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Encyclopedia > Virtue
Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey
Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey

Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ἀρετή) is moral excellence of a person. A virtue is a character trait valued as being good. The conceptual opposite of virtue is vice. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 561 KB) Ephesus July 2005 photo by Radomil talk 21:19, 30 November 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Virtue Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 561 KB) Ephesus July 2005 photo by Radomil talk 21:19, 30 November 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Virtue Metadata This file contains... Phillipp Veits Germania (1877), a personification of Germany. ... Ruins of Celsus Library Celsus library is a monumental tomb for Gaius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, built by his son Galius Julius Aquila in 135 in Ephesus. ... Ephesus was one one of the great cities of the Ionian Greeks in Asia Minor, located in Lydia where the Cayster river flows into the Aegean Sea (in modern day Turkey). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... -1... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... “Value” redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Vice is a practice or habit that is considered immoral, depraved, and/or degrading in the associated society. ...


According to its etymology the word virtue (Latin virtus) signifies manliness or courage. Taken in its widest sense virtue means the excellence of perfection of a thing, just as vice, its contrary, denotes a defect or absence of perfection due to a thing. In its strictest meaning, however, as used by moral philosophers and theologians, virtue is an operative habit essentially good, as distinguished from vice, an operative habit essentially evil. The four cardinal (hinge) virtues are Justice, Courage, Wisdom, and Moderation. These were enumerated by the Greek philosophers. The three supernatural virtues of Faith, Hope and (unselfish) Love are part of the Christian tradition. Both the natural and supernatural virtues depend on a person's understanding that truth can be discovered. Modernist views are at odds with this idea. This page is under construction. ...


Virtue can also be meant in another way. Virtue can either have normative or moral value; i.e. the virtue of a knife is to cut, the virtue of an excellent knife is to cut well (this is its normative value) vs. the virtues of reason, prudence, chastity, etc. (which have moral value). In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In the Greek it is more properly called ἠθικὴ ἀρετή (ēthikē aretē). It is "habitual excellence". It is something practiced at all times. The virtue of perseverance is needed for all and any virtue since it is a habit of character and must be used continuously in order for any person to maintain oneself in virtue. However, Friedrich Nietzsche stated that 'when virtue has slept, it will arise all the more vigorous'.

Contents

Four classic Western virtues

The four classic Western cardinal virtues are: In the Christian church, there are four cardinal virtues. ...

  • temperance  : σωφροσύνη (sōphrosynē)
  • prudence  : φρόνησις (phronēsis)
  • fortitude  : ἀνδρεία (andreia)
  • justice  : δικαιοσύνη (dikaiosynē)

This enumeration is traced to Greek philosophy, being listed by both Plato and Socrates. Temperance is the practice of moderation. ... Prudence, by Luca Giordano Allegory of Prudence, by Simon Vouet Look up Prudence, prudence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Four Cardinal Virtues of the Catholic Church doing bad to. ... Justizia, by Luca Giordano In the Catholic religion, Justice is one of the four cardinal virtues. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ...


Prudence and virtue

Seneca, the Roman Stoic said that perfect prudence is indistinguishable from perfect virtue. His point was that if you take the longest view, and consider all the consequences, in the end, a perfectly prudent person would act in the same way as a perfectly virtuous person. Many people have found it valuable to determine how each of the virtues is prudent, as well as how they harmonize. Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... Prudence, by Luca Giordano Allegory of Prudence, by Simon Vouet Look up Prudence, prudence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Christian virtues

