FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Virtuti Militari
Virtuti Militari
Virtuti Militari

The Virtuti Militari (Latin: "For Military Virtue") was created in 1792 and is Poland's highest military decoration for valor in the face of the enemy and one of the oldest military decorations in the world still in use . Some of the heroic actions recognized by an award of the Virtuti Militari are equivalent to those meriting the Commonwealth's Victoria Cross (founded 1856) and the U.S. Medal of Honor (founded in 1782). It is awarded either for personal heroism or to commanders for leadership. Order of Virtuti Militari Medal File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Order of Virtuti Militari Medal File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. ... Fortitudo, by Sandro Botticelli Courage, also known as fortitude, is the ability to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty or intimidation. ... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ... Victoria Cross medal, ribbon, and bar. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


Awarded in five classes, the order was created in 1792 by Poland's King Stanisław August Poniatowski. Soon after its introduction, however, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was destroyed (1795) in the partitions of Poland, and the partitioning powers abolished the decoration and prohibited its wearing. Since then, the award has been reintroduced, renamed and banned several times, with its fate closely reflecting the vicissitudes of the Polish people. Throughout the decoration's existence, thousands of soldiers and officers, Polish and foreign, several cities and one ship have been awarded the Virtuti Militari for valor or outstanding leadership in war. There have been no new awards since 1989. Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... For other persons named Stanisław Poniatowski, see Stanisław Poniatowski. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...

Contents

Beginnings

Throughout its history, the Virtuti Militari has shared its country's fate, and has been abolished and reintroduced several times.


The order was originally created on June 22, 1792, by King Stanisław August Poniatowski to commemorate the victorious Battle of Zieleńce. Initially, it comprised two classes: a golden medal for generals and officers, and a silver one for non-commissioned officers and ordinary soldiers. By August 1792, a statute for the decoration had been drafted, which was based on one that was created for the Austrian medal of Empress Maria Theresa. The regulation changed the shape of the decoration from a star to a cross, which has not changed substantially since then. It also introduced five classes to the order. June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... For other persons named Stanisław Poniatowski, see Stanisław Poniatowski. ... now. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... An officer is a member of a military or naval service who holds a position of responsibility. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer), also known as an NCO or noncom, is a non-commissioned member of an armed force who has been given authority by a commissioned officer. ... Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia The worlds most famous coin, a silver thaler of Maria Theresa, dated 1780 Maria Theresa (German: ; May 13, 1717–November 29, 1780) was Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. ...

1. Grand Cross with Star Ribbon
2. Commander's Cross Ribbon
3. Knight's Cross Ribbon
4. Golden Medal Ribbon
5. Silver Medal Ribbon

The first members of the decoration's chapter were also its first recipients. For the Polish-Russian War in Defence of the Constitution of 1792, a total of 63 officers and 290 NCOs and privates were awarded the Virtuti Militari. The statute was never fully implemented, however, since soon after its introduction the King acceded to the Targowica Confederation, which on August 29, 1792 abolished the decoration and prohibited its wearing. Anyone who wore the medal could be demoted and expelled from the army by Poland's new authorities. Image File history File links Virtuti Militari ribbon bar correct version of Image:VM_Krzyz_Wielki. ... Virtuti Militari ribbon bar correct version of Image:VM_Krzyz_Komandorski. ... Ribon bar of Virtuti Militari corrected version of Image:VM Krzyz Kawalerski. ... Image File history File links Virtuti Militari ribbon bar correct version of Image:VM Krzyz Zloty. ... Ribbon of the Virtuti Militari, the highest Polish military award Created by Halibutt in GIMP File links The following pages link to this file: List of military decorations Virtuti Militari Awards and decorations of the United States military Category:Recipients of Virtuti Militari Polish military awards and decorations Lucjan Zeligowski... This conflict took place in 1792 between Poland and her ally the Kingdom of Prussia, on one side, and the Russian Empire on the other. ... Categories: Stub | Polish confederations ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ...

