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Encyclopedia > Visigoth
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The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). Together these tribes were among the loosely-termed Germanic peoples who disturbed the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period. After the collapse of the western Roman Empire the Visigoths played a major role in western European affairs for another two and a half centuries. Image File history File links Visigoth_migrations. ... Image File history File links Visigoth_migrations. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between 600 - 300 BC. In historical times these tribes were differentiated as Goths, Burgundians and Vandals among others. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ...

Contents


Visigoths as "Tervingi"

The naming of this people is problematic. Some time shortly after 291 Mamertinus made a eulogy of Emperor Maximian (285-308) in which he says that the "Tervingi, another division of the Goths" (Tervingi pars alia Gothorum) joined with a band he calls the Taifali to attack the Vandals and Gepidae (Genethl. Max. 17, 1). The term "Vandals" may have been erroneous for "Victohali" because, around 360, the historian Eutropius reports that Dacia was currently (nunc) inhabited by Taifali, Victohali, and Tervingi (Eutr. Brev. 8, 2, 2) [1]. But about a hundred years later the term changes to Vesi. Correspondingly, the other branch was originally called Greutungi (cf. Jordanes' Evagreotingi, i.e. Island Greotingi in Scandza), but this was soon replaced by Ostrogothi ("gleaming goths"), and from the 390s and onwards the earlier terms are only found in epic poetry (Hervarar saga). Events The War of the Eight Princes begins in China. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... The Vandals sacking Rome, by Heinrich Leutemann (1824-1904) Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... For other uses, see number 360. ... Eutropius was a pagan Roman historian of the later 4th century, writing in Latin, whose brief remarks about himself let us know that he had served under Emperor Julian the Apostate (ruled 361 - 363) and his history covers the reigns of Valentinian and Valens (died 378). ... Scandza was the name given to Scandinavia by Jordanes, in his work Getica. ... Hervarar saga ok Heidhreks is a fornaldarsaga from the 13th century using material from an older saga. ...


By the 5th century the two main branches were known as Vesi and Ostrogothi whenever sources cared to specify them more specifically than Goths. When Cassiodorus wrote the history of the gothic peoples in the early sixth century, he interpreted Ostrogothi as "East Goths" and invented the term Visigothi to denote "West Goths." There was some logic in this invention, since, at the time, the Vesi ruled the Iberian Peninsula and the Ostrogothi parts of Italy. This usage has continued to this day, though since the 1970s, modern historians have started to use the contemporary terms instead of Cassiodorus' interpretations. Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (ca 484/490 - ca585), commonly known as Cassiodorus, was a Roman statesman and great writer, serving in the administration of Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...


Early history

The Visigoths first appeared in history as a distinct people in the year 268 when they invaded the Roman Empire and swarmed over the Balkan peninsula. This invasion overran the Roman provinces of Pannonia and Illyricum and even threatened Italia itself. However, the Visigoths were defeated in battle that summer near the modern Italian-Slovenian border and then routed in the Battle of Naissus that September. Over the next three years they were driven back over the Danube River in a series of campaigns by the emperors Claudius II Gothicus and Aurelian. However, they maintained their hold on the Roman province of Dacia, which Aurelian evacuated in 271. Events The Alamanni invade Italy. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... Combatants Roman Empire Goths Commanders Gallienus Aurelius Claudius (commander in chief) Domitius Aurelianus (cavalry commander) Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown 30,000 to 50,000 The Battle of Naissus took place in September of 268 between the armies of the Goths and forces of the Roman Empire, led by Emperor... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg, Germany... Claudius Gothicus on a coin celebrating his equity (AEQUITAS AUGUSTI). ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (September 9, 214–275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Events Goths forced to withdraw across the Danube Roman Emperor Aurelian withdraws troops to the Danube frontier, abandoning Dacia. ...


