FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Virus classification

Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. Like the relatively consistent classification systems seen for cellular organisms, virus classification is the subject of ongoing debate and proposals. This is largely due to the pseudo-living nature of viruses, which are not yet definitively living or non-living. As such, they do not fit neatly into the established biological classification system in place for cellular organisms, such as plants and animals, for several reasons. This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ...


Virus classification is based mainly on phenotypic characteristics, including morphology, nucleic acid type, mode of replication, host organisms, and the type of disease they cause. A combination of two main schemes is currently in widespread use for the classification of viruses. David Baltimore, a Nobel Prize-winning biologist, devised the Baltimore classification system, which places viruses into one of seven groups. These groups are designated by Roman numerals and separate viruses based on their mode of replication, and genome type. Accompanying this broad method of classification are specific naming conventions and further classification guidelines set out by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The phenotype of an individual organism is either its total physical appearance and constitution, or a specific manifestation of a trait, such as size or eye color, that varies between individuals. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In biology, a host is an organism that harbors a parasite, mutual partner, or commensal partner, typically providing nourishment and shelter. ... This article is about the medical term. ... David Baltimore (b. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ... The Baltimore classification is a classification system which groups viruses into families depending on their type of genome (DNA, RNA, single-stranded (ss), double-stranded (ds) etc. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is a committee which authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of viruses. ...

Contents

Classification systems

Baltimore classification

Baltimore classification is a classification system which places viruses into one of seven groups depending on a combination of their nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), strandedness (single-stranded or double-stranded), and method of replication. Other classifications are determined by the disease caused by the virus or its morphology, neither of which are satisfactory due to different viruses either causing the same disease or looking very similar. In addition, viral structures are often difficult to determine under the microscope. Classifying viruses according to their genome means that those in a given category will all behave in a similar fashion, offering some indication of how to proceed with further research. Viruses can be placed in one of the seven following groups:[1] The Baltimore classification is a classification system which groups viruses into families depending on their type of genome (DNA, RNA, single-stranded (ss), double-stranded (ds) etc. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Group I: double-stranded DNA viruses
  • Group II: single-stranded DNA viruses
  • Group III: double-stranded RNA viruses
  • Group IV: positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses
  • Group V: negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses
  • Group VI: reverse transcribing Diploid single-stranded RNA viruses
  • Group VII: reverse transcribing Circular double-stranded DNA viruses

Sense, when applied in a molecular biology context, is a general concept used to compare the polarity of nucleic acid molecules, particularly RNA, to other nucleic acid molecules. ... Sense, when applied in a molecular biology context, is a general concept used to compare the polarity of nucleic acid molecules, particularly RNA, to other nucleic acid molecules. ... In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-directed DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this, as it synthesises DNA from RNA. Reverse... In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-directed DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this, as it synthesises DNA from RNA. Reverse...

Holmes classification

Holmes(1948) used Carolus Linnaeus system of Binomial nomenclature classification system to viruses into 3 groups under one order ,order virales.they are placed as follows Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Group I: phaginae(attacks bacteria)
  • Group II: phytophaginae(attacks plants)
  • Group III: zoophaginae(attacks animals)

LHT System of Virus Classification

The LHT System of Virus Classification is based on chemical and physical characters like nucleic acid(DNA or RNA), Symmetry(Helical or Icosahedral or Complex),presence of envelope, diameter of capsid, number of capsomers.[2] This classification was approved by the Provisional Committee on Nomenclature of Virus (PNVC) of the International Association of Microbiological Societies (1962).[citations needed] It is as follows A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ...