Józef Poniatowski
Józef Poniatowski

Although on November 23, 1793 the Grodno Sejm reintroduced the decoration, it was banned again on January 7, 1794, at the insistence of Russia's Catherine the Great. Only a year later, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth itself shared the fate of its decoration when what remained of the Commonwealth was annexed by its neighbors in the partitions of Poland. King Stanisław August Poniatowski abdicated the same year. During his reign, 526 medals had been granted: 440 Silver Medals and Crosses, 85 Golden Medals and Crosses, and 1 Commander's Cross. Download high resolution version (658x800, 106 KB)Jozef Poniatowski This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (658x800, 106 KB)Jozef Poniatowski This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... New Castle in Grodno, where the Grodno Sejm took place. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May 1729–17 November 1796 [O.S. 6 November]) — sometimes referred to as an epitome of the enlightened despot — reigned as Empress of Russia for some 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... For other persons named Stanisław Poniatowski, see Stanisław Poniatowski. ...


Among the most famous recipients of the Virtuti Militari in this period were Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski (1763-1813) and Tadeusz Kościuszko (1746-1817), both able military commanders during the War in Defense of the Constitution and the Kościuszko Uprising.
The term prince (the female form is princess), from the Latin root princeps, when used for a member of the highest aristocracy, has several fundamentally different meanings — one generic, and several types of titles. ... Noble Family Poniatowski Coat of Arms Ciołek Parents Andrzej Poniatowski Maria Teresa Kinsky Consorts Zelia Sitańska Zofia Potocka Children with Zelia Sitańska: Józef Szczęsny Poniatowski; with Zofia Potocka: Karol Józef Poniatowski. ... Tadeusz Kościuszko // Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko ( ; 1746 – 1817) was a Polish and Lithuanian national hero, general and a leader of 1794 uprising (which bears his name) against the Russian Empire. ... This conflict took place in 1792 between Poland and her ally the Kingdom of Prussia, on one side, and the Russian Empire on the other. ... Kościuszko Uprising 1794 The Kościuszko Uprising took place in Poland in 1794. ...


Duchy of Warsaw

In 1806, Lt. Gen. Prince Józef Poniatowski was promoted to commander-in-chief of all forces of the Duchy of Warsaw, the short-lived Polish state allied with Napoleon I of France. As one of the first recipients of the Virtuti Militari, Poniatowski insisted on the reintroduction of the decoration. Finally on December 26, 1806, the King of Saxony and Duke of Warsaw Fryderyk August Wettin accepted the proposal and reintroduced the Virtuti Militari as the highest military award for all Polish soldiers fighting alongside France in the Napoleonic Wars. The official name of the decoration was changed to the Military Medal of the Duchy of Warsaw; however, soldiers remained faithful to the former name. The royal decree also introduced a new class system that has been in use ever since, with the class of the cross depending on the rank of the soldier to whom it is awarded: Noble Family Poniatowski Coat of Arms CioÅ‚ek Parents Andrzej Poniatowski Maria Teresa Kinsky Consorts Zelia SitaÅ„ska Zofia Potocka Children with Zelia SitaÅ„ska: Józef SzczÄ™sny Poniatowski; with Zofia Potocka: Karol Józef Poniatowski. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and Westphalia. ... Seal of the Duchy of Masovia. ... Frederick Augustus I (or III) of Saxony (December 23, 1750 - May 5, 1827). ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[5] Saxony[6] Denmark [7] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince...

  1. I Class - Grand Cross (with Star) (Krzyż Wielki z Gwiazdą, for commanders in chief)
  2. II Class - Commander's Cross (Krzyż Komandorski, for division commanders)
  3. III Class - Knight's Cross (Krzyż Kawalerski, for brigadiers, colonels and majors)
  4. IV Class - Golden Cross (Krzyż Złoty)
  5. V Class - Silver Cross (Krzyż Srebrny)
Józef Chłopicki
Józef Chłopicki

Initially each of the high commanders of the Army had a quota of Virtuti Militari to be awarded to his soldiers. However, the system was soon changed and, since then, the order has been usually awarded centrally for individual acts of bravery after being nominated by the chain of command. According to the decree of October 10, 1812, each of the recipients of a Golden or Silver Cross had the right to a yearly salary until promoted to officer or (if demobilised) for life. In addition, during the Napoleonic Wars, the present tradition of awarding the soldiers with the Virtuti Militari in front of the unit was established. Between 1806 and 1815, there were 2569 crosses awarded to Polish soldiers fighting on all fronts, from Santo Domingo to Russia and from Italy to Spain. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A quota is a prescribed number or share of something. ... Bravery can mean: Courage, the human condition to confront pain and fear The Bravery, a rock band from the US The Bravery (album), the bands self-titled debut album This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article deals with the military concept. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Demobilization is the process of standing down a nations armed forces from combat-ready status. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[5] Saxony[6] Denmark [7] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince... Santo Domingo from space, May 1992 Plaza Colón Santo Domingo de Guzmán, population 2,061,200 (2003), estimated 2,253,437 in 2006, is the capital and the largest city of the Dominican Republic. ...


