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Encyclopedia > Virtual reality

This article is about the simulation technology. For the Alan Ayckbourn play, see Virtual Reality (play). For the gamebook series, see Virtual Reality (gamebooks) Virtual Reality is a 2000 play by British playwright Alan Ayckbourn. ... Virtual Reality was the name of a series of six gamebooks released in 1993 and 1994. ...


Virtual reality (VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a computer-simulated environment, be it a real or imagined one. Most current virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special or stereoscopic displays, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers or headphones. Some advanced, haptic systems now include tactile information, generally known as force feedback, in medical and gaming applications. Users can interact with a virtual environment or a virtual artifact (VA) either through the use of standard input devices such as a keyboard and mouse, or through multimodal devices such as a wired glove, the Polhemus boom arm, and omnidirectional treadmill. The simulated environment can be similar to the real world, for example, simulations for pilot or combat training, or it can differ significantly from reality, as in VR games. In practice, it is currently very difficult to create a high-fidelity virtual reality experience, due largely to technical limitations on processing power, image resolution and communication bandwidth. However, those limitations are expected to eventually be overcome as processor, imaging and data communication technologies become more powerful and cost-effective over time. A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program that attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... Nineteen inch (48 cm) CRT computer monitor A computer display, monitor or screen is a computer peripheral device capable of showing still or moving images generated by a computer and processed by a graphics card. ... Stereo card image modified for crossed eye viewing. ... For other uses, see Headphones (disambiguation). ... This article is about haptic technology. ... Haptic means pertaining to the technology of touch. ... A Virtual artifact (VA) is an immaterial object that exists in the human mind or in a digital environment, for example the Internet, intranet, virtual reality, etc. ... A 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and QWERTY. A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... Multimodal technology describes any technologies that allow using more than one mode of input and output on a cell phone, computer or PDA. It is commonly researched as human-computer interaction (or HCI) in academia. ... A wired glove is a glove-like input device for virtual reality environments. ... Omnidirectional treadmill-based immersive simulator An omnidirectional treadmill, or ODT, is a device that allows a person to perform locomotive motion in any direction. ... This article is about audiophile sound systems. ... Image resolution describes the detail an image holds. ...

U.S. Navy personnel using a VR parachute trainer
U.S. Navy personnel using a VR parachute trainer

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x1960, 3626 KB) Summary Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x1960, 3626 KB) Summary Source: http://www. ... USN redirects here. ...

Background

Terminology

The term artificial reality, coined by Myron Krueger, has been in use since the 1970s but the origin of the term virtual reality is uncertain. It has been credited to The Judas Mandala, a 1982 science fiction novel by Damien Broderick, where the context of use is somewhat different from that defined above. The earliest use cited by the Oxford English Dictionary is in a 1987 article entitled "Virtual reality",[1] but the article is not about VR technology. The VR developer Jaron Lanier claims that he coined the term.[2] The concept of virtual reality was popularized in mass media by movies such as Brainstorm and The Lawnmower Man (and others mentioned below), and the VR research boom of the 1990s was motivated in part by the non-fiction book Virtual Reality by Howard Rheingold. The book served to demystify the subject, making it more accessible to less technical researchers and enthusiasts, with an impact similar to what his book The Virtual Community had on virtual community research lines closely related to VR. Multimedia: from Wagner to Virtual Reality, edited by Randall Packer and Ken Jordan and first published in 2001, explores the term and its history from an avant-garde perspective. Artificial reality was the term Myron W. Krueger used to describe his interactive immersive environments, based on video recognition techniques, that put a user in full, unencumbered contact with the digital world. ... Myron Krueger (born 1942 in Gary, Indiana) is an American computer artist who developed early interactive works. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... pic: Barbara Lamar Damien Broderick (born 1944) is an Australian science fiction and popular science writer. ... Jaron Lanier Jaron Lanier (born 1960) is a virtual reality developer. ... Brainstorm is a 1983 science fiction film directed by Douglas Trumbull and starring Christopher Walken and Natalie Wood (in her last film appearance). ... The Lawnmower Man is a 1992 film which uses elements from Stephen Kings short story The Lawnmower Man. The films original script, written by director Brett Leonard and producer Gimel Everett, was titled Cyber God and had nothing to do with Stephen King. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Howard Rheingold at the Ars Electronica in 2004 Howard Rheingold (born July 7, 1947) is a leading thinker and writer on the cultural, social and political implications of modern communications media such as the Internet, mobile telephony and virtual communities (a term he is credited with inventing). ... The Virtual Community is an early book about virtual communities by Howard Rheingold, a member of the early network system The Well. ... A virtual community, e-community or online community is a group of people that primarily interact via communication media such as letters, telephone, email or Usenet rather than face to face. ...