See also: Seven virtues

In Christianity, the theological virtues are faith, hope and charity or love/agape, a list which comes from 1 Corinthians 13:13 (νυνι δε μενει πιστις ελπις αγαπη τα τρια ταυτα μειζων δε τουτων η αγαπη pistis, elpis, agape). These are said to perfect one's love of God and Man and therefore (since God is super-rational) to harmonize and partake of prudence. The Seven Virtues were derived from the Psychomachia (Contest of the Soul), an epic poem written by Aurelius Clemens Prudentius (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The three Theological Virtues listed in the Bible are: faith hope charity They are mentioned in 1 Corinthians 13:13 And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity (from the King James version) The New King James version and New International version translate... Faith has two general implications which can be implied either exclusively or mutually; To Trust: Believing a certain variable will act a specific way despite the potential influence of known or unknown change. ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck // The word charity entered the English language through the O.Fr word charite which was derived from the Latin caritas.[1] In Christian theology charity, or love (agapÄ“), is the greatest of the three theological virtues... Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ... AgapÄ“ (IPA: or IPA: ) (Gk. ... Prudence, by Luca Giordano Allegory of Prudence, by Simon Vouet Look up Prudence, prudence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Virtuous Women Proverbs 31:10-31 (NIV) 10 "A wife of noble character who can find? She is worth far more than rubies. 11 Her husband has full confidence in her and lacks nothing of value. 12 She brings him good, not harm, all the days of her life. 13 She selects wool and flax and works with eager hands. 14 She is like the merchant ships, bringing her food from afar. 15 She gets up while it is still dark; she provides food for her family and portions for her servant girls. 16 She considers a field and buys it; out of her earnings she plants a vineyard. 17 She sets about her work vigorously; her arms are strong for her tasks. 18 She sees that her trading is profitable, and her lamp does not go out at night. 19 In her hand she holds the distaff and grasps the spindle with her fingers. 20 She opens her arms to the poor and extends her hands to the needy. 21 When it snows, she has no fear for her household; for all of them are clothed in scarlet. 22 She makes coverings for her bed; she is clothed in fine linen and purple. 23 Her husband is respected at the city gate, where he takes his seat among the elders of the land. 24 She makes linen garments and sells them, and supplies the merchants with sashes. 25 She is clothed with strength and dignity; she can laugh at the days to come. 26 She speaks with wisdom, and faithful instruction is on her tongue. 27 She watches over the affairs of her household and does not eat the bread of idleness. 28 Her children arise and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praises her: 29 "Many women do noble things, but you surpass them all." 30 Charm is deceptive, and beauty is fleeting; but a woman who fears the LORD is to be praised. 31 Give her the reward she has earned, and let her works bring her praise at the city gate."


Roman virtues

  • Auctoritas — "Spiritual Authority" — The sense of one's social standing, built up through experience, Pietas, and Industria.
  • Comitas — "Humour" — Ease of manner, courtesy, openness, and friendliness.
  • Clementia — "Mercy" — Mildness and gentleness.
  • Dignitas — "Dignity" — A sense of self-worth, personal pride.
  • Firmitas — "Tenacity" — Strength of mind, the ability to stick to one's purpose.
  • Frugalitas — "Frugalness" — Economy and simplicity of style, without being miserly.
  • Gravitas — "Gravity" — A sense of the importance of the matter at hand, responsibility and earnestness.
  • Honestas — "Respectability" — The image that one presents as a respectable member of society.
  • Humanitas — "Humanity" — Refinement, civilization, learning, and being cultured.
  • Industria — "Industriousness" — Hard work.
  • Pietas — "Dutifulness" — More than religious piety; a respect for the natural order socially, politically, and religiously. Includes the ideas of patriotism and devotion to others.
  • Prudentia — "Prudence" — Foresight, wisdom, and personal discretion.
  • Salubritas — "Wholesomeness" — Health and cleanliness.
  • Severitas — "Sternness" — Gravity, self-control.
  • Veritas — "Truthfulness" — Honesty in dealing with others.

Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... In Roman mythology, Clementia was the goddess of forgiveness and mercy. ... For other uses, see Dignitas (disambiguation). ... Look up gravitas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word humanitas created by Cicero to describe a good human. ... Industria (official site) is a leading broadband solutions provider and systems integrator whose mission is to provide its customers with the infrastructure, technology and services required for transforming the concept of Digital Living into a practical consumer reality. ... Pietas, as virtue of the Roman Emperor Herennius Etruscus, celebrated with the instruments of cult, such as patera and lituus. ... In Roman mythology, Veritas (meaning truth) was the goddess of truth and a daughter of Saturn. ...