Settled in Dacia, the Visigoths adopted Arianism, a branch of Christianity that believed that Jesus was not an aspect of God in the Trinity, but a separate being created directly beneath God. This belief was in opposition to the tenets of mainstream Catholicism, which achieved a religious monopoly in the 4th and 5th century. The Iberian Visigoths adhered to Arianism until 589, when King Reccared (Recaredo) converted his people to Catholicism. For the role of Arianism in Visigothic kingship, see the entry for Liuvigild. St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen Ansgar, the 9th century apostle of the North in an 1830 drawing. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, one of the manifestations of the ultimate reality or God in Hinduism This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Roman Catholic Church. ... Events October 17 - The Adige River overflows its banks, flooding the church of St. ... Coin of Reccared The Visigothic king Reccared (ruled 586—601) was the younger son of Liuvigild by his first marriage. ... Statue in Madrid (F. Corral, 1750-53). ...


Gothic War (377-382)

Main article: Gothic War (377–382)

The Goths remained in Dacia until 376, when one of their two leaders, Fritigern, appealed to the Roman emperor Valens to be allowed to settle with his people on the south bank of the Danube. Here, they hoped to find refuge from the Huns, who lacked the ability to cross the wide river in force. Valens permitted this, and even helped bring the Visigoths over the river. However, a famine broke out and Rome was unable to supply them with the food they were promised nor the land; open revolt ensued leading to 6 years of plundering and destruction throughout the Balkans, the death of a Roman Emperor and the destruction of an entire Roman army. The Gothic War of 377-382 is a name given to a series of Gothic battles and plunderings of the eastern Roman Empire in the Balkans in the late 4th century. ... Events Visigoths appear on the Danube and request entry into the Roman Empire in their flight from the Huns Births Cyril of Alexandria, theologian Deaths Categories: 376 ... Fritigern (died 380), King of the Visigoths (369-380), was one of the prominent Germanic warrior-kings whose military victories led to the eventual fall of the western half of the Roman Empire. ... Flavius Julius Valens (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·FLAVIVS·IVLIVS·VALENS·AVGVSTVS) (328 – August 9, 378) was Roman emperor from 364 until his death, after he was given the Eastern part of the empire by his brother Valentinian I. His father was the general Gratian the Elder. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg, Germany... The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes, most likely of diverse origin with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century, the most famous being Attila the Hun. ... A famine is a phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are so undernourished that death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ...


The Battle of Adrianople was the most significant part of the war. Acting on a false message, Valens was completely unaware of the Goths' numbers. The Roman forces were slaughtered; the Emperor Valens was killed during the fighting, shocking the Roman world and eventually forcing the Romans to negotiate with and settle the Barbarians on Roman land, a new trend with far reaching consequences for the eventual fall of the Roman Empire. For other uses, see Battle of Adrianople (disambiguation). ... Flavius Julius Valens (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·FLAVIVS·IVLIVS·VALENS·AVGVSTVS) (328 – August 9, 378) was Roman emperor from 364 until his death, after he was given the Eastern part of the empire by his brother Valentinian I. His father was the general Gratian the Elder. ... The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ...


Alaric

Main article: Alaric I

The new emperor, Theodosius I, made peace with Fritigern in 382, and this peace held essentially unbroken until Theodosius died in 395. In that year, the Visigoths' most famous king, Alaric I, took the throne, while Theodosius was succeeded by his incapable sons: Arcadius in the east and Honorius in the west. An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... On the reverse of this coin minted under Valentinian II, both Valentinian and Theodosius are depicted with halos. ... Events October 3 - Theodosius I commands his general Saturninus to conclude a peace treaty with the Visigoths, allowing them to settle south of the Danube. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... Arcadius, holding a labarum, defeating an enemy. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ...


Over the next 15 years, occasional conflicts were broken by years of uneasy peace between Alaric and the powerful German generals who commanded the Roman armies in the east and west, wielding the real power of the empire. Finally, after the western general Stilicho was murdered by Honorius in 408 and the Roman legions massacred the families of 30,000 barbarian soldiers serving in the Roman army, Alaric declared war. After four attempts to storm the city, Alaric remained unsuccessful. He resolved to cut Rome off by capturing its port. On August 24, 410 however, a traitor or group of traitors within Rome opened the Salarian Gate, letting the Visigoths in. While Rome was no longer the official capital of the Western Roman Empire (it had been moved to Ravenna for strategic reasons) its fall severely shook the empire's foundations. Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (c. ... Events Theodosius II succeeds his father Arcadius as Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire In the summer of this year, the usurper Constantine III captures Spain, destroying the loyalist forces defending it. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... Ravenna is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ...