Among the famous recipients of the medal in this period were General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski (1755 - 1818), the organiser of Polish Legions during the Napoleonic Wars, for whom the Polish national anthem Mazurek Dabrowskiego is named, and General Józef Chlopicki (1771-1854). Also, on May 20, 1809, Sergeant Joanna Żubr became the first woman to receive the decoration (V class) for her part in the assault on Zamość.
Jan Henryk Dabrowski Jan Henryk DÄ…browski (b. ... Polish Legions in Italy is the name applied to the several different Polish forces serving in the French army during the 1790s to 1810s. ... An anthem is a choral composition to an English religious text sung in church services. ... Mazurek Dąbrowskiego (Dąbrowskis Mazurka) is the Polish national anthem written by Józef Wybicki in 1797. ... Józef ChÅ‚opicki Józef ChÅ‚opicki (1771-1854) was a Polish General who was involved in fighting in Europe at the time of Napoleon and later. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Joanna Å»ubr (ca. ... Zamość is a town in southeastern Poland with 66,633 inhabitants (2004), situated in the Lublin Voivodship (since 1999). ...


Congress Poland

In 1815 at the Congress of Vienna, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars, the Kingdom of Poland - known unofficially as the Congress Poland - was created. This state, with one-tenth the area of the Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth, and a fifth of its population, was now tied to Russia with a personal union. In the Congress Poland, the Virtuti Militari medal was renamed as the Polish Military Medal (Medal Wojskowy Polski). Both the statute of Virtuti Militari and the privileges granted to the recipients were preserved. A special commission was created to award the Virtuti Militari to veterans of the Napoleonic campaigns of 1812, 1813 and 1814. By 1820, an additional 1213 crosses of all classes were awarded. Also, on June 5, 1817, the royal decree nobilitated all officers that received the Golden Cross. The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held on the way to Vienna, Austria, from September 1, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Nobilitation means the act of making one a noble - member of nobility social class. ...


Formally, the Kingdom of Poland was one of the few contemporary constitutional monarchies in Europe, with the Tsar of the Russian Empire as Polish King. The country was given one of the most liberal constitutions in 19th-century Europe, although it was very different from the Polish Constitution of May 3rd of the late Commonwealth. The Polish desire for freedom and respect for their privileges was a source of constant friction between them and the Russians. The main problem was that the tsars, who had absolute power in Russia, similarly wanted no restrictions on their rule in Poland. When in 1825 Nicholas I declined to crown himself King of Poland and instead continued to limit Polish liberties, the Polish parliament in 1830 deposed the Tsar as King of Poland in response to his repeated curtailment of its constitutional rights. When the November Uprising broke out, the Tsar reacted by sending in Russian troops. A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

After the outbreak of this uprising against Russia, the Polish Sejm decreed on February 19, 1831 that the decoration be restored to its original name, the "Order Virtuti Militari." Between March 3 and October the same year, 3,863 crosses were awarded. Recipients of the Silver Cross included three women: The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ...

  • head surgeon of the 10th Line Infantry Regiment, Józefa Kluczycka;
  • surgeon's assistant in the 10th Line Infantry Regiment, Józefa Daniel Rostowska née Mazurkiewicz; and
  • cadet in the 1st "Augustów" Cavalry Regiment, Bronisława Czarnowska.

After the fall of the uprising, Tsar Nicholas I abolished the decoration and banned its use. On December 31, 1831, it was replaced with the "Polish Sign of Honor" (Polski Znak Honorowy), an exact copy of the original cross but awarded only to Russians for services to the Tsarist authorities. A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Motto: none Voivodship Podlasie Municipal government UrzÄ…d Miasta Augustów Mayor Leszek Cieslik Area 80,9 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 30 870 - 387/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 53°51 N 22°58 E Area code +48 87 Car plates BAU Twin towns - Municipal Website Augustów... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Republic of Poland

After Poland regained her independence in 1918 as the Second Republic of Poland, the Polish Sejm reintroduced the Virtuti Militari on August 1, 1919 under a new official name, the Military Award Virtuti Militari (Order Wojskowy Virtuti Militari). A new statute of the decoration was also passed, and the class system introduced during the times of the Duchy of Warsaw was reintroduced. According to the new statute, crosses of each class could be awarded to a different class of soldiers and for various deeds: Józef Haller. ... Józef Haller. ... Józef Haller Józef Haller de Hallenburg (August 13, 1873 - June 4, 1960) was a Polish general and politician. ... World War I After World War I and the collapse of the Russian, German and Austro-Hungarian Empires, Poland became an independent republic. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ...

