested Sigeberht II the Good succeeds Sigeberht I the Little as king of Essex Aripert, nephew of Theodelinda, succeeds Rodoald as king of the Lombards Births Deaths Chindaswinth, king of the Visigoths Rodoald, king of the Lombards Abbas, uncle of Muhammad and his chief financial supporter. ... Reccesuinth (Recceswinth, Recceswint, Reccaswinth, Recdeswinth, Recesvinto, Reccesvinthus) ruled as a king of the Visigoths from 649–672: jointly with his father from 649 and as sole king from 653. ... Events July 5 - Martin I becomes pope Arabs conquer Cyprus Reccaswinth succeeds his father Chindaswinth as king of the Visigoths. ... Events April 11 - Adeodatus succeeds Vitalian as Pope. ... Froia was a Visigothic nobleman, probably a count, who rebelled and tried to seize the kingship in 653, either in the final weeks of the reign of Chindasuinth or in the opening weeks of that of his son, Reccesuinth. ... Events Pope Martin I arrested Sigeberht II the Good succeeds Sigeberht I the Little as king of Essex Aripert, nephew of Theodelinda, succeeds Rodoald as king of the Lombards Births Deaths Chindaswinth, king of the Visigoths Rodoald, king of the Lombards Abbas, uncle of Muhammad and his chief financial supporter. ... Wamba was king of the Visigoths in Hispania (Iberia) from 672 to 680 CE. // History Religious events In 675 the Third Council of Braga was held in Braga (Bracara), Hispania. ... Events April 11 - Adeodatus succeeds Vitalian as Pope. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Hilderic or Hilderuc was count of Nîmes during the reigns of Reccesuinth and Wamba. ... Events April 11 - Adeodatus succeeds Vitalian as Pope. ... Paul was a Hispano-Roman duke of the Visigothic king Wamba. ... Events April 11 - Adeodatus succeeds Vitalian as Pope. ... Events Hlothhere becomes king of Kent Maelduin becomes King of Dalriada Foundation of Ely, England Births Bede, English monk, writer and historian (or 672) Deaths Childeric II, Frankish king of Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy Domangart II, King of Dalriada General Kim Yu-shin of Silla Heads of states Japan - Temmu... Erwig (or Ervigio, also known as Euric II) was a king of the Visigoths in Hispania (680–687). ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Events: December 15 - Sergius succeeds Conon as Pope King Theuderic III of Neustria is defeated by Pepin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia. ... Ergica or Egica (c. ... Events: December 15 - Sergius succeeds Conon as Pope King Theuderic III of Neustria is defeated by Pepin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia. ... // Births April 20 - Jafar Sadiq, Muslim scholar (d. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 693 ... Wittiza (Witiza) was son of Ergica, king of the Visigoths in Hispania, and ruled jointly with him from 693 to 701 CE. In the latter year Ergica died and Wittiza became sole ruler. ... Events November 9 - Hispano-Visigothic king Egica accuses Jews of aiding Moslems, and sentences all Jews to slavery. ... // Events End of the Asuka period, the second and last part of the Yamato period and beginning of the Nara period in Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events End of the Asuka period, the second and last part of the Yamato period and beginning of the Nara period in Japan. ... See also: phone number 711. ... Agila II was claimed by some to be a king of the Visigoths in Hispania after the defeat of Roderic in 711 CE. On Visigothic king lists, when his reign is recognized, Agila becomes Agila I. Categories: Goths | Spain | Portugal | History of Spain | History of Portugal | Spanish people | Portuguese people... See also: phone number 711. ... // Events February 28 - An earthquake strikes Syria. ... For the river of the same name in German, see Opava River. ... Events Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. ... Ardo was claimed by some to be the actual last king of the Visigoths in Hispania, as opposed to Roderic. ... // Events February 28 - An earthquake strikes Syria. ... Former Byzantine emperor Anastasius II leads a revolt against emperor Leo III Theuderic IV succeeds Chilperic II Battle of Toulouse - Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani, the governor Muslim Spain (al-Andalus) is defeated by Duke Odo of Aquitaine preventing an Arab invasion of Gaul. ... “Franco” redirects here. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Wolfram, 24.
  2. ^ Guizot, I, 357.
  3. ^ Genethl. Max. 17, 1.
  4. ^ Vékony, 156, citing Eutropius, Brev., 8, 2, 2.
  5. ^ Wolfram, 387 n52.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Wolfram, 25.
  7. ^ Heather, 52–57, 300–301.
  8. ^ a b Wolfram, 387 n57.
  9. ^ Heather, 52–57, 130–178, 302–309.
  10. ^ a b Collins, Visigothic Spain, 22–24.
  11. ^ a b c Wolfram, 26.
  12. ^ a b c Wolfram387–388 n58.
  13. ^ Stevenson, 36, note 15.
  14. ^ Somewhat later, Pope Simplicius (reigned 468 - 483) appointed as papal vicar Zeno, the Catholic bishop of Seville, so that the prerogatives of the papal see could be exercised for a more tightly disciplined administration.

Pope Simplicius was pope from 468 to March 10, 483. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ...