Visigothic Kingdom in Aquitaine

Extent of the Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse by 500
Extent of the Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse by 500

From 407 to 409 the Vandals, with the allied Alans and Germanic tribes like the Suevi, swept into the Iberian peninsula. In response to this invasion of Roman Hispania, Honorius, the emperor in the West, enlisted the aid of the Visigoths to regain control of the territory. And, in 418, Honorius rewarded his Visigothic federates by giving them land in Aquitania on which to settle. This was done probably under hospitalitas, the rules for billeting army soldiers (Heather 1996, Sivan 1987). The settlement formed the nucleus of the future Visigothic kingdom that would eventually expand across the Pyrenees and onto the peninsula. Download high resolution version (599x611, 80 KB)Map drawn by Lupo, published here under the terms of the GFDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (599x611, 80 KB)Map drawn by Lupo, published here under the terms of the GFDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... // Events Gunderic becomes king of the Vandals and the Alans after the death of his father Godgisel Gratianus of Britain is assassinated and Constantine III takes his place at the head of the mutinous Roman garrison in Britain. ... For the cleaning product 409®, see butoxyethanol. ... The Vandals sacking Rome, by Heinrich Leutemann (1824-1904) Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of mixed backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and shared, in a broad sense, a common culture. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Roman theater at Mérida; the statues are replicas Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... // Events December 28 - Boniface succeeds Zosimus as Pope Council of Carthage - discussion of Biblical canon Births Deaths December 26 - Pope Zosimus In Other Fields 418 is the area code for telephone numbers in the Quebec City region of the province of Quebec of Canada. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... Capital Bordeaux Land area¹ 41,309 km² Regional President Alain Rousset (PS) (since 1998) Population  - Jan. ... Central Pyrenees. ...


Political strength in a charismatic monarchy depends upon the personal character of the king. The Visigoths' second great king, Euric, unified the various quarreling factions among the Visigoths and, in 475, forced the Roman government to grant them full independence. At his death, the Visigoths were the most powerful of the successor states to the Western Roman Empire. Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... Euric, also known as Evaric, Erwig, or Eurico in Spanish, (c. ... See also 475 (number) Events Orestes forces western Roman emperor Julius Nepos to flee and declares his son Romulus Augustus to be emperor. ...


At its greatest extent, before their defeat at the Battle of Vouillé in 507, the Kingdom of the Visigoths included all of Iberia except for small areas in the north (belonging to the Basques) and in the northwest (the Suevi kingdom), plus Aquitania and Gallia Narbonensis in what is today France. The Battle of Vouillé or Campus Vogladensis was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at a small place near Poitiers, (Gaul) in the spring 507. ... Events Battle of Vouillé: Clovis I defeats the Visigoths near Poitiers, ends Visigothic power in Gaul. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ...


Visigothic Kingdom in Iberia

The Visigoths soon became the dominant power in Iberia. They quickly crushed the Alans and by 429 they forced the Vandals from the peninsula into north Africa. By 500, the Visigoths controlled most of Iberia with the exception of the Suevi kingdom in the northwest,the northern regions and the southern Mediterranean coast (a Byzantine province). At first the Hispanic territories were governed from the Visigoth capital at Toulouse, in the south of France. Roman theater at Mérida; the statues are replicas Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of mixed backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and shared, in a broad sense, a common culture. ... The Vandals sacking Rome, by Heinrich Leutemann (1824-1904) Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... The Capitole, the 18th century city hall of Toulouse and best known landmark in the city; in the foreground is the Place du Capitole, a hub of urban life at the very center of the city Toulouse (pronounced in standard French, and in local Toulouse accent) (Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced ) is...