  • Grand Cross with Star, I Class: "for a commander who has achieved victory in a battle of strategic importance, resulting in total defeat of the enemy, or a successful defense that has decided the fate of a campaign."
  • Commander's Cross, II Class: "for a commander who has achieved a notable tactical victory or a valorous and successful defense of a difficult position."
  • Knight's Cross - III Class - For officers, NCOs or ordinary soldiers, awarded previously with the Golden Cross, for acts of outstanding bravery, risk of life or outstanding command over his troops
  • Golden Cross - IV Class - For officers who commanded their troops with outstanding bravery and valor or for NCOs and ordinary soldiers previously awarded with the Silver Cross, for acts of outstanding bravery and risk of life on the field of battle
  • Silver Cross - V Class - For officers, NCOs or ordinary soldiers, for acts of outstanding bravery and risk of life on the field of battle

Each recipient of the Virtuti Militari, regardless of rank or post, received a yearly salary of 300 złotys. ZÅ‚oty (literally meaning golden, plural: zÅ‚ote or zÅ‚otych, depending on the number) is the Polish currency unit. ...


Other privileges included the right of pre-emption when buying a state-owned land property or applying for a state post. Their children had additional points during exams in state schools and universities. In addition, the recipients of the Virtuti Militari had a right to be saluted by other soldiers of equal rank and NCOs and ordinary soldiers could be promoted one rank up upon receiving the award.

Coat-of-arms of city of Lwów, with Virtuti Militari pendent
Coat-of-arms of city of Lwów, with Virtuti Militari pendent

The new chapter of the decoration (Kapituła Orderu Virtuti Militari) was composed of 12 of the recipients of the crosses, four from each of the classes from I to IV. The headperson of the chapter was Marshal of Poland Józef Piłsudski, the only living Pole awarded with the Grand Cross with Star. As the commander-in-chief of the Polish Army, he could award medals of classes I to III with the consent of the Chapter and the IV and V class upon receiving an application from the commander of a division or brigade. The Polish national feast of May 3 was chosen as the feast of the Virtuti Militari. Lwów/Lviv/Lemberg/Leopolis Coat of Arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Lwów/Lviv/Lemberg/Leopolis Coat of Arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... Marshal of Poland (Marszałek Polski) is the highest rank in the Polish Army. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ...


On January 1, 1920, Piłsudski awarded the first crosses to 11 members of a Provisional Chapter. On January 22, 1920, to commemorate the anniversary of the outbreak of the January Uprising, the first soldiers and officers were officially decorated with the Virtuti Militari for their deeds during the World War I and the Polish-Ukrainian War. By 1923, when the award of new medals was halted, the Chapter had awarded the crosses to 6589 recipients. Most of the recipients were veterans of the Polish-Bolshevik War, but among them were also the veterans of all wars in which Polish soldiers fought in the 20th century, as well as some January Uprising veterans. Among the recipients of the Silver Cross were two cities - Lwów and Verdun, as well as the banners of 14 infantry regiments, 6 cavalry regiments, an engineer battalion, a Women's Auxiliary Service unit and 12 units of artillery. January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... Orlęta, a 1926 painting by Wojciech Kossak The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and Western-Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over the Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... Verdun, (German: Wirten) sometimes also called Verdun-sur-Meuse, is a city and commune in northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


On November 24, 1922, a new Chapter was chosen for times of peace. The following year, the last medal for World War I and the Polish-Bolshevik War was granted and further decorations were halted. On March 25, 1933, the Sejm passed a new Virtuti Militari Act (Ustawa o Orderze Virtuti Militari) which modified the shape of all the crosses and extended the privileges granted to VM recipients by the previous act of 1919. All the recipients of the decoration had a right to buy railway tickets at 20% of their normal price. In addition, the state paid for their healing and was obliged to provide them with a job that would enable the recipient of Virtuti Militari to live a decent life. In case of war invalids, the Polish government was ordered to provide them with money, food and clothing for the rest of their lives. Finally, the annual salary of 300 złotys was tax-free and could not be impounded by the courts. November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...