Buddhist virtues

Buddhist practice as outlined in the Noble Eightfold Path can be regarded as a progressive list of virtues. The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad, Mongolian qutuɣtan-u naiman gesigün-ü mör) is, in...

  1. Right Viewpoint - Realizing the Four Noble Truths (samyag-dṛṣṭi, sammā-diṭṭhi)
  2. Right Values - Commitment to mental and ethical growth in moderation (samyak-saṃkalpa, sammā-saṅkappa)
  3. Right Speech - One speaks in a non hurtful, not exaggerated, truthful way (samyag-vāc, sammā-vācā)
  4. Right Actions - Wholesome action, avoiding action that would do harm (samyak-karmānta, sammā-kammanta)
  5. Right Livelihood - One's job does not harm in any way oneself or others; directly or indirectly (weapon maker, drug dealer, etc.) (samyag-ājīva, sammā-ājīva}
  6. Right Effort - One makes an effort to improve (samyag-vyāyāma, sammā-vāyāma)
  7. Right Mindfulness - Mental ability to see things for what they are with clear consciousness (samyak-smṛti, sammā-sati)
  8. Right Meditation - State where one reaches enlightenment and the ego has disappeared (samyak-samādhi, sammā-samādhi)

Buddhism's four "Divine States" or [[brahmavihāra]] can be more properly regarded as virtues in the European sense. The are: The Four Noble Truths (Pali, cattari ariya saccani) are taught in Buddhism as the fundamental insight or enlightenment of Sakyamuni Buddha (the historical Buddha), which led to the formulation of the Buddhist philosophy. ...

  1. Metta/Maitri: loving-kindness towards all; the hope that a person will be well; loving kindness is "the wish that all sentient beings, without any exception, be happy."[1]
  2. Karuna: compassion; the hope that a person's sufferings will diminish; compassion is the "wish for all sentient beings to be free from suffering."[2]
  3. Mudita: altruistic joy in the accomplishments of a person, oneself or other; sympathetic joy, "is the wholesome attitude of rejoicing in the happiness and virtues of all sentient beings."[3]
  4. Upekkha/Upeksha: equanimity, or learning to accept both loss and gain, praise and blame, success and failure with detachment, equally, for oneself and for others; equanimity means "not to distinguish between friend, enemy or stranger, but regard every sentient being as equal. It is a clear-minded tranquil state of mind - not being overpowered by delusions, mental dullness or agitation."[4]

Mettā (मेटा in Devanagari) is a Pali word meaning unconditional loving-kindness. ... For the army colonel see Colonel Karuna. ... Mudita is a Buddhist (Pali) word meaning happiness in others good fortune. ... Upeksa, also upekkha in Pali, is the Buddhist concept of equanimity. ...

Samurai values

In Hagakure, the quintessential book of the samurai, Yamamoto Tsunetomo encapsulates his views on 'virtue' in the four vows he makes daily: Cover of The Book of the Samurai Hagakure (Kyūjitai: 葉隱; Shinjitai: ; meaning In the Shadow of Leaves), or Hagakure Kikigaki () is a practical and spiritual guide for a warrior, drawn from a collection of commentaries by the samurai, Yamamoto Tsunetomo, former retainer to Nabeshima Mitsushige, the third ruler of what... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ...

  1. Never to be outdone in the way of the samurai or Bushidō
  2. To be of good use to the master.
  3. To be filial to my parents.
  4. To manifest great compassion, and act for the sake of Man.

Tsunetomo goes on to say: Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ...

If one dedicates these four vows to the gods and Buddhas every morning, he will have the strength of two men and never slip backward. One must edge forward like the inchworm, bit by bit. The gods and Buddhas, too, first started with a vow.