VR timeline

Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the senses in an effective manner, thus drawing the viewer into the onscreen activity. He built a prototype of his vision dubbed the Sensorama in 1962, along with five short films to be displayed in it while engaging multiple senses (sight, sound, smell, and touch). Predating digital computing, the Sensorama was a mechanical device, which reportedly still functions today. In 1968, Ivan Sutherland, with the help of his student Bob Sproull, created what is widely considered to be the first virtual reality and augmented reality (AR) head mounted display (HMD) system. It was primitive both in terms of user interface and realism, and the HMD to be worn by the user was so heavy it had to be suspended from the ceiling, and the graphics comprising the virtual environment were simple wireframe model rooms. The formidable appearance of the device inspired its name, The Sword of Damocles. Also notable among the earlier hypermedia and virtual reality systems was the Aspen Movie Map, which was created at MIT in 1977. The program was a crude virtual simulation of Aspen, Colorado in which users could wander the streets in one of three modes: summer, winter, and polygons. The first two were based on photographs — the researchers actually photographed every possible movement through the city's street grid in both seasons — and the third was a basic 3-D model of the city. In the late 1980s the term "virtual reality" was popularized by Jaron Lanier, one of the modern pioneers of the field. Lanier had founded the company VPL Research (from "Virtual Programming Languages") in 1985, which developed and built some of the seminal "goggles n' gloves" systems of that decade. Morton Heilig was a thought-leader in Virtual Reality (VR). ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The Sensorama was a machine that is one of the earliest known examples of immersive, multi-sensory (now known as multimodal) technology. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ivan Sutherland Ivan Sutherland, working at MIT (1963) Ivan Edward Sutherland (born 1938 in Hastings, Nebraska) is a computer programmer and Internet pioneer. ... Dr. Robert F. Sproull works for Sun Microsystems and is a Sun Fellow, Vice President and Director of Sun Labs Massachusetts in Burlington. ... Augmented reality (AR) is a field of computer research which deals with the combination of real world and computer generated data. ... A Head Mounted Display (HMD) is a device that one wears on ones head to have video information directly displayed in front of ones eyes. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... Virtual reality (abbreviated VR) describes an environment that is simulated by a computer. ... A wire frame model is a visual presentation of an electronic representation of a three dimensional or physical object used in 3D computer graphics. ... The Sword of Damocles is widely considered to be the first virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) head-mounted display (HMD) system. ... Hypermedia is a term used as a logical extension of the term hypertext, in which audio, video, plain text, and non-linear hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear medium of information. ... The Aspen Movie Map was a revolutionary hypermedia system developed at MIT by a team working with Andrew Lippman in 1978 with funding from ARPA. // Features The Aspen Movie Map allowed the user to take a virtual tour through the city of Aspen, Colorado. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The City of Aspen is a Home Rule Municipality that is the most populous city and the county seat of Pitkin County, Colorado, United States. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Jaron Lanier Jaron Lanier (born 1960) is a virtual reality developer. ... This article is about the year. ...


Future

It is unclear exactly where the future of virtual reality is heading. In the short run, the graphics displayed in the HMD will soon reach a point of near realism. The audio capabilities will move into a new realm of three dimensional sound. This refers to the addition of sound channels both above and below the individual. The virtual reality application of this future technology will most likely be in the form of over ear headphones.


Within existing technological limits, sight and sound are the two senses which best lend themselves to high quality simulation. There are however attempts being currently made to simulate smell. The purpose of current research is linked to a project aimed at treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in veterans by exposing them to combat simulations, complete with smells. Although it is often seen in the context of entertainment by popular culture, this illustrates the point that the future of VR is very much tied into therapeutic, training, and engineering demands. Given that fact, a full sensory immersion beyond basic tactile feedback, sight, sound, and smell is unlikely to be a goal in the industry. It is worth mentioning that simulating smells, while it can be done very realistically, requires costly research and development to make each odor, and the machine itself is expensive and specialized, using capsules tailor made for it. Thus far basic, and very strong smells such as burning rubber, cordite, gasoline fumes, and so-forth have been made. Something complex such as a food product or specific flower would be prohibitively expensive (see the perfume industry as an example). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to or confrontation with stressful experiences, which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury or a threat to physical integrity and which the person found highly traumatic. ...