Józef Piłsudski
Józef Piłsudski

Also, the criteria for granting the crosses became more strict: Jozef Pilsduski This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Jozef Pilsduski This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Aleksandra Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania...

  • Grand Cross - I Class - for the commander-in-chief who won a war or, alternatively, for commanders of armies or fronts who achieved outstanding victories during various campaigns of the war
  • Commander's Cross - II Class - for commander of army or front (under special circumstances also commander of a group, division or brigade) for brave and daring command during an operation, which had important influence on the outcome of the war, or for other officers who contributed to the victory
  • Knight's Cross - III Class - For commanders of units up to the size of an army, for their outstanding leadership, initiative or bravery. Alternatively for staff officers for their cooperation with their commanders, that led to the final victory in a battle or war
  • Golden Cross - IV Class - For a soldier or officer, who was previously awarded with the Silver Cross and achieved an outstanding success on the battlefield thanks to his personal bravery or outstanding command of a division or a smaller unit
  • Silver Cross - V Class - for commanders who committed a daring and valorous command over their troops or for ordinary soldiers who influenced their comrades in arms by their bravery thus adding to the final victory in a battle

The Silver Cross could also be awarded to military units, cities and civilians. All classes of the Virtuti Militari medal were awarded by the commander-in-chief during the war or former commander-in-chief after the end of hostilities. The classes from I to III were awarded after a nomination by the Chapter, while the IV and V classes were nominated by the chain of command (usually by the commander of a division or brigade). Apart from the 12 members of the Chapter, all recipients of the I class had a right to take part in the voting. Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Operational Group (Polish Grupa Operacyjna, abbreviated GO) was the highest level of tactical division of the Polish Army before and during World War II and the Polish Defence War. ...


World War II

During the Polish Defensive War of 1939, the fast German and Soviet advance prevented the Chapter from awarding the medals, especially as Poland's territory was overrun by enemies five weeks after the Invasion of Poland began. Instead, commanders of divisions and brigades usually awarded the bravery of their soldiers with their own crosses received before the war. This was the case of the 18th Pomeranian Uhlans Regiment, awarded with the Virtuti Militari of General Stanisław Grzmot-Skotnicki after the battle of Krojanty, where elements of 18th Uhlans Regiment successfully delayed the advance of the German infantry on September 1, the first day of the Second World War. Virtuti Militari This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front) Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front) Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength Poland: 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft... Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front) Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front) Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength Poland: 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft... StanisÅ‚aw Grzmot-Skotnicki (1894-1939) was a Polish military commander and a general of the Polish Army. ... The Battle of Krojanty was part of the Polish September Campaign of the Second World War. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...

Recipients - World War II
5573 awarded
Rank Name
II Class - 3 awarded
Lt General Władysław Anders
Lt General Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski
Brigadier General Michał Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski
III Class - 6 awarded
Lt. General Władysław Anders
Lt General Stanisław Maczek
Brigadier General Bronisław Duch
Lt General Tadeusz Kutrzeba
Brigadier General Franciszek Kleeberg
Brigadier General Antoni Chruściel
IV Class - 201 awarded
V Class - 5363 awarded
Brigadier General Wilhelm Orlik-Rueckemann
City of Warsaw, on November 9, 1940, for the heroic defence in 1939

Following the fall of Poland in 1939, a large part of the Polish Army was evacuated to France, where it was reconstructed under the command of General Władysław Sikorski. In January 1941, the Polish Government in Exile introduced the Virtuti Militari as the highest military decoration of the Polish Army in exile. The legal basis for the election of a new Chapter was the Act of 1933. During the Second World War, the Virtuti Militari was also often bestowed to senior military officers of allied armies, including British General Bernard Montgomery, United States Supreme Commander of the Allied forces Dwight D. Eisenhower and Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders Lt. ... General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... MichaÅ‚ Tadeusz Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski, pseudonym Doktor, Stolarski, Torwid (b. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders Lt. ... Gen. ... BronisÅ‚aw Duch (1885-1980) was a Polish Brigadier General. ... Tadeusz Kutrzeba (15 April 1885 - 8 January 1947, general of the Second Polish Republic. ... Franciszek Kleeberg (1888-1941) was a Polish general. ... Gen. ... Wilhelm Orlik-Rueckemann (sometimes referred to as Wilhelm Rückemann; 1894-1986) was a Polish general, military commander and one of the pioneers of armoured warfare in Poland. ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date 8 to September 28, 1939 Place Warsaw, Poland Result Polish defeat The 1939 Battle of Warsaw was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the German Army. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Eugeniusz Sikorski Coat of arms of Kopaszyna, (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; pronounced ) was a Polish military and political leader. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... Supreme Commander is a real-time strategy (RTS) computer game, developed by Chris Taylors Gas Powered Games and currently slated for release in the first half of 2007. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... This page is about Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun...