Nietzsche on Virtue

Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche often took a more cynical view on virtue. A few of his key thoughts: Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a 19th-century German philosopher. ...

  • "One virtue is more of a virtue than two, because it is more of a knot for one's destiny to cling to."
  • "Virtue itself is offensive."
  • "When virtue has slept, it will arise all the more vigorous."

Virtues and values

Virtues can be placed into a broader context of values. Each individual has a core of underlying values that contribute to our system of beliefs, ideas and/or opinions (see value in semiotics). Integrity in the application of a value ensures its continuity and this continuity separates a value from beliefs, opinion and ideas. In this context a value (e.g., Truth or Equality or Greed) is the core from which we operate or react. Societies have values that are shared among many of the participants in that culture. An individual's values typically are largely, but not entirely, in agreement with their culture's values. As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. ... In semiotics, the value of a sign depends on its position and relations in the system of signification and upon the particular codes being used. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ...


Individual virtues can be grouped into one of four categories of values:

A value system is the ordered and prioritized set of values (usually of the ethical and doctrinal categories described above) that an individual or society holds. For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Vice is a practice or habit that is considered immoral, depraved, and/or degrading in the associated society. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Look up bad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... -1... See also Morality and Ethics. ... Look up Permission in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... For beauty as a characteristic of a persons appearance, see Physical attractiveness. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Although the term social is a crucial category in social science and often used in public discourse, its meaning is often vague, suggesting that it is a fuzzy concept. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up innate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Biological reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Survival skills are skills that may help one to survive dangerous situations (such as storms or earthquakes), or in dangerous places (such as the desert, the mountains, and the jungle). ... A value system refers to the order and priority an individual or society grants to ethical and ideological values. ...


Some virtues (a virtue is a character trait valued as being good) recognized in various Western cultures of the world include: This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...