In order to engage the other sense of taste, the brain must be manipulated directly. This would move virtual reality into the realm of simulated reality like the "head-plugs" used in The Matrix. Although no form of this has been seriously developed at this point, Sony has taken the first step. On April 7, 2005, Sony went public with the information that they had filed for and received a patent for the idea of the non-invasive beaming of different frequencies and patterns of ultrasonic waves directly into the brain to recreate all five senses.[3] There has been research to show that this is possible[citation needed]. Sony has not conducted any tests as of yet and says that it is still only an idea. Simulated reality is the idea that reality could be simulated — often computer-simulated — to a degree indistinguishable from true reality. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It has long been feared that Virtual Reality will be the last invention of humans, as once simulations become cheaper and more widespread, no one will ever want to leave their "perfect" fantasies. Satirists, however, have nodded towards humans' aversion to catheters and starvation.


Impact

There has been increasing interest in the potential social impact of new technologies, such as virtual reality (as may be seen in utopian literature, within the social sciences, and in popular culture). Mychilo S. Cline, in his book, Power, Madness, and Immortality: The Future of Virtual Reality, argues that virtual reality will lead to a number of important changes in human life and activity. He argues that:

  • Virtual reality will be integrated into daily life and activity and will be used in various human ways.
  • Techniques will be developed to influence human behavior, interpersonal communication, and cognition (i.e., virtual genetics).[4]
  • As we spend more and more time in virtual space, there will be a gradual “migration to virtual space,” resulting in important changes in economics, worldview, and culture.
  • The design of virtual environments may be used to extend basic human rights into virtual space, to promote human freedom and well-being, and to promote social stability as we move from one stage in socio-political development to the next.

For the Björk song, see Human Behaviour Human behavior is the collection of behaviors exhibited by human beings and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. ... Interpersonal communication is the process of sending and receiving information or communication with another person. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The virtual is a concept applied in many fields with somewhat differing connotations, and also denotations. ...

Heritage and Archaeology

The use of VR in Heritage and Archaeology has enormous potential in museum and visitor centre applications, but its use has been tempered by the difficulty in presenting a 'quick to learn' real time experience to numerous people any given time. Many historic reconstructions tend to be in a pre-rendered format to a shared video display, thus allowing more than one person to view a computer generated world, but limiting the interaction that full-scale VR can provide. The first use of a VR presentation in a Heritage application was in 1994 when a museum visitor interpretation provided an interactive 'walk-through' of a 3D reconstruction of Dudley Castle in England as it was in 1550. This comprised of a computer controlled laserdisc based system designed by British based engineer Colin Johnson. It is a little known fact that one of the first users of Virtual Reality was Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, when she officially opened the visitor center in June 1994. Details of the original project can be viewed here..Virtual Tours of Dudley Castle archive The system featured in a conference held by the British Museum in November 1994 and in the subsequent technical paper.. 'Imaging the Past' - Electronic Imaging and Computer Graphics in Museums and Archaeology - ISBN 0861591143. Dudley Castle is a ruined castle in the town of Dudley, West Midlands, England. ...


Mass media

Mass media has been a great advocate and perhaps a great hindrance to its development over the years. During the research “boom” of the late 1980s into the 1990s the news media’s prognostication on the potential of VR — and potential overexposure in publishing the predictions of anyone who had one (whether or not that person had a true perspective on the technology and its limits) — built up the expectations of the technology so high as to be impossible to achieve under the technology then or any technology to date. Entertainment media reinforced these concepts with futuristic imagery many generations beyond contemporary capabilities. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Fiction books