General Sikorski decorates pilots of the Polish 303rd Squadron, the most combat-effective Allied squadron in the Battle of Britain. Here he decorates ace Jan Zumbach.
General Sikorski decorates pilots of the Polish 303rd Squadron, the most combat-effective Allied squadron in the Battle of Britain. Here he decorates ace Jan Zumbach.

Among the most famous recipients of the medal during this period were Tadeusz Kutrzeba, creator of the Bzura counterattack plan and participant in the defence of Warsaw during the Invasion of Poland; Władysław Anders, commander of the 2nd Polish Corps; Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, commander of giant Armia Krajowa resistance movement and leader of the Warsaw Uprising; and Stanisław Maczek, one of the best armor commanders of the war, who devised the first anti-blitzkrieg strategy as early as 1940 and was the commander of the 10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade, considered to be the only Polish unit not to lose a single battle in 1939, and from 1942 the commander of the First Polish Armoured Division. (Sikorski M/I) This work is copyrighted. ... (Sikorski M/I) This work is copyrighted. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Eugeniusz Sikorski Coat of arms of Kopaszyna, (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; pronounced ) was a Polish military and political leader. ... No. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength initially 700; grew to nearly 1000 by the end of the Battle. ... Jan Zumbach. ... Tadeusz Kutrzeba (15 April 1885 - 8 January 1947, general of the Second Polish Republic. ... Battle of Bzura (also known as Battle of Kutno) took place during the Second World War, Polish September Campaign between 9 September 1939 and 19 September1, 1939 and was fought between Polish and German Nazi forces. ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date 8 to September 28, 1939 Place Warsaw, Poland Result Polish defeat The 1939 Battle of Warsaw was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the German Army. ... Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front) Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front) Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength Poland: 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders Lt. ... Polish II Corps Insignia. ... General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... The Armia Krajowa (Home Army) or AK functioned as the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II in German-occupied Poland, which was active in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Antoni ChruÅ›ciel, Tadeusz PeÅ‚czyÅ„ski Erich von dem Bach, Rainer Stahel, Heinz Reinefarth, Bronislav Kaminski Strength 50,000 troops 25,000 troops Casualties 18,000 killed, 12,000 wounded, 15,000 taken prisoner 250,000 civilians killed 10,000 killed... Gen. ... One of the defining characteristics of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is close co-operation between infantry and tanks. ... 10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade 10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade was the only big mechanized unit of the Polish Army when Germany invaded Poland in 1939. ... Polish 1st Armoured Div Patch The Polish 1st Armoured Division (Polish 1 Dywizja Pancerna) was an Allied military unit during World War II, created in February 1942 in Scotland. ...




People's Republic of Poland

The Soviet-backed Polish Armies fighting on the Eastern Front were also awarding the Virtuti Militari. On November 11, 1943, General Zygmunt Berling awarded 16 veterans of the Battle of Lenino with Silver Crosses. On December 22, 1944, the Soviet-backed PKWN passed a Virtuti Militari Award Act, in which it accepted the medal as the highest military decoration of both the 1st Polish Army of Red Army and the Armia Ludowa resistance organization. Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... General Zygmunt Berling Zygmunt Henryk Berling (27 April 1896 - 11 July 1980), Polish general and politician, best known as the commander of the 1st Polish Army during the Second World War. ... Battle of Lenino took place from 12th October to 13th October 1943 near Trigubovo village (later renamed Lenino, today on Belarus) between Soviet Union 33rd Western Front Army and Nazi German forces. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... The PKWN Manifesto, issued on July 22, 1944 The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN) was a provisional Polish communist government that was created by the Soviet Union. ... Polish flag over Berlin. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ...