At Vouillé in 507, the Franks wrested control of Aquitaine from the Visigoths. King Alaric II was killed in battle, and after a temporary retreat to Narbonne, Visigoth nobles spirited his heir, the child-king Amalaric to safety across the Pyrenees. From 511526, Visigoths and Ostrogoths were reunited under Theodoric the Great, ruling from Ravenna. The center of Visigothic rule shifted first to Barcelona, then inland and south to Toledo. The Battle of Vouill or Campus Vogladensis was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at a small place near Poitiers, (Gaul) in the spring 507. ... Alaric II, also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish or Alaricus in Latin (d. ... Cathedral in Narbonne. ... Amalaric or Amalarico in Spanish (died 531), king of the Visigoths, son of Alaric II, was a child when his father fell in battle against Clovis I, king of the Franks, in (507). ... Events Frankish kingdom split in four after the death of Clovis I; Childebert I becomes king of Paris, Clotaire I becomes king of Soissons, Chlodomer becomes king of Orléans, and Theuderic I becomes king of Reims and Austrasia. ... Events May 20 - Syria and Antioch. ... Gold medallion of Theodoric, discovered at Sinigaglia, Italy in the 19th century. ... Ravenna is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... James holden is gay is the second largest city in Spain, capital city of the autonomous community of Catalonia and the province with the same name. ... Location of Toledo in Spain Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain, the capital of the province of Toledo and of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. ...


In 554, Granada and southernmost Hispania Baetica were lost to representatives of the Byzantine Empire who had been invited in to help settle a Visigothic dynastic struggle, but who stayed on, as a hoped-for spearhead to a "Reconquest" of the far west envisaged by emperor Justinian I. Events The Byzantine general Narses reconquers all of Italy. ... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 CE In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ...


There was a gulf in Hispania between Arian Visigoths and their Christian subjects. Among the Catholic population of the peninsula, deep splits had led to the martyrdom of the ascetic Priscillian of Avila by orthodox Catholic forces in 385, and the following generations suffered persecution as "Priscillianist" heretics were rooted out. At the very beginning of Leo I's pontificate, in the years 444-447, Turribius, the bishop of Astorga in Galicia, sent to Rome a memorandum warning that Priscillianism was by no means dead, that it numbered even bishops among its supporters, and asking the aid of the Roman See. The distance was insurmountable in the 5th century. Somewhat later, Pope Simplicius (reigned 468 - 483) appointed as papal vicar Zeno, the Catholic bishop of Seville, so that the prerogatives of the papal see could be exercised for a more tightly disciplined administration. Nevertheless Leo intervened, by forwarding a set of propositions that each bishop was required to sign: all did. As elsewhere, bishops confronted secular military lords over hegemony in the territory. But if Priscillianist bishops hesitated to be barred from their sees, a passionately concerned segment of Christian communities in Iberia were disaffected from the more orthodox hierarchy and welcomed the tolerant Arian Visigoths. The Visigoths scorned to interfere among Catholics but were interested in decorum and public order. The Arian Visigoths were also tolerant of Jews, a tradition that lingered in post-Visigothic Septimania, exemplified by the career of Ferreol, Bishop of Uzès (died 581). Visigothic persecution of Jews had to wait for the conversion to Catholicism of the Visigothic king Reccared, and the same synod of Catholic bishops in 633 that usurped the Visigothic nobles' right to confirm the election of a king declared that all Jews must be baptised. The Visigothic Code of Law (forum judicum) which had been part of aristocratic oral tradition, was set in writing in the early 7th century— and survives in two separate codices preserved at the Escorial. It goes into more detail than a modern constitution commonly does and reveals a great deal about Visigothic social structure. Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Asceticism denotes a life which is characterized by refraining from worldly pleasures (austerity). ... Priscillian of Avila (died 385) was a Spanish theologian and the founder of a party which advocated strong asceticism. ... Events February 11 - Oldest Pope elected: Siricius, bishop of Tarragona. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Pope Saint Leo I, or Leo the Great, was a Roman aristocrat who was Pope from 440 to 461. ... The coat of arms of the Holy See The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, lit. ... Simplicius was pope from 468 to March 10, 483. ... Seville (Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain, irrigated by the river Guadalquivir (, ). It is the capital of Andalusia and of the province of Sevilla. ... Hegemony (pronounced ) (greek:ηγεμονία) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigothic kingdom in 462, when Septimania was ceded to Theodoric II, king of the Visigoths. ... Saint Ferreol (Ferreolus) of Uzès (died 581), bishop of Uzès and possibly of Nîmes (Catholic Encyclopedia Nîmes) (553-81) was born in Narbonne, apparently a grandson of Clotaire I. Bishops in Merovingian Gaul were ordinarily drawn from the highest levels of society. ... Coin of Reccared The Visigothic king Reccared (ruled 586—601) was the younger son of Liuvigild by his first marriage. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... The Visigothic Code (Latin, Forum Iudicum) are a set of laws that the Visigoth kings of Iberia codified in a legal body around 654 A.D. The laws combine the Catholic Churchs canon law, and has a strongly theocratic tone. ... -1... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the...