  • Phylum Vira(divided into 2 subphyla)
  • Subphylum Deoxyvira(DNA viruses)
  • Class Deoxybinala(dual symmetry)
  • Order Uroviridae
  • Family Phagoviridae
  • Class Deoxyhelica(Helical symmetry)
  • Order Chitovirales
  • Family Poxviridae
  • Class Deoxycubica(cubical symmetry)
  • Order Peplovirales
  • Family Herpesviridae(162 capsomeres)
  • Order Haplovirales(no envelope)
  • Family Iridoviridae(812 capsomeres)
  • Family Adenoviridae(252 capsomeres)
  • Family Papiloviridae(72 capsomeres)
  • Family Paroviridae(32 capsomeres)
  • Family Microviridae(12 capsomeres)
  • Subphylum Ribovira(RNA viruses)
  • Class Ribocubica
  • Order Togovirales
  • Family Arboviridae
  • Order Lymovirales
  • Family Napoviridae
  • Family Reoviridae
  • Class Ribohelica
  • Order Sagovirales
  • Family Stomataviridae
  • Family Paramyxoviridae
  • Family Myxoviridae
  • Order Rbadovirales
  • Suborder Felxiviridales
  • Family Mesoviridae
  • Family Peptoviridae
  • Suborder Rigidovirales
  • Family Pachyviridae
  • Family Protoviridae
  • Family Polichoviridae

Casjens and Kings classification of virus

Casjens and Kings(1975) classified virus into 4 groups based on type of nucleic acid ,presence of envelope,symmetry and site of assembly. It is as follows

  • Single Stranded RNA Viruses
  • Double Stranded RNA Viruses
  • Single Stranded DNA Viruses
  • Double Stranded DNA Viruses

ICTV classification

The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses devised and implemented several rules on the naming and classification of viruses early in the 1990s. To this day they oversee the naming and placement of viral species into the framework. The system shares many features with the classification system of cellular organisms, such as taxon structure. Viral classification starts at the level of order and follows as thus, with the taxon suffixes given in italics: The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is a committee which authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of viruses. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ...

Order (-virales)
Family (-viridae)
Subfamily (-virinae)
Genus (-virus)
Species

However, this system of nomenclature differs from other taxonomic codes on several points. A minor point is that names of orders and families are italicized, as in the ICBN.[3] Most notably, species names generally take the form of [Disease] Virus. The recognition of orders is very recent and has been deliberately slow; to date, only three have been named, and most families remain unplaced. Approximately 80 families and 4000 species of virus are known. In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature is the set of rules according to which plants are given their formal botanical names (scientific names). ...


Virus classification

DNA viruses

For more details on this topic, see DNA virus.
  • Group I: viruses possess double-stranded DNA and include such virus families as Herpesviridae (examples like HSV1 (oral herpes), HSV2 (genital herpes), VZV (chickenpox), EBV (Epstein-Barr virus), CMV (Cytomegalovirus)), Poxviridae (smallpox) and many tailed bacteriophages. The mimivirus was also placed into this group.
  • Group II: viruses possess single-stranded DNA and include such virus families as Parvoviridae and the important bacteriophage M13.
Virus Family Virus Genus Virion- naked/ enveloped Capsid Symmetry Type of nucleic acid
1.Adenoviridae Adenovirus Naked Icosahedral ds
2.Papovaviridae Papillomavirus Naked Icosahedral ds circular
3.Parvoviridae B 19 virus Naked Icosahedral ss
4.Herpesviridae Herpes Simplex Virus, Varicella zoster virus, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus Enveloped Icosahedral ds
5.Poxviridae Small pox virus, Vaccinia virus Complex coats Complex ds
6.Hepadnaviridae Hepatitis B virus Enveloped Icosahedral ds circular
7.Polyomaviridae Polyoma virus (progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy)  ?  ? ds