Many science fiction books and movies have imagined characters being "trapped in virtual reality". One of the first modern works to use this idea was Daniel F. Galouye's novel Simulacron-3, which was made into a German teleplay titled Welt am Draht ("World on a Wire") in 1973 and into a movie titled The Thirteenth Floor in 1999. Other science fiction books have promoted the idea of virtual reality as a partial, but not total, substitution for the misery of reality (in the sense that a pauper in the real world can be a prince in VR), or have touted it as a method for creating breathtaking virtual worlds in which one may escape from Earth's now toxic atmosphere. They are not aware of this, because their minds exist within a shared, idealized virtual world known as Dream Earth, where they grow up, live, and die, never knowing the world they live in is but a dream. Stanislaw Lem wrote in early 1960 a short story "dziwne skrzynie profesora Corcorana" in which he presented a scientist, who devised a completely artificial virtual reality. Amongst the beings trapped inside his created virtual world, there is also a scientist, who also devised such machines creating another level of virtual world. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Daniel F. Galouye (1920-1976) was an American science fiction writer. ... The science fiction novel Simulacron-3 was first published in 1964 by Daniel F. Galouye in the United States. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Movie Poster The Thirteenth Floor is a 1999 film released to cinemas in Germany and the United States (as The 13th Floor). ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


The Piers Anthony novel Killobyte follows the story of a paralysed cop trapped in a virtual reality game by a hacker, whom he must stop to save a fellow trapped player with diabetes slowly succumbing to insulin shock. This novel toys with the idea of both the potential positive therapeutic uses, such as allowing the paralysed to experience the illusion of movement while stimulating unused muscles, as well as virtual realities' dangers. Piers Anthony Dillingham Jacob (born August 6, 1934 in Oxford, England) is an American writer in the science fiction and fantasy genres, publishing under the name Piers Anthony. ... Killobyte is a 1993 novel by Piers Anthony. ...


An early short science fiction story — "The Veldt" — about an all too real "virtual reality" was included in the 1951 book The Illustrated Man, by Ray Bradbury and may be the first fictional work to fully describe the concept. The Illustrated Man is a 1951 book of eighteen science fiction short stories by Ray Bradbury that explores the nature of humankind. ... Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. ...


The Otherland series of 4 novels by Tad Williams . Set in the 2070's, it shows a world where the Internet has become accessible via virtual reality and has become so popular and somewhat commonplace that, with the help of surgical implants, people can connect directly into this future VR environment. The series follows the tale of a group of people who, while investigating a mysterious illness attacking children while in VR, find themselves trapped in a virtual reality system of fantastic detail and sophistication unlike any the world has ever imagined. Otherland is a four-volume science fiction epic by Tad Williams. ... Robert Paul Tad Williams (born March 14, 1957) is the author of several fantasy and science fiction novels, including Tailchasers Song, the Memory, Sorrow, and Thorn series, the Otherland series, and The War of the Flowers. ...


Other popular fictional works that use the concept of virtual reality include William Gibson's Neuromancer which defined the concept of cyberspace, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash, in which he made extensive reference to the term "avatar" to describe one's representation in a virtual world, and Rudy Rucker's The Hacker and the Ants, in which programmer Jerzy Rugby uses VR for robot design and testing. For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... For the 1988 video game, see Neuromancer (video game). ... Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer, known primarily for his science fiction works in the postcyberpunk genre with a penchant for explorations of society, mathematics, currency, and the history of science. ... Snow Crash is Neal Stephensons third science fiction novel, published in 1992. ... Rudy Rucker, Fall 2004, photo by Georgia Rucker. ...


Another use of VR is in the teenage book "The Reality Bug" by D.J MacHale, where the inhabitants of a territory become trapped in a Virtual world, which used to be perfect but is now filled with their worst nightmares.


Alexander Besher's Rim: A Novel of Virtual Reality is similar to Otherland, however it also shows the urban decay that obsession with VR has caused, and the devastating effects to the economy it causes after a major crash leaves millions of users in a coma and some dead. Rim: A Novel of Virtual Reality, often shortened to Rim (1994), was Alexander Beshers first novel. ... Otherland is a four-volume science fiction epic by Tad Williams. ... Urban decay and renewal in Cincinnati Urban decay is the popular term for both the physical and social degeneration of cities and large towns. ...


Television

Perhaps the earliest example of virtual reality on television is a Doctor Who serial "The Deadly Assassin". This story, first broadcast in 1976, introduced a dream-like computer-generated reality known as the Matrix (no relation to the film — see below). The first major American television series to showcase virtual reality was Star Trek: The Next Generation. They featured the holodeck, a virtual reality facility on starships, that enabled its users to recreate and experience anything they wanted. One difference from current virtual reality technology, however, was that replicators, force fields, holograms, and transporters were used to actually recreate and place objects in the holodeck, rather than relying solely on the illusion of physical objects, as is done today. This article is about the television series. ... The Deadly Assassin is a serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in four weekly parts from October 30 to November 20, 1976. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The Matrix, in the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who, is a massive computer system on the planet Gallifrey that acts as the repository of the combined knowledge of the Time Lords. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... A holodeck on the Enterprise-D; the arch and exit are prominent. ... In the fictional Star Trek universe, a replicator is a machine capable of converting energy into matter and vice-versa. ... In science fiction and fantasy literature, a force field is a physical barrier made up of energy to protect a person or object from attacks or intrusions. ... This article is about the photographic technique. ...