The last Arian Visigothic king, Liuvigild, conquered the Suevi kingdom in 585 and most of the northern regions (Cantabria) in 574 and regained part of the southern areas lost to the Byzantines, which his heir conquered completely in 624. With the Catholicization of the Visigothic kings, the Catholic bishops increased in power, until, at the synod held at Toledo in 633, they took upon themselves the nobles' right to select a king from among the royal family. The kingdom survived until 711, when King Roderic (Rodrigo) was killed while opposing an invasion from the south by the Umayyad Muslims in the Battle of Guadalete on July 19. This marked the beginning of the Muslim conquest of Iberia in which most of peninsula came under Islamic rule by 718. Statue in Madrid (F. Corral, 1750-53). ... Events Famine in Gaul. ... Events Emperor Justin II retires, choosing Tiberius II Constantine as his heir. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Events Justus becomes Archbishop of Canterbury. ... See also: phone number 711. ... Roderic (Roderick; Rodrigo in Spanish and Portuguese, see Rurik for etymology. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Combatants Visigoths Muslim forces of the Ummayad Commanders Roderic Tariq ibn Ziyad Strength 20,000-30,000 7,000-9,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Guadalete took place July 19, 711, at the Guadalete River (or La Janda Lake) in the southern extreme of the Iberian peninsula. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... The Moorish invasion of Iberia (711–718) commenced when the Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of North and West Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711 CE. Under the authority of the caliph at Damascus, and led by the Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad, they landed... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ...


A Visigothic nobleman, Pelayo, is credited with beginning the Christian Reconquista of Iberia in 718, when he defeated the Umayyads in battle and established the Kingdom of Asturias in the northern part of the peninsula. Other Visigoths, refusing to adopt the Muslim faith or live under their rule, fled north to the kingdom of the Franks, and Visigoths played key roles in the empire of Charlemagne a few generations later. Pelayo (690–737) was the first King of Asturias, ruling from 718 until his death. ... The Reconquista (Reconquest) refers to the process for which the Christian Kingdoms of northern Hispania, defeated and conquered the southern Muslim and moorish states of the Iberian Peninsula, existing since the Arab invasion of 711. ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Combatants Kingdom of Asturias Andalusian Muslims of the Ummayad Commanders Pelayo of Asturias Munuza and Alqama Strength Possibly 300 Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military force in Iberia following the Islamic Moors conquest of that region in 711. ... The Kingdom of Asturias was the earliest Christian political entity to be established in the Iberian peninsula after the collapse of the Visigothic Kingdom after the defeat of King Rodrigo at the Battle of Guadalete and the subsequent Islamic conquest of Iberia. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Charlemagne (742 or 747 – 28 January 814) (also Charles the Great[1]; from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus), son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, was the king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 814. ...


A list of Visigoth kings was quoted in Spain as an egregious example of rote memorization in school during the time of Francisco Franco's dictatorship. Francisco Franco Bahamonde Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (pron. ... It has been suggested that Dictator be merged into this article or section. ...


Kings of the Visigoths

Early kings

Fritigern (died 380), King of the Visigoths (369-380), was one of the prominent Germanic warrior-kings whose military victories led to the eventual fall of the western half of the Roman Empire. ... Events Troops of the Jin Dynasty of China is defeated by Former Yan of the Xianbei. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... Athanaric (died 381) was ruler of several branches of the Visigoths for at least two decades in the fourth century and undisputed King of the Visigoths for the last year of his life. ... Events Troops of the Jin Dynasty of China is defeated by Former Yan of the Xianbei. ... Events First Council of Constantinople - second Ecumenical council of the Christian Church: The Nicene creed is affirmed and extended, Apollinarism is declared a heresy. ...