A DNA virus is a virus belonging to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. ... Genera Subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae    Simplexvirus    Varicellovirus    Mardivirus    Iltovirus Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae    Cytomegalovirus    Muromegalovirus    Roseolovirus Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae    Lymphocryptovirus    Rhadinovirus Unassigned    Ictalurivirus The Herpesviridae are a family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. ... Genera Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae    Orthopoxvirus    Parapoxvirus    Avipoxvirus    Capripoxvirus    Leporipoxvirus    Suipoxvirus    Molluscipoxvirus    Yatapoxvirus Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae    Entomopoxvirus A    Entomopoxvirus B    Entomopoxvirus C Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) can infect as a family both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. ... A bacteriophage (from bacteria and Greek phagein, to eat) is a virus that infects bacteria. ... Mimivirus is a viral genus containing a single identified species named Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV). ... Genera Subfamily Parvovirinae    Parvovirus    Erythrovirus    Dependovirus Subfamily Densovirinae    Densovirus    Iteravirus    Brevidensovirus The Parvoviridae family includes the smallest known viruses, and some of the most environmentally resistant. ... A bacteriophage (from bacteria and Greek phagein, to eat) is a virus that infects bacteria. ... M13 is a filamentous bacteriophage composed of single stranded DNA (ssDNA 6407 nucleotides long) encapsulated in approximately 2700 copies of the major coat protein P8, and capped with 5 copies of two different minor coat proteins (P9, P6, P3) on the ends. ... Genera Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Mastadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... A papovavirus is a member of the Papovaviridae family of viruses. ... Genera Subfamily Parvovirinae    Parvovirus    Erythrovirus    Dependovirus Subfamily Densovirinae    Densovirus    Iteravirus    Brevidensovirus The Parvoviridae family includes the smallest known viruses, and some of the most environmentally resistant. ... Genera Subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae    Simplexvirus    Varicellovirus    Mardivirus    Iltovirus Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae    Cytomegalovirus    Muromegalovirus    Roseolovirus Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae    Lymphocryptovirus    Rhadinovirus Unassigned    Ictalurivirus The Herpesviridae are a family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. ... Genera Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae    Orthopoxvirus    Parapoxvirus    Avipoxvirus    Capripoxvirus    Leporipoxvirus    Suipoxvirus    Molluscipoxvirus    Yatapoxvirus Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae    Entomopoxvirus A    Entomopoxvirus B    Entomopoxvirus C Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) can infect as a family both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. ... Genera Orthohepadnavirus Avihepadnavirus Hepadnaviruses are the viruses in the family Hepadnaviridae. ... Species See text Polyomavirus is the sole genus of viruses within the family Polyomaviridae. ...

RNA viruses

For more details on this topic, see RNA virus.
  • Group III: viruses possess double-stranded RNA genomes, e.g. rotavirus. These genomes are always segmented.
  • Group IV: viruses possess positive-sense single-stranded RNA genomes. Many well known viruses are found in this group, including the picornaviruses (which is a family of viruses that includes well-known viruses like Hepatitis A virus, enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, poliovirus, and foot-and-mouth virus), SARS virus, hepatitis C virus, yellow fever virus, and rubella virus.
  • Group V: viruses possess negative-sense single-stranded RNA genomes. The deadly Ebola and Marburg viruses are well known members of this group, along with influenza virus, measles, mumps and rabies.
Virus Family Virus Genera Virion- naked/ enveloped Capsid Symmetry Type of nucleic acid
1.Reoviridae Reovirus, Rotavirus Naked Icosahedral ds
2.Picornaviridae Enterovirus, Rhinovirus, Hepatovirus, Cardiovirus, Aphthovirus, Parechovirus, Erbovirus, Kobuvirus, Teschovirus Naked Icosahedral ss
3.Caliciviridae Norwalk virus, Hepatitis E virus Naked Icosahedral ss
4.Togaviridae Rubella virus Enveloped Icosahedral ss
5.Arenaviridae Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Enveloped Complex ss
6.Retroviridae HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-I Enveloped Complex ss
7.Flaviviridae Dengue virus, Hepatitis C virus, Yellow fever virus Enveloped Complex ss
8.Orthomyxoviridae Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B, Influenzavirus C, Isavirus, Thogotovirus Enveloped Helical ss
9.Paramyxoviridae Measles virus, Mumps virus, Respiratory syncytial virus Enveloped Helical ss
10.Bunyaviridae California encephalitis virus, Hantavirus Enveloped Helical ss
11.Rhabdoviridae Rabies virus Enveloped Helical ss
12.Filoviridae Ebola virus, Marburg virus Enveloped Helical ss
13.Coronaviridae Corona virus Enveloped Complex ss
14.Astroviridae Astrovirus Naked Icosahedral ss
15.Bornaviridae Borna disease virus Enveloped Helical ss