Bridge of the ORP Błyskawica decorated with Virtuti Militari
Bridge of the ORP Błyskawica decorated with Virtuti Militari

Although the decree of the PKWN was loosely based on the act of the Polish Sejm of 1933, the exclusive right to award soldiers with the medal was granted to the Home National Council. Since 1947 the right was passed to the President of Poland and, after the replacement of the post with the Council of State, it was passed to that body. Between 1943 and 1989 the communist authorities of the People's Republic of Poland awarded the medal to 5167 people and organisations. Some of the crosses were given to the officers and leaders of the Red Army and other armies allied to the Soviets during and after World War II. The bridge of ORP Błyskawica decorated with Virtuti Militari Taken by Topory in June 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The bridge of ORP Błyskawica decorated with Virtuti Militari Taken by Topory in June 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The ORP BÅ‚yskawica is a Polish destroyer, currently preserved as a museum ship in Gdynia. ... The PKWN Manifesto, issued on July 22, 1944 The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN) was a provisional Polish communist government that was created by the Soviet Union. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with National Country Council. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... The Council of State of the Republic of Poland was introduced by the 1947s Small Constitution. ... The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


Among the recipients of the Golden Cross was the ORP Błyskawica, probably the only warship in the world to be awarded with the highest-ranking national medal. Among the recipients of the V Class VM were also a number of military units, including two infantry divisions, six infantry regiments, three artillery regiments, four tank regiments, three air force regiments and a number of smaller units.
The ORP BÅ‚yskawica is a Polish destroyer, currently preserved as a museum ship in Gdynia. ... Diagrams of first and third rate warships, England, 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...


Republic of Poland (after 1989)

Recipients - 1943-1989
Rank Name (remarks)
  I Class - 13 awarded
Marshal of the USSR and Poland Konstanty Rokossowski
Marshal of Poland Michał Rola-Żymierski
General Aleksei Antonov (USSR)
Marshal of the USSR Leonid Brezhnev (revoked on July 10, 1990)
Marshal of Yugoslavia Josip Broz-Tito
Mj General Nikolai Bulganin
Marshal of the USSR Andriey Grechko
Marshal of the USSR Ivan Koniev
Marshal of the USSR Alexander Vasilievski
Marshal of the USSR Georgy Zhukov
British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery
General Ludvík Svoboda (Czechoslovakia)
General Karol Świerczewski (posthumously)
  II Class - 18 awarded
Lt General Stanisław Popławski
Lt General Juliusz Rómmel
Lt General Karol Świerczewski
Major Henryk Sucharski
  III Class - 57 awarded
Lt General Bolesław Kieniewicz
Lt General Władysław Korczyc
Lt General Marian Spychalski
  IV Class - 227 awarded
  V Class - 4852 awarded