Acceptance, in spirituality, mindfulness, and human psychology, usually refers to the experience of a situation without an intention to change that situation. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... Appreciation is a term used in accounting relating to the increase in value of an asset. ... Assertiveness is a trait taught by many personal development experts and psychotherapists and the subject of many popular self-help books. ... In biological psychology, awareness describes a human or animals perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. ... In the metaphysical or conceptual sense, balance is used to mean a point between two opposite forces that is desirable over purely one state or the other, such as a balance between the metaphysical Law and Chaos — law by itself being overly controlling, chaos being overly unmanageable, balance being the... Being Beautiful In Spirit, by some, is and was considered the highest of Knightly Virtues, and is said to be most akin to love for justice, neighbour and courage. ... For the phrenological faculty, see Benevolence (Phrenology) Look up Benevolence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck // The word charity entered the English language through the O.Fr word charite which was derived from the Latin caritas.[1] In Christian theology charity, or love (agapÄ“), is the greatest of the three theological virtues... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... “Cleanup” redirects here. ... Personal commitment is an interaction dominated by obligations. ... It has been suggested that Idiot compassion be merged into this article or section. ... Confidence is trust or faith that a person or thing is capable. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Consideration is something that is done or promised in return for a contractual promise. ... Sexual continence is a lifestyle in which one refrains from all sexual contact even while married. ... Co-operation refers to the practice of people or greater entities working in common with commonly agreed-upon goals and possibly methods, instead of working separately in competition. ... Bravery and Fortitude redirect here. ... Etiquette is the code that governs the expectations of social behavior, the conventional norm. ... Look up Creativity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In computer science, dependability is defined as [1] Dependability includes the following attributes of a computing system [2]: Availability: readiness for correct service; Reliability: continuity of correct service; Safety: absence of catastrophic consequences on the user(s) and the environment; Security: the concurrent existence of (a) availability for authorized users... A detachment is a military unit that is a permanent separate unit smaller than a company, such as a Medical Detachment. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... For other uses, see Discipline (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... Look up Endurance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Enthusiasm (Greek: enthousiasmos) originally meant inspiration or possession by a divine afflatus or by the presence of a God. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Justice is a concept involving the fair and moral treatment of all persons, especially in law. ... Faith has two general implications which can be implied either exclusively or mutually; To Trust: Believing a certain variable will act a specific way despite the potential influence of known or unknown change. ... For the financial services company, see Fidelity Investments. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... It has been suggested that Neural mechanisms behind shifts of attention be merged into this article or section. ... The study of the future researches the medium-term to long-term future of societies and of the physical world. ... Forgiveness it is the mental, emotional and/or spiritual process of ceasing to feel resentment or anger against another person for a perceived offence, difference or mistake, or ceasing to demand punishment or restitution[[:Template:American Psychological Association. ... Four Cardinal Virtues of the Catholic Church doing bad to. ... Mohandas K. Gandhi - Freedom can be achieved through inner sovereignty. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ... Look up generosity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... In social psychology, the everyday concept of helpfulness is technically defined as (1) the property of providing useful assistance, and (2) friendliness evidenced by a kindly and helpful disposition [syn: kindliness]. For many years, social psychologists have been searching for answers to these questions: Why, and when, will people help... Honest redirects here, For other uses, see Honesty (disambiguation) Look up honesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Honour (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ... The tone or style of this article may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... For the medieval saint of the same name, see Saint Humility. ... Look up Humour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Imagination is accepted as the innate ability and process to invent partial or complete personal realms within the mind from elements derived from sense perceptions of the shared world. ... Impartiality is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather then on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons. ... Innocence is a term that describes the lack of guilt of an individual, with respect to a crime. ... This article is about the ethical concept. ... Intuition is an unconscious form of knowledge. ... The inventive step is a patentability requirement present in most European patent laws, and in particular in the European Patent Convention (EPC). ... Look up joy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Look up kindness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ... Pierre Montallier: The Works of Mercy, c. ... Look up Moderation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // In sociology, manners are the unenforced standards of conduct which show the actor to be cultured, polite, and refined. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... -1... Nonviolence (or non-violence) can be both a political strategy or moral philosophy that rejects the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political change. ... Nurture is usually defined as the process of caring for and teaching a child as they grow. ... Look up Obedience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Openness is related to open source and is a philosophy that is being used as the basis of how various groups and organizations operate. ... // Optimists see the world as a positive place. ... Patience, engraving by Hans Sebald Beham, 1540 Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Patience Patience is the ability to endure waiting, delay, or provocation without becoming annoyed or upset, or to persevere calmly when faced with difficulties. ... A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ... For other uses, see Perfection (disambiguation). ... Perseverance Perseverance was an early steam locomotive that took part in the Rainhill Trials. ... Piety is a desire and willingness to perform spiritual, often ascetic rituals. ... In physics, a potential may refer to the scalar potential or to the vector potential. ... Prudence, by Luca Giordano Allegory of Prudence, by Simon Vouet Look up Prudence, prudence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ... Purpose in its most general sense is the anticipated aim which guides action. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word restraint has several meanings: the emotional discipline of self-restraint handcuffs, shackles and other forms of physical restraint the act of employing physical restraints See also: constraint This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Self-consciousness. ... Discipline is any training intended to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour, especially training that produces moral or mental development in a particular direction. ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ... Self-Reliance is an essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson. ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ... The sensitivity or insensitivity of a human, often considered with regard to a particular kind of stimulus, is the strength of the feeling it results in, in comparison with the strength of the stimulus. ... Look up Sharing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the modern world, sincerity is the elusive virtue of speaking truly about ones feelings, thoughts, desires. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... ... Look up tact in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Temperance is the practice of moderation. ... “Thanks” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Trustworthiness is a moral value considered to be a virtue. ... A common dictionary definition of truth is agreement with fact or reality.[1] There is no single definition of truth about which the majority of philosophers agree. ... Honest redirects here, For other uses, see Honesty (disambiguation) Look up honesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up understanding in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... For the 1986 American crime film, see Wisdom (film). ...