An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS is a respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus. ... This page is for the disease. ... Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Negatively stained flu virions. ... Genera Orthoreovirus Orbivirus Rotavirus Coltivirus Aquareovirus Cypovirus Fijivirus Phytoreovirus Oryzavirus The Reoviridae are a family of viruses that includes some viruses that affect the gastrointestinal system (such as Rotavirus), and some that cause respiratory infections. ... Genera Orthoreovirus Orbivirus Rotavirus Coltivirus Aquareovirus Cypovirus Fijivirus Phytoreovirus Oryzavirus The Reoviridae are a family of viruses that includes some viruses that affect the gastrointestinal system (such as Rotavirus), and some that cause respiratory infections. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Genera Enterovirus Rhinovirus Hepatovirus Cardiovirus Apthovirus Parechovirus Erbovirus Kobuvirus Teschovirus Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ... Species Bovine enterovirus Coxsackie virus Human enterovirus A Human enterovirus B Human enterovirus C Human enterovirus D Human enterovirus E Poliovirus Porcine enterovirus A Porcine enterovirus B Swine vesicular disease virus The enteroviruses are a genus of (+)ssRNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. ... Species Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) Rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin-, which means nose) is a genus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. ... Hepatitis A is a disease affecting the liver, and caused by the Hepatitis A virus (abbreviated HAV). ... Cardioviruses belong to the family of viruses known as Picornaviridae and contains just one species, encephalomyocarditis virus. ... Aphthovirus (from the Greek aphtha-, vesicles in the mouth) is a viral genus of the family Picornaviridae. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Erbovirus is a viral genus of the Picornaviridae family. ... Kobuvirus is a viral genus belong to the family Picornaviridae. ... The Teschovirus is a genus of the Picornaviridae family. ... Genera Vesivirus Lagovirus Norovirus Sapovirus The Caliciviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Vesivirus; type species: Swine vesicular exanthema virus Genus Lagovirus; type species: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Genus Norovirus; type species: Norwalk virus Genus Sapovirus; type species: Sapporo virus Categories: Viruses | Virus stubs ... Norwalk virus is a virus, the prototype of the Norwalk virus family or the noroviruses. ... Hepatitis E is an acute viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... Genera Alphavirus Rubivirus The Togaviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Alphavirus; type species: Sindbis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Ross River virus, Onyongnyong virus Genus Rubivirus; type species: Rubella virus The genome of the Togaviridae viruses is a linear... Rubella (also known as epidemic roseola, German measles or three-day measles) is a disease caused by the Rubella virus. ... Arenavirus is a genus of virus. ... Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is a virus which has a genome consisting of two identical plus sense RNA molecules. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases. ... Genera Flavivirus Pestivirus Hepacivirus The Flaviviridae are a family of viruses that infect mammals. ... For music group see Dengue Fever (rock band) Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics, with a geographical spread similar to malaria. ... This page is for the disease. ... Yellow fever (also called black vomit or sometimes The American Plague) is an acute viral disease. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the family of viruses called Orthomyxoviridae in virus classification. ... Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... Influenzavirus C is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... Infectious salmon anemia or anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) which affect fish farms in Canada, Norway and Scotland, causing severe losses to infected farms. ... Thogotovirus is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... Genera See text Paramyxoviruses are viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order; they are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for a number of human and animal diseases. ... Measles, also known as rubeola, is a common disease caused by a virus of the genus Morbillivirus. ... For the computer language of the same name, see MUMPS. Mumps or Epidemic parotitis is a viral disease of humans. ... The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV or RS virus) causes a common viral infection of infants and young children. ... Genera Hantavirus Nairovirus Orthobunyavirus Phlebovirus Tospovirus Bunyaviridae is a family of viruses. ... Causes encephelitis in human biengs. ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Genera Vesiculovirus Lyssavirus Ephemerovirus Cytorhabdovirus Nucleorhabdovirus Novirhabdovirus Rhabdoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... This article is about the infectious disease. ... Genera Marburgvirus Ebolavirus Filoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... Species Ivory Coast ebolavirus Reston ebolavirus Sudan ebolavirus Zaire virus Ebola hæmorrhagic fever (EHF — alternatively Ebola hemorrhagic fever; commonly referred to as simply Ebola) is a recently identified, severe, often fatal infectious disease occurring in humans and some primates caused by the Ebola virus. ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Genera Coronavirus Torovirus // Coronaviruses are enveloped, single stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses (27-31kb) with club-shaped surface about 120-160 nm in diameter that resemble a “corona”. Both 5 and 3 ends of the genome have a cap and poly (A) tract respectively. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Genera Mamastrovirus Avastrovirus The Astroviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Mamastrovirus; type species: Human astrovirus Genus Avastrovirus; type species: Turkey astrovirus Categories: Viruses | Virus stubs ... Astroviruses that infect humans have been poorly studied due to the fact that they do not grow in culture. ... Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. ... Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. ...