In Japan and Hong Kong, the first anime series to use the idea of virtual reality was Video Warrior Laserion (1984). Animé redirects here. ... Video Warrior Laserion (Japanese: ビデオ戦士レザリオン) was an anime series aired in 1984 to 1985 in Japan and Hong Kong. ...


An anime series known as Lain:Serial Experiments included a virtual reality world known as "The Wired" that eventually co-existed with the real world.


Channel 4's Gamesmaster (1992 – 1998) also used a VR headset in its "tips and cheats" segment. This article is about the television series. ...


BBC 2's Cyberzone (1993) was the first true "virtual reality" game show. It was presented by Craig Charles. Craig Charles as Dave Lister Craig Charles (born July 11, 1964 in Liverpool, England) is an English actor, stand up comedian, author, poet, and radio and television presenter, best known for playing Dave Lister in the British cult-favourite sci-fi sitcom Red Dwarf. ...


FOX's VR.5 (1995) starring Lori Singer and David McCallum, used what appeared to be mistakes in technology as part of the show's on-going mystery. VR.5 was an American television program running from 10 March 1995 to 12 May 1995 on FOX before it was cancelled. ... Lori Jacqueline Singer (born on November 6, 1957) is an American actress. ... David Keith McCallum (born September 19, 1933) is a prolific Scottish actor and the son of concertmaster violinist David McCallum, Sr. ...


In 2002, Series 4 of hit New Zealand teen sci-fi TV Series, The Tribe featured the arrival of a new tribe to the city, The Technos. They tried to gain power by introducing Virtual Reality to the city. The tribes would battle each other in the Virtual World in a "game" designed by the leader of The Techno's, Ram. However, the effects of VR on the people turned nasty when they started to fight in the real world as well, after too much use made them unable to tell the difference between what was real and what was virtual. Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Tribe is a science fiction television program, created by Raymond Thompson and Harry Duffin, produced by Cloud 9. ...


In 2005, Brazilian's Globo TV features a show where VR helmets are used by the attending audience in a space simulation called Conquista de Titã, broadcasted for more than 20 million viewers weekly. Contents // Categories: Television stubs | Companies of Brazil | Television networks ... Game screenshot Conquista de Titã (Titans Conquest). ...


In the anime version of Yu-Gi-Oh!, one three-part episode sees the heroes entering a virtual world based on the game Duel Monsters, where the players must use their cards to work their way through a series of story-based challenges, including simulated monsters. Later, another anime-only arc forces the heroes to enter another virtual world, similar in concept but with a different set of rules. In both arcs, the bodies of the humans entering the virtual world are confined to special pods for the duration of their stay there. Serialized in Weekly Shonen Jump Shonen Jump BANZAI! Shonen Jump Comics House Original run 1996 – March 2004 Volumes 38 volumes, with 343 total chapters TV anime: Yu-Gi-Oh! Director Various Studio Toei Animation Network TV Asahi Original run April 4, 1998 – October 10, 1998 Episodes 27 TV anime: Yu...


The Popular .hack multimedia franchise is based on a virtual reality MMORPG ironically dubbed "The World" .hack is a Japanese multimedia franchise that encompasses two multimedia projects: Project . ... An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions. ... The World is a fictional MMORPG in the anime, manga, and game franchise, .hack. ...


The French animated series Code Lyoko is based around the virtual world of Lyoko and the Internet, the virtual world is accessed by large scanners which use an atomic process which breaks down the atoms of the person inside, digitalizes them and recreates an incarnation on Lyoko. Code Lyoko is a French animated television series featuring both conventional animation and CGI animation. ... An outside view of Lyoko. ... An outside view of Lyoko. ...