Virtue and vice

The opposite of a virtue is a vice. One way of organizing the vices is as the corruption of the virtues. Thus the cardinal vices would be folly, venality, cowardice and lust. The Christian theological vices would be blasphemy, despair, and hatred. Vice is a practice or habit that is considered immoral, depraved, and/or degrading in the associated society. ... For other uses, see Folly (disambiguation). ... Venality is the quality of being for sale, especially when one should act justly instead. ... Cowardice is a vice that is conventionally viewed as the corruption of prudence, to thwart all courage or bravery. ... Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Despair in common usage is the condition of having abandoned hope. ... For the emotion Hatred please see Hate Hatred (Nenavist) is a Soviet film of 1975 directed by Samvel Gasparov. ...


However, as Aristotle noted, the virtues can have several opposites. Virtues can be considered the mean between two extremes. For instance, both cowardice and rashness are opposites of courage; contrary to prudence are both over-caution and insufficient caution. A more "modern" virtue, tolerance, can be considered the mean between the two extremes of narrow-mindedness on the one hand and soft-headedness on the other. Vices can therefore be identified as the opposites of virtues, but with the caveat that each virtue could have many different opposites, all distinct from each other. Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ...


Capital vices

The seven capital vices or seven deadly sins suggest a classification of vices and were enumerated by Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century. The Catechism of the Catholic Church mentions them as "capital sins which Christian experience has distinguished, following St. John Cassian and St. Gregory the Great."[1] "Capital" here means that these sins stand at the head (Latin caput) of the other sins which proceed from them, e.g., theft proceeding from avarice and adultery from lust. For other uses, see Cardinal sin (disambiguation). ...


These vices are pride, envy, avarice, anger, lust, gluttony, and sloth. The opposite of these vices are the following virtues: meekness, humility, generosity, tolerance, chastity, moderation, and zeal (meaning enthusiastic devotion to a good cause or an ideal). These virtues are not exactly equivalent to the Seven Cardinal or Theological Virtues mentioned above. Instead these capital vices and virtues can be considered the "building blocks" that rule human behaviour. Both are acquired and reinforced by practice and the exercise of one induces or facilitates the others.


Ranked in order of severity as per Dante's Divine Comedy (in the Purgatorio), the seven deadly vices are: DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ...

  1. Pride or Vanity — an excessive love of self (holding self out of proper position toward God or fellows; Dante's definition was "love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for one's neighbor"). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, pride is referred to as superbia.
  2. Avarice (covetousness, Greed) — a desire to possess more than one has need or use for (or, according to Dante, "excessive love of money and power"). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, avarice is referred to as avaritia.
  3. Lust — excessive sexual desire. Dante's criterion was "lust detracts from true love". In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, lust is referred to as luxuria.
  4. Wrath or Anger — feelings of hatred, revenge or even denial, as well as punitive desires outside of justice (Dante's description was "love of justice perverted to revenge and spite"). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, wrath is referred to as ira.
  5. Gluttony — overindulgence in food, drink or intoxicants, or misplaced desire of food as a pleasure for its sensuality ("excessive love of pleasure" was Dante's rendering). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, gluttony is referred to as gula.
  6. Envy or jealousy; resentment of others for their possessions (Dante: "Love of one's own good perverted to a desire to deprive other men of theirs"). In the Latin lists of the Seven Deadly Sins, envy is referred to as invidia.
  7. Sloth or Laziness; idleness and wastefulness of time allotted. Laziness is condemned because others have to work harder and useful work can not get done. (also accidie, acedia)