Balti dynasty

The Balti dynasty existed among the Visigoths, a Germanic people who confronted the Roman Empire in its declining years in the west. ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... Ataulf (sometimes spelled Athaulf, father-wolf, Latinized as Ataulphus or Adolphus, in Spanish Ataúlfo) was king of the Visigoths from 410 to 415 CE. He was unanimously elected to the throne to succeed his brother-in-law Alaric, who had been struck down by a fever suddenly in Calabria. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... Sigeric was a Visigoth king for seven days in 415 CE. His predecessor, Ataulf, had been mortally wounded in his bath at the palace of Barcelona by an assassin. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... Wallia or Valia (in Spanish Walia) was king of the Visigoths from 415 to 419, earning a reputation as a great warrior and prudent ruler. ... Events The Visigoths leave Gallia Narbonensis and relocate in Spain Wallia becomes king of the Visigoths. ... This article is about the year 419. ... Theodoric I, sometimes called Theodorid and in Spanish Teodorico, was the King of the Visigoths from 419–451. ... This article is about the year 419. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Thorismund became king of the Visigoths after his father Theodoric was killed in the Battle of Chalons in 451. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Events Theodoric II succeeds his brother Thorismund as king of the Visigoths. ... Theodoric II murdered his older brother Thorismund to become king of the Visigoths in 453 CE. Edward Gibbon writes that he justified this atrocious deed by the design which his predecessor had formed of violating his alliance with the empire. ... Events Theodoric II succeeds his brother Thorismund as king of the Visigoths. ... Events Huns invade Dacia but are repelled by Leo I of the Byzantine Empire Euric succeeds his brother Theodorid II as king of the Visigoths Peter the Fuller deposed as Patriarch of Antioch; Julian elected as his successor. ... Euric, also known as Evaric, Erwig, or Eurico in Spanish, (c. ... Events Huns invade Dacia but are repelled by Leo I of the Byzantine Empire Euric succeeds his brother Theodorid II as king of the Visigoths Peter the Fuller deposed as Patriarch of Antioch; Julian elected as his successor. ... Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. ... Alaric II, also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish or Alaricus in Latin (d. ... Events December 28 - Alaric II succeeds Euric as king of the Visigoths. ... Events Battle of Vouillé: Clovis I defeats the Visigoths near Poitiers, ends Visigothic power in Gaul. ... Gesalic was king of the Visigoths from 507 through 511. ... Events Battle of Vouillé: Clovis I defeats the Visigoths near Poitiers, ends Visigothic power in Gaul. ... Events Frankish kingdom split in four after the death of Clovis I; Childebert I becomes king of Paris, Clotaire I becomes king of Soissons, Chlodomer becomes king of Orléans, and Theuderic I becomes king of Reims and Austrasia. ... Gold medallion of Theodoric, discovered at Sinigaglia, Italy in the 19th century. ... Events Frankish kingdom split in four after the death of Clovis I; Childebert I becomes king of Paris, Clotaire I becomes king of Soissons, Chlodomer becomes king of Orléans, and Theuderic I becomes king of Reims and Austrasia. ... Events May 20 - Syria and Antioch. ... Amalaric or Amalarico in Spanish (died 531), king of the Visigoths, son of Alaric II, was a child when his father fell in battle against Clovis I, king of the Franks, in (507). ... Events May 20 - Syria and Antioch. ... Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. ...