Motion pictures

Steven Lisberger's 1982 movie TRON was the first mainstream Hollywood picture to explore the idea. One year later, it would be more fully expanded in the Natalie Wood film Brainstorm. Probably the most famous film to popularize the subject was more recently done by the Wachowski brothers in 1999's The Matrix. The Matrix was significant in that it presented virtual reality and reality as often overlapping, and sometimes indistinguishable. Total Recall and David Cronenberg's film EXistenZ dealt with the danger of confusion between reality and virtual reality in computer games. Cyberspace became something that most movies completely misunderstood, as seen in The Lawnmower Man. Also, the British comedy Red Dwarf used in several episodes the idea that life (or at least the life seen on the show) is a virtual reality game. This idea was also used in Spy Kids 3-D: Game Over. Another movie that has a bizarre theme is Brainscan, where the point of the game is to be a virtual killer. A more artistic and philosophical perspective on the subject can be seen in Avalon. One of the non-Sci Fi movies that uses VR as a story driver is 1994's Disclosure, starring Michael Douglas and based on the Michael Crichton book of the same name. A VR headset is used as a navigating device for a prototype computer filing system. There is also a film from 1995 called "Virtuosity" with Denzel Washington and Russell Crowe that dealt with the creation of a serial killer, used to train law enforcement personnel, that escapes his virtual reality into the real world. // This is the year of film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, which will become the highest grossing movie for almost 15 years (until Titanic), earning double or triple against any major film of the 1980s. ... Tron is a 1982 Walt Disney Productions science fiction movie starring Jeff Bridges as Kevin Flynn (and Clu), Bruce Boxleitner as Alan Bradley (and Tron), Cindy Morgan as Lora (and Yori)and Dan Shor as Ram. ... // February 11 - The Rolling Stones concert film Lets Spend the Night Together opens in New York North Americas Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi Tootsie Trading Places, starring Dan Aykroyd and Eddie Murphy WarGames, starring Matthew Broderick and Ally Sheedy Superman III Flashdance Staying Alive Octopussy Mr. ... Natalie Wood (July 20, 1938 – November 29, 1981) was a three time Academy Award nominated American film actress. ... Brainstorm is a 1983 science fiction film directed by Douglas Trumbull and starring Christopher Walken and Natalie Wood (in her last film appearance). ... Laurence Larry Wachowski (born June 21, 1965) and Andrew Andy Wachowski (born December 29, 1967) are American film directors and writers most famous for creating The Matrix series. ... The year 1999 in film involved some significant events. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ... For other uses, see Total recall (disambiguation). ... David Paul Cronenberg OC, FRSC (born March 15, 1943[2]) is a Canadian film director and occasional actor. ... eXistenZ is a 1999 psychological thriller/science fiction film by Canadian director David Cronenberg. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... The Lawnmower Man is a 1992 film which uses elements from Stephen Kings short story The Lawnmower Man. The films original script, written by director Brett Leonard and producer Gimel Everett, was titled Cyber God and had nothing to do with Stephen King. ... This article describes the British science fiction comedy television series. ... Spy Kids 3-D: Game Over is the third film in the Spy Kids trilogy, written and directed by Robert Rodriguez. ... Brainscan is a 1994 horror film starring Edward Furlong, Frank Langella, and T.Ryder Smith. ... Avalon (アヴァロン, avaron) is a Japanese/Polish Science Fiction movie by Japanese filmmaker Mamoru Oshii. ... Disclosure means the giving out of information, either voluntarily or to be in compliance with legal regulations or workplace rules. ... For other people bearing this name, see Michael Douglas (disambiguation) Michael Kirk Douglas (born September 25, 1944) is an American actor and producer, primarily in movies and television. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... Virtuosity is a 1995 science fiction movie directed by Brett Leonard. ... Denzel Hayes Washington, Jr. ... Russell Ira Crowe (born April 7, 1964) is a New Zealand-Australian[1] actor. ...


Music videos

The lengthy video for hard rock band Aerosmith's 1993 single "Amazing" depicted virtual reality, going so far as to show two young people participating in virtual reality simultaneously from their separate personal computers (while not knowing the other was also participating in it) in which the two engage in a steamy makeout session, sky-dive, and embark on a motorcycle journey together. Hard Rock redirects here. ... This article is about the band Aerosmith. ... See also: 1993 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1993 Record labels established in 1993 // Date Unknown- Christian Rock label Tooth and Nail Records is formed. ... Amazing is a song performed by American hard rock band Aerosmith. ...