Several of these vices interlink, and various attempts at causal hierarchy have been made. For example, pride (love of self out of proportion) is implied in gluttony (the over-consumption or waste of food), as well as sloth, envy, and most of the others. Each sin is a particular way of failing to love God with all one's resources and to love fellows as much as self. The Scholastic theologians developed schema of attribute and substance of will to explain these sins. Pride is the name of an emotion which refers to a strong sense of self-respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, nation or object that one identifies with. ... For other meanings of vanity, see vanity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cardinal sin (disambiguation). ... Greed is often associated with death and disease. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... Look up Anger in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Anger is a term for the emotional aspect of aggression, as a basic aspect of the stress response in animals in which a perceived aggravating stimulus provokes a counterresponse which is likewise aggravating and threatening of violence. ... This article is about the emotion. ... Gluttony can also refer to a character named Gluttony - a homonculus from the anime series Full Metal Alchemist Gluttony is the over-indulgence and over-consumption of food, drink, or intoxicants to the point of waste. ... Look up Envy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jealousy typically refers to the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that occur when a person believes a valued relationship is being threatened by a rival. ... Families Megalonychidae Bradypodidae †Rathymotheriidae †Scelidotheriidae †Mylodontidae †Orophodontidae †Megatheriidae Sloths are medium-sized mammals that live in Central and South America belonging to the families Megalonychidae and Bradypodidae, part of the order Pilosa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The 4th century Egyptian monk Evagrius Ponticus defined the sins as deadly "passions," and in Eastern Orthodoxy, still these impulses are characterized as being "Deadly Passions" rather than sins. Instead, the sins are considered to invite or entertain these passions. In the official Catechism of the Catholic Church published in 1992 by Pope John Paul II, these seven vices are considered moral transgression for Christians and the virtues should complement the Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes as the basis for any true Morality. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of...


Virtue in Chinese philosophy

"Virtue", translated from Chinese de (), is also an important concept in Chinese philosophy, particularly Daoism. De (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: te) originally meant normative "virtue" in the sense of "personal character; inner strength; integrity", but semantically changed to moral "virtue; kindness; morality". Note the semantic parallel for English virtue, with an archaic meaning of "inner potency; divine power" (as in "by virtue of") and a modern one of "moral excellence; goodness". De (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: te) is a key concept in Chinese philosophy, usually translated inherent character; inner power; integrity in Daoism, moral character; virtue; morality in Confucianism and other contexts, and quality; virtue (guna) or merit; virtuous deeds (punya) in Chinese Buddhism. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ...


Confucian moral manifestations of "virtue" include ren ("humanity"), xiao ("filial piety"), and zhong ("loyalty") In Confucianism the notion of ren according to Simon Leys means "humanity" and "goodness". Originally ren had the archaic meaning in the Confucian Book of Poems of "virility", then progressively took on shades of ethical meaning. (On the origins and transformations of this concept see Lin Yu-sheng: "The evolution of the pre-Confucian meaning of jen and the Confucian concept of moral autonomy," Monumenta Serica, vol31, 1974-75.) Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China (PRC) Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan)). Confucius statue in Chongming Island, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... Xiao can mean: Xiao — Chinese end-blown flute. ... Filial piety is extended into the afterlife. ... Zhong can refer to A Chinese musical instrument similiar to the bell: see Bianzhong. ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China (PRC) Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan)). Confucius statue in Chongming Island, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China (PRC) Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan)). Confucius statue in Chongming Island, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China (PRC) Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan)). Confucius statue in Chongming Island, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


The Daoist concept of De, however, is more subtle, pertaining to the "virtue" or ability that an individual realizes by following the Dao ("the Way"). One important normative value in much of Chinese thinking is that one's social status should result from the amount of virtue that one demonstrates rather than from one's birth. In the Analects, Confucius explains de: "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it." (2/1, tr. James Legge)[1] This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... Engraving of Confucius. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Ezra Pounds annotations on his copy of James Legges translation of the Book of Poetry (Shih Ching), in the Sacred Books of the East. ...


Virtue in modern psychology

Martin Seligman and other researchers involved in the positive psychology movement, frustrated by psychology's tendency to focus on dysfunction rather than on what makes a healthy and stable personality, set out to develop a list of "Character Strengths and Virtues" applicable to the widest possible range of human cultures. Although few if any virtues are truly universally valued, Seligman claims that the ones on his list are all considered important by an overwhelming majority of cultures; although rare communities that do not admire kindness or courage may exist, they are clearly exceptional. Martin E.P. Seligman (Albany, New York, 12 August 1942) is an American psychologist and writer. ... Positive psychology is a relatively young branch of psychology that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up kindness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bravery and Fortitude redirect here. ...