Reverse transcribing viruses

For more details on this topic, see Reverse transcribing virus.
  • Group VI: viruses possess single-stranded RNA genomes and replicate using reverse transcriptase. The retroviruses are included in this group, of which HIV is a member.
  • Group VII: viruses possess double-stranded DNA genomes and replicate using reverse transcriptase. The hepatitis B virus can be found in this group.

A reverse transcribing virus is any virus which replicates using reverse transcription, the formation of DNA from an RNA template. ... In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this. ... “HBV” redirects here. ...

Subviral agents

The following agents are smaller than viruses but have some of their properties.


Viroids

  • Family Pospiviroidae[4]
    • Genus Pospiviroid; type species: Potato spindle tuber viroid
    • Genus Hostuviroid; type species: Hop stunt viroid
    • Genus Cocadviroid; type species: Coconut cadang-cadang viroid
    • Genus Apscaviroid; type species: Apple scar skin viroid
    • Genus Coleviroid; type species: Coleus blumei viroid 1
  • Family Avsunviroidae[5]
    • Genus Avsunviroid; type species: Avocado sunblotch viroid
    • Genus Pelamoviroid; type species: Peach latent mosaic viroid

Families Pospiviroidae Avsunviroidae Viroids are plant pathogens that consist of a short stretch (a few hundred nucleobases) of highly complementary, circular, single-stranded RNA without the protein coat that is typical for viruses. ... Genera Pospiviroid Hostuviroid Cocadviroid Apscaviroid Coleviroid The Pospiviroidae is a family of viroids. ... Species (PSTV) Potato spindle tuber viroid The Pospiviroid is a genus of viroid which most commonly infects tubers. ... Type species Potato spindle tuber viroid The Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) was the first viroid to be identified. ... // The Avsunviroidae are a family of viroids. ... Avocado Sunblotch Viroid (ASBV) is an important disease affecting avocado trees. ... Peach latent mosaic viroid is a type species from the genus Pelamoviroid, which belongs to the family Avsunviroidae. ...

Satellites

Satellites depend on co-infection of a host cell with a helper virus for productive multiplication. Their nucleic acids have substantially distinct nucleotide sequences from either their helper virus or host. When a satellite subviral agent encodes the coat protein in which it is encapsulated, it's then called a satellite virus. Groups Satellite viruses Satellite nucleic acids Satellites are subviral agents composed of nucleic acids; they depend for their multiplication on coinfection of a host cell with a helper virus. ...

  • Satellite viruses[6]
    • Single-stranded RNA satellite viruses
      • Subgroup 1: Chronic bee-paralysis satellite virus
      • Subgroup 2: Tobacco necrosis satellite virus
  • Satellite nucleic acids
    • Single-stranded satellite DNAs
    • Double-stranded satellite RNAs
    • Single-stranded satellite RNAs
      • Subgroup 1: Large satellite RNAs
      • Subgroup 2: Small linear satellite RNAs
      • Subgroup 3: Circular satellite RNAs

Synonyms tulip Augusta disease virus bean stipple streak virus chenopodium necrosis virus cucumber systemic necrosis virus strawberry necrotic rosette virus Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Tombusviridae. ...