Games

In 1991, the company (originally W Industries, later renamed) Virtuality licenced the Amiga 3000 for use in their VR machines and released a VR gaming system called the 1000CS. This was a stand-up immersive HMD platform with a tracked 3D joystick. The system featured several VR games including Dactyl Nightmare (shoot-em-up), Legend Quest (adventure and fantasy), Hero (VR puzzle), Grid Busters (shoot-em-up). Virtual Reality I Glasses Personal Display System is a visor and headphones headset that is compatible with any video input including 3D broadcasting, and usable with most game systems (Nintendo, PlayStation, etc.). Virtual Reality World 3D Color Ninja game comes with headset visor and ankle and wrist straps that sense the player's punches and kicks. Virtual Reality Wireless TV Tennis Game comes with a toy tennis racket that senses the player's swing, while Wireless TV Virtual Reality Boxing includes boxing gloves that the player wears and jabs with. Nintendo's Virtual Boy was sold for only one year, 1995. Bob Ladrach brought Virtual Knight into the major theme park arcades in 1994. Aura Interactor Virtual Reality Game Wear is a chest and back harness through which the player can feel punches, explosions, kicks, uppercuts, slam-dunks, crashes, and bodyblows. It works with Sega Genesis and Super Nintendo. The Amiga 3000T, a towerized version of the A3000. ... Nintendo Company, Limited (任天堂 or ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY, TYO: 7974 usually referred to as simply Nintendo, or Big N ) is a multinational corporation founded on September 23, 1889[1] in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards. ... The Sony PlayStation ) is a video game console of the 32/64-bit era, first produced by Sony Computer Entertainment in the mid-1990s. ... Nintendos Virtual Boy ) (also known as the VR-32 during development) was the first portable game console capable of displaying true 3D graphics. ... The Mega Drive/Genesis was a 16-bit video game console released by Sega in Japan (1988), Europe (1990) and most of the rest of the world as the Mega Drive. ... The Super Nintendo Entertainment System, also known as Super Nintendo, Super NES or SNES, is a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Brazil, Europe, and Australia. ...


In the Mage: The Ascension role-playing game, the mage tradition of the Virtual Adepts is presented as the real creators of VR. The Adepts' ultimate objective is to move into virtual reality, scrapping their physical bodies in favour of improved virtual ones. Also, the .hack series centers on a virtual reality video game. This shows the potentially dangerous side of virtual reality, demonstrating the adverse effects on human health and possible viruses, including a comatose state that some players assume. Metal Gear Solid bases heavily on VR usage, either as a part of the plot, or simply to guide the players through training sessions. In Kingdom Hearts II, the character Roxas lives in a virtual Twilight Town until he merges with Sora. In System Shock, the player has implants making him able to enter into a kind of cyberspace. Its sequel, System Shock 2 also features some minor levels of VR. Mage: The Ascension is a role-playing game based in the World of Darkness, and is published by White Wolf Game Studio. ... This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... The Virtual Adepts are a Tradition, or secret magical society, in the Mage: The Ascension role-playing game. ... .hack is a Japanese multimedia franchise that encompasses two multimedia projects: Project . ... This article is about the original Metal Gear Solid released for the PlayStation. ... Kingdom Hearts II ) is an action role-playing game developed by Square Enix and published by Square Enix and Buena Vista Games (now Disney Interactive Studios) in 2005 for the Sony PlayStation 2 video game console. ... The members of Organization XIII in the image are, from left to right, Xigbar, Demyx, Luxord, Saïx, Xaldin, Xemnas, Axel, Marluxia, Larxene, Lexaeus, Zexion, and Vexen. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ... For the Doctor Who novel, see System Shock (Doctor Who). ... System Shock 2 (commonly abbreviated SS2 or Shock2) is a science fiction horror-themed hybrid game which incorporates a number of elements commonly seen in computer role-playing games and first-person shooters. ...


Due to the increasing popularity of massively multiplayer games and simulated reality fiction, some members of the MMOG community have jokingly compared real life to MMORPG mechanics. [1] Simulated reality is the idea that reality could be simulated — often computer-simulated — to a degree indistinguishable from true reality. ...


Fine Art

David Em was the first fine artist to create navigable virtual worlds in the 1970s. His early work was done on mainframes at III, JPL and Cal Tech. Jeffrey Shaw explored the potential of VR in fine arts with early works like Legible City (1989), Virtual Museum (1991), Golden Calf(1994). Canadian artist Char Davies created immersive VR art