The researchers discovered a total of twenty-four virtues that are universal or nearly so, divided into six basic types.

  • Wisdom and Knowledge: creativity, curiosity, open-mindedness, love of learning, perspective
  • Courage: bravery, persistence, integrity, vitality
  • Humanity: love, kindness, social intelligence
  • Justice: citizenship, fairness, leadership
  • Temperance: forgiveness and mercy, humility and modesty, prudence, self-regulation
  • Transcendence: appreciation of beauty and excellence, gratitude, hope, humor, spirituality

References

  1. New Catholic Encyclopedia, Catholic University of America, 1967. pg 704.
  1. ^ http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/bs-s15.htm Buddhist Studies for Secondary Students, Unit 6: The Four Immeasurables
  2. ^ http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/bs-s15.htm Buddhist Studies for Secondary Students, Unit 6: The Four Immeasurables
  3. ^ http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/bs-s15.htm Buddhist Studies for Secondary Students, Unit 6: The Four Immeasurables
  4. ^ http://buddhism.kalachakranet.org/immeasurables_love_compassion_equanimity_rejoicing.html A View on Buddhism, THE FOUR IMMEASURABLES: Love, Compassion, Joy and Equanimity

See also

Look up aretology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Japanese samurai in armor, 1860s. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... Consequentialism refers to those moral theories which hold that the consequences of a particular action form the basis for any valid moral judgment about that action. ... The epistemic virtues, as identified by virtue epistemologists, reflect their contention that belief is an ethical process, and thus susceptible to the intellectual virtue or vice of ones thought life. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... For Sikhs, the final goal of life is to reunite or merge with God (Mukti). ... For the philosophical concept of goodness see Goodness and value theory. ... Character traits necessary for right action and correct thinking. ... The Virtues of a Knight (Knightly Virtues) included the following: Charity Chivalry Courage Courtesy Determination Selflessness Endurance Faithfulness Honour Humility Justice Kindness Loyalty Mercy Morality Nobility Patience Perseverance Prudence Sympathy Truthfulness Wisdom Categories: Warrior code ... -1... To the ancient Greeks, Paideia (παιδεία) was the process of educating man into his true form, the real and genuine human nature. ... For other uses, see Cardinal sin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... Social justice refers to the concept of a just society, where justice refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... The Three Jewels of the Tao are: compassion, simplicity, and patience. ... The three Theological Virtues listed in the Bible are: faith hope charity They are mentioned in 1 Corinthians 13:13 And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity (from the King James version) The New King James version and New International version translate... An example of a tree of virtues. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vice is a practice or habit that is considered immoral, depraved, and/or degrading in the associated society. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Ultima series of computer role-playing games featured a Virtue system that the player was required to follow in the game as the Avatar. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Virtue (2853 words)
virtues may be classified according to this twofold function of the mental faculty.
virtue it is to be distinguished, at least logically, from the faculty of intelligence.
virtues as it resides not in the appetitive powers but in the intellect, its proper act being, not the choice of apt means, but the direction of that choice.
Virtue Epistemology [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] (6365 words)
Virtue epistemology is a collection of recent approaches to epistemology that give epistemic or intellectual virtue concepts an important and fundamental role.
Some virtue responsibilists (e.g., Zagzebski 1996) have argued that the character traits of interest to them are the intellectual counterpart to what Aristotle and other moral philosophers have regarded as the moral virtues and that these traits are therefore properly regarded as intellectual virtues.
Virtue reliabilists are concerned with traits that are a critical means to intellectual well-being or “flourishing” and virtue responsibilists with traits that are both a means to and are partly constitutive of intellectual flourishing.
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