After Poland overthrew the Communist rule in 1989, a number of Virtuti Militari awards made by the communist authorities were brought into question. On July 10, 1990, President Wojciech Jaruzelski revoked the Grand Cross given to Leonid Brezhnev on July 21, 1974. On October 16, 1992, the Polish Sejm passed a new Virtuti Militari Act, which is based on the act of 1933. It restored the Chapter of Virtuti Militari abolished by the communist authorities, while also confirming all decorations bestowed by both the Polish government in exile and the Soviet-backed authorities in Poland. The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky (Russian: КОНСТАНТИН КОНСТАНТИНОВИЧ РОКОССОВСКИЙ, Polish name Konstanty... Marshal of Poland (Marszałek Polski) is the highest rank in the Polish Army. ... MichaÅ‚ Å»ymierski MichaÅ‚ Å»ymierski (true name MichaÅ‚ ŁyżwiÅ„ski, pseudonym Rola; 1890-1989) was a Polish military officer and Marshal of Poland since 1945. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Russia-related stubs | People stubs | Military of the Soviet Union ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev Russian: ; January 1, 1907 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, at first in partnership with others. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Image:Nikolay Bulganin. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Grechko Andrei Antonovich Grechko (October 17, 1903-April 26, 1976) Soviet general, Marshal of the Soviet Union, Minister of Defense, born in small town near Rostov, the son of Ukrainian peasants. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Koniev Ivan Stepanovich Koniev (Russian Иван Степанович Конев) (December 28, 1897 – May 21, 1973), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family near Podosinovsky in central... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky Aleksandr Mikhailovich Vasilevsky (also spelled Vasilievsky, Vasilyevsky, Vasilievskii etc, Russian: Александр Михайлович Василевский) (September 30, 1895... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... This is a list of Field Marshals of the United Kingdom, with their respective years of appointment. ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... Ludvík Svoboda Ludvík Svoboda (November 25, 1895 in Hroznatín, Moravia - September 20, 1979 in Prague) was a Czechoslovak national hero who fought in both World Wars and later the president of Czechoslovakia. ... Karol Åšwierczewski, Marian Spychalski and Michal Rola-Zymierski Karol Åšwierczewski, (callsign Walter) (22 February 1897 in Warsaw – 28 March 1947 at JabÅ‚onki near Baligród) was a military officer, general in service of Poland, Russia and Spain and a communist activist. ... Juliusz Rómmel (1881-1967) was a Polish military commander and a General of the Polish Army. ... Karol Åšwierczewski, Marian Spychalski and Michal Rola-Zymierski Karol Åšwierczewski, (callsign Walter) (22 February 1897 in Warsaw – 28 March 1947 at JabÅ‚onki near Baligród) was a military officer, general in service of Poland, Russia and Spain and a communist activist. ... Gen. ... Marian Spychalski (1906-1980) was a Polish Communist politician who served as Polish Head of State from 1968 to 1970. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... Wojciech Jaruzelski in 2006 Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (pronounced: ) (born July 6, 1923) was a communist Polish political and military leader, Prime Minister from 1981 to 1985, head of the Polish Council of State from 1985 to 1989 and President from 1989 to 1990. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev Russian: ; January 1, 1907 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, at first in partnership with others. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ...


In 1995, President Aleksander Kwaśniewski revoked the Cross given to Ivan Serov, who was accused of being responsible for the deaths of thousands of Poles. In 2006, President Lech Kaczyński revoked the Cross given to Wincenty Romanowski, who tortured anti-Communist fighters. Aleksander KwaÅ›niewski ( ; born November 15, 1954) is a Polish politician who served as the President of Poland from 1995 to 2005. ... Ivan Aleksandrovich Serov (Иван Александрович Серов in Russian) (8. ...  , (born June 18, 1949) is a Polish politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS). ...


Since 1989 there have been no new awards of the Virtuti Militari, and a new act of parliament introduced a rule setting the final deadline for awards at "no later than five years after the cessation of hostilities."


See also

The Krzyż harcerski (Polish for The Scouting Cross) is the symbol of the Polish Scouting awarded to all Scouts, Senior Scouts and Rangers. ... This is a list of military decorations, listed in order of precedence, awarded by different countries, listed in alphabetical order. ...

External links

References

  • Zdzisław Wesołowski (1992). The Order of Virtuti Militari and its cavaliers 1792-1992. cancelled ISBN 0-934527-00-9, LC Control No.: 97168637.
  • Tadeusz Jeziorowski (1993). Order wojenny Virtuti Militari. Poznań, Muzeum Narodowe. ISBN 978-83-85296-17-1.
  • Bogusław Polak (1999). Virtuti Militari 1919-1997: wybór źródeł. Koszalin, Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Politechniki Koszalińskiej. ISBN 978-83-87424-87-9.
  • Elżbieta Zawacka, Dorota Kromp, Maria Biernacka (2004). Słownik biograficzny kobiet odznaczonych Orderem Wojennym Virtuti Militari. Toruń, Archiwum i Muzeum Pomorskie Armii Krajowej oraz Wojskowej Służby Polek. ISBN 978-83-88693-03-8.

Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Virtiti Militari - Polish highest decoration 210 years of history - Military Photos (3371 words)
In the Congress Poland, the Virtuti Militari medal was renamed as the Polish Military Medal (Medal Wojskowy Polski).
On March 25, 1933, the Sejm passed a new Virtuti Militari Act (Ustawa o Orderze Virtuti Militari) which modified the shape of all the crosses and extended the privileges granted to VM recipients by the previous act of 1919.
This was the case of the 18th Pomeranian Uhlans Regiment, awarded with the Virtuti Militari of General Stanisław Grzmot-Skotnicki after the battle of Krojanty, where elements of 18th Uhlans Regiment successfully delayed the advance of the German infantry on September 1, the first day of the Second World War.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m