Prions

Prions, named for their description as "proteinaceous and infectious particles," lack any detectable (as of 2002) nucleic acids or virus-like particles. They resist inactivation procedures which normally affect nucleic acids.[7] For the bird called a prion, see Prion (bird) Prions - short for proteinaceous infectious particle - are infectious self-reproducing protein structures. ...

Disease Natural host Prion
Scrapie Sheep & goats Scrapie prion
Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) Mink TME prion
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) Mule deer & elk CWD prion
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) Cattle BSE prion
Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) Cats FSE prion
Exotic ungulate encephalopathy (EUE) Nyala & greater kudu EUE prion
Kuru Humans Kuru prion
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) Humans CJD prion
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) Humans GSS prion
Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) Humans FFI prion

Encephalopathy literally means disease of the brain. ... Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease that affects the nervous systems of sheep and goats. ... Transmissible mink encephalopathy is caused by proteins called prions ... Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and American elk (wapiti). ... Classic image of a cow with BSE. A notable feature of such disease is the inability (of the infected animal) to stand. ... Feline spongiform encephalopathy is caused by protiens called prions ... Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom), a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease), neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism Kuru... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare and incurable degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease) that is ultimately fatal. ... Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) is a very rare, usually familial, neurodegenerative disease that affects patients in the third to seventh decades of life. ... Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a very rare autosomal dominant inherited disease of the brain. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Virus Taxonomy Portal." (Website.) Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center & Viral Bioinformatics - Canada. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  2. ^ Lwoff A, Horne R, Tournier P (1962). "A system of viruses". Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 27: 51–5. PMID 13931895. Retrieved on 2007-10-17. 
  3. ^ The Virus Species Concept: Introduction Virus Taxonomy Online: Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. 2000. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  4. ^ "80.001 Popsiviroidae - ICTVdB Index of Viruses." (Website.) U.S. National Institutes of Health website. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  5. ^ "80.002 Avsunviroidae - ICTVdB Index of Viruses." (Website.) U.S. National Institutes of Health website. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  6. ^ "81. Satellites - ICTVdB Index of Viruses." (Website.) U.S. National Institutes of Health website. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  7. ^ "90. Prions - ICTVdB Index of Viruses." (Website.) U.S. National Institutes of Health website. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is a committee which authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of viruses. ... This is a list of biological viruses, and types of viruses. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... Virology, often considered a part of microbiology or of pathology, is the study of organic viruses: their structure and classification, their ways to infect and exploit cells to reproduce and cause disease, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their potential uses in research and therapy. ... This is a list of the existing genera of viruses. ...

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Medmicro Chapter 41 (3397 words)
Self assembly of virus capsids follows two basic patterns: helical symmetry, in which the protein subunits and the nucleic acid are arranged in a helix, and icosahedral symmetry, in which the protein subunits assemble into a symmetric shell that covers the nucleic acid-containing core.
The adeno-associated virus (AAV, a dependovirus) is incapable of producing progeny virions except in the presence of helper viruses (adenovirus or herpesvirus).
Besides physical properties, several factors pertaining to the mode of replication play a role in classification: the configuration of the nucleic acid (ss or ds, linear or circular), whether the genome consists of one molecule of nucleic acid or is segmented, and whether the strand of ss RNA is sense or antisense.
Virus at AllExperts (3858 words)
A capsid is composed of proteins encoded by the viral genome and its shape serves as the basis for morphological distinction.
In the case of the hepatitis B virus the T-number is 4, therefore 240 proteins assemble to form the capsid.
Virus self-assembly within host cells also has implications for the study of the origin of life, as it lends credence to the hypothesis that life could have started as self-assembling organic molecules.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m