Later kings

Theudis (in Spanish, Teudis) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania from 531-548 CE. (Theudis is the name assigned him by Isidore of Seville, his real name was probably Theodoric. ... Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. ... Events Belisarius is relieved of command over the Byzantine forces in Italy and replaced with Narses. ... Theudigisel or Theudegisel (in Latin Theudigisclus and in Spanish Teudiselo, Teudigiselo, or Teudisclo) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania for one year (548-549). ... Events Belisarius is relieved of command over the Byzantine forces in Italy and replaced with Narses. ... Events Emperor Jinwen succeeds Emperor Wu as ruler of the Liang Dynasty in China. ... Agila (Agil or Akhila) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania (549–554). ... Events Emperor Jinwen succeeds Emperor Wu as ruler of the Liang Dynasty in China. ... Events The Byzantine general Narses reconquers all of Italy. ... Athanagild (d. ... Events The Byzantine general Narses reconquers all of Italy. ... Events Livva I succeeds Athanagild as king of the Visigoths. ... Liuva I (Leova), jointly with his brother Liuvigild, succeeded Athanagild in 568 CE on the throne of the Visigoths. ... Events April 1 - King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy; refugees fleeing from them go on to found Venice. ... Events Pope Gregory I is ordained monk. ... Statue in Madrid (F. Corral, 1750-53). ... Events April 1 - King Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy; refugees fleeing from them go on to found Venice. ... Events Reccared succeeds his father Leovigild as king of the Visigoths. ... The Visigothic king Reccared (ruled 586—601) was the younger son of Liuvigild by his first marriage. ... Events Reccared succeeds his father Leovigild as king of the Visigoths. ... Events The future Archbishops of Canterbury, Mellitus, Justus, and Honorius, and the future Archbishop of York Paulinus, are sent to England by Pope Gregory I to aid Augustine in his missionary work. ... Liuva II, youthful son of Reccared, was king of the Visigoths in Hispania from 601 to 603. ... Events The future Archbishops of Canterbury, Mellitus, Justus, and Honorius, and the future Archbishop of York Paulinus, are sent to England by Pope Gregory I to aid Augustine in his missionary work. ... Events Battle of Degsastan: Aethelfrith of Northumbria defeats Aedan of Dalriada. ... Witteric (in Spanish Witerico) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania from 603 to 610. ... Events Battle of Degsastan: Aethelfrith of Northumbria defeats Aedan of Dalriada. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... Gundemar, here a statue of him from the Jardines del Retiro de Madrid, in a place popularly called El paseo de las estatuas. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... Events Saint Columbanus moves to Italy to establish the monastery of Bobbio (approximate date). ... Sisebut (also Sisebuth, Sisebur, or Sisebodus and, in Spanish, Sisebuto) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania (612—620 or 621 CE). ... Events Saint Columbanus moves to Italy to establish the monastery of Bobbio (approximate date). ... Events Byzantine Emperor Heraclius invades Persia Muhammad visits heaven, in the Isra wal-Miraj Suinthila succeeds Sisebut as king of the Visigoths. ... Reccared II (in Spanish, Recaredo) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania briefly in 621. ... Events Byzantine Emperor Heraclius invades Persia Muhammad visits heaven, in the Isra wal-Miraj Suinthila succeeds Sisebut as king of the Visigoths. ... Statue in Madrid (J. Bustos, 1750-53). ... Events Byzantine Emperor Heraclius invades Persia Muhammad visits heaven, in the Isra wal-Miraj Suinthila succeeds Sisebut as king of the Visigoths. ... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... Sisenand, or Sisinand, in Spanish Sisenando, was king of the Visigoths in Hispania (631-636). ... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... Chintila, here a statue of him from the Jardines del Retiro de Madrid, in a place popularly called El paseo de las estatuas. ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... Events May 28 - Severinus becomes pope, but dies the same year. ... Tulga (or Tulca) was a king of the Visigoths in Hispania from 640 to 642, if his father died in December 640, as some sources state. ... Events May 28 - Severinus becomes pope, but dies the same year. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Chindasuinth (Chindaswinth, Chindaswind, Chindasuinto, Chindasvindo, or Khindaswinth; in Spanish, Chindasvinto; and in Latin, Chintasvintus) (c. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Events July 5 - Martin I becomes pope Arabs conquer Cyprus Reccaswinth succeeds his father Chindaswinth as king of the Visigoths. ... Reccesuinth (Recceswinth, Recceswint, Reccaswinth, Recdeswinth, Recesvinto, Reccesvinthus) ruled as a king of the Visigoths from 649–672: jointly with his father from 649 and as sole king from 653. ... Events July 5 - Martin I becomes pope Arabs conquer Cyprus Reccaswinth succeeds his father Chindaswinth as king of the Visigoths. ... Events April 11 - Adeodatus succeeds Vitalian as Pope. ... Wamba was king of the Visigoths in Hispania (Iberia) from 672 to 680 CE. // History Religious events In 675 the Third Council of Braga was held in Braga (Bracara), Hispania. ... Events April 11 - Adeodatus succeeds Vitalian as Pope. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Erwig (or Ervigio, also known as Euric II) was a king of the Visigoths in Hispania (680–687). ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Events: December 15 - Sergius succeeds Conon as Pope King Theuderic III of Neustria is defeated by Pepin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia. ... Ergica or Egica (c. ... Events: December 15 - Sergius succeeds Conon as Pope King Theuderic III of Neustria is defeated by Pepin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia. ... Events September 30 - John VI succeeds Sergius I as Pope. ... Wittiza (Witiza) was son of Ergica, king of the Visigoths in Hispania, and ruled jointly with him from 693 to 701 CE. In the latter year Ergica died and Wittiza became sole ruler. ... Events September 30 - John VI succeeds Sergius I as Pope. ... // Events End of the Asuka period, the second and last part of the Yamato period and beginning of the Nara period in Japan. ... Roderic (Roderick; Rodrigo in Spanish and Portuguese, see Rurik for etymology. ... // Events End of the Asuka period, the second and last part of the Yamato period and beginning of the Nara period in Japan. ... See also: phone number 711. ...

Doubtful kings

Agila II was claimed by some to be a king of the Visigoths in Hispania after the defeat of Roderic in 711 CE. On Visigothic king lists, when his reign is recognized, Agila becomes Agila I. Categories: Goths | Spain | Portugal | History of Spain | History of Portugal | Spanish people | Portuguese people... See also: phone number 711. ... // Events February 28 - An earthquake strikes Syria. ... Ardo was claimed by some to be the actual last king of the Visigoths in Hispania, as opposed to Roderic. ... // Events February 28 - An earthquake strikes Syria. ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ...

See also

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Visigothic script was a type of medieval script, so called because it originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Spain. ... Image:San Juan de Baños . ... Galla Placidia on a coin struck by her son Valentinian III. On the reverse, a cross (typical of all the coinage referring to Galla Placidia) stands for her Christian faith. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87 268 km²  17,2% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 1st  7. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... This is a historical timeline of Portugal. ... For other perspectives on the History of Catalonia, see also: History of Europe; History of Spain; History of France; Kings of Aragon; Catalonia (historic territory). ... It is traditional (at least, since the 19th century) to start the history of modern Spain with the Visigoth kingdom. ...


Selected bibliography

  1. Bachrach, Bernard S. "A Reassessment of Visigothic Jewish Policy, 589-711." American Historical Review 78, no. 1 (1973): 11-34.
  2. Collins, Roger. The Arab Conquest of Spain, 710-797. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1989. Reprint, 1998.
  3. Constable, Olivia Remie. "A Muslim-Christian Treaty: The Treaty of Tudmir (713)." In Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. Olivia Remie Constable, 37-38. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.
  4. Constable, Olivia Remie, and Jeremy duQ. Adams. "Visigothic Legislation Concerning the Jews." In Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. Olivia Remie Constable, 21-23. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.
  5. Glick, Thomas F. Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages: Comparative Perspectives on Social and Cultural Formation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.
  6. Heather, Peter. The Goths. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.
  7. Kennedy, Hugh. Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus. Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1996.
  8. Mathisen, Ralph W. "Barbarian Bishops and the Churches ‘in Barbaricis Gentibus’ During Late Antiquity." Speculum 72, no. 3 (1997): 664-697.
  9. Mierow, Charles Christopher (translator). The Gothic History of Jordanes. In English Version with an Introduction and a Commentary, 1915. Reprinted 2006. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 1889758779. [2]
  10. Nirenberg, David. "The Visigothic Conversion to Catholicism." In Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, ed. Olivia Remie Constable, 12-20. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.
  11. Rosales, Juratė. Los Godos. Barcelona, Ed. Ariel S.A., 2nd edition, 2004. (edition in Spanish)
  12. Sivan, Hagith. "On Foederati, Hospitalitas, and the Settlement of the Goths in A.D. 418." American Journal of Philology 108, no. 4 (1987): 759-772.
  13. Velázquez, Isabel. "Jural Relations as an Indicator of Syncretism: From the Law of Inheritance to the Dum Inlicita of Chindaswinth." In The Visigoths from the Migration Period to the Seventh Century: An Ethnographic Perspective, ed. Peter Heather, 225-259. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 1999.
  14. Wolf, Kenneth Baxter, ed. and trans. Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain. Vol. 9, Translated Texts for Historians. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1999.
  15. Wolfram, Herwig. History of the Goths. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

External links

  • Visigothic Law Code: text. The preface was written in 1908 and should be read with reservations.


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