Sources

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  • Collins, Roger. The Arab Conquest of Spain, 710-797. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1989. Reprinted 1998.
  • Collins, Roger. Law, Culture, and Regionalism in Early Medieval Spain. Great Yarmouth: Variorum, 1992. ISBN 0 86078 308 1.
  • Collins, Roger. Visigothic Spain, 409–711. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0 631 18185 7.
  • Constable, Olivia Remie. "A Muslim-Christian Treaty: The Treaty of Tudmir (713)." In Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. Olivia Remie Constable, 37-38. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.
  • Constable, Olivia Remie, and Jeremy duQ. Adams. "Visigothic Legislation Concerning the Jews." In Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. Olivia Remie Constable, 21-23. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.
  • Garcia Moreno, Luis A. "Spanish Gothic consciousness among the Mozarabs in al-Andalus (VIII-Xth centuries." In The Visigoths. Studies in Culture and Society, ed. Alberto Ferreiro, 303-323. Leiden-Boston-Köln: Brill, 1999.
  • Glick, Thomas F. Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages: Comparative Perspectives on Social and Cultural Formation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.
  • Guizot, François. The History of Civilization: From the Fall of the Roman Empire to the French Revolution. trans. William Hazlitt. 1856.
  • Heather, Peter. The Goths. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.
  • James, Edward, ed. Visigothic Spain: New Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980. ISBN 0 19 822543 1.
  • Kennedy, Hugh. Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus. Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1996.
  • Lacarra, José María. Estudios de alta edad media española. Valencia: 1975.
  • Mathisen, Ralph W. "Barbarian Bishops and the Churches in Barbaricis Gentibus During Late Antiquity." Speculum, 72, no. 3 (1997): 664-697.
  • Mierow, Charles Christopher (translator). The Gothic History of Jordanes. In English Version with an Introduction and a Commentary. 1915. Reprinted by Evolution Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1 889758 77 9.
  • Nirenberg, David. "The Visigothic Conversion to Catholicism." In Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. Olivia Remie Constable, 12-20. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.
  • Rosales, Juratė. Los Godos. Barcelona, Ed. Ariel S.A., 2nd edition, 2004. (edition in Spanish)
  • Sivan, Hagith. "On Foederati, Hospitalitas, and the Settlement of the Goths in A.D. 418." American Journal of Philology 108, no. 4 (1987): 759-772.
  • Stevenson, W. H. "The Beginnings of Wessex." The English Historical Review, 14:53 (January 1899, pp. 32–46).
  • Velázquez, Isabel. "Jural Relations as an Indicator of Syncretism: From the Law of Inheritance to the Dum Inlicita of Chindaswinth." In The Visigoths from the Migration Period to the Seventh Century: An Ethnographic Perspective, ed. Peter Heather, 225-259. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 1999.
  • Thompson, E. A. "The Barbarian Kingdoms in Gaul and Spain", Nottingham Mediaeval Studies, 7 (1963:4n11).
  • Thompson, E. A. The Visigoths in the Time of Ulfila. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966.
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  • Vékony, Gábor. Dacians-Romans-Romanians. Toronto: Matthias Corvinus Publishing, 2000. ISBN 1 882785 13 4.
  • Wallace-Hadrill, John Michael. The Barbarian West, 400–1000. 3rd ed. London: Hutchison, 1967.
  • Wolf, Kenneth Baxter, ed. and trans. Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain. Vol. 9, Translated Texts for Historians. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1999.
  • Wolfram, Herwig. History of the Goths. Thomas J. Dunlap, trans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (October 4, 1787 -September 12, 1874) was a French historian, orator and statesman. ... Peter Heather is a teacher at Worcester College, University of Oxford who is considered a leading authority on the barbarians of the Roman era. ... Edward James is Professor of Medieval History at University College, Dublin. ... Speculum is a quarterly journal published by the Medieval Academy of America. ... The English Historical Review is an academic journal published by Oxford University Press. ... John Michael Wallace-Hadrill CBE, (September 29, 1916- November 3, 1985) J. M. Wallace-Hadrill was Professor of Mediaeval History at the University of Manchester (1955-61), a Senior Research Fellow, University of Oxford (1961-74), Chichele Professor of Modern History, University of Oxford (1974-83) and a Fellow, All...

External links

  • Lex Visigothorum. The preface was written in 1908 and should be read with reservations.
  • Spanish Pre-Romanesque Art Guide. General characteristics of Visigothic art.


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Visigoth Font - Fonts.com (111 words)
The Visigoth font is a script face designed by Arthur Baker in 1988.
Visigoth has a hurried, almost scratchy, expressiveness making it suited mainly to display work.
With the look of Japanese brush letters, Visigoth can add Asian flavor.
A Visigoth in Kent? (207 words)
X-ray photography showed that the 5th-6th century iron bow brooch was of Visigothic design, of a type known as Estagel.
The Visigoths (West Goths) were one of the Germanic tribes.
Now this brooch adds to the evidence for connections between the people of Kent and the small number of Visigothic groups known to have lived in northern France at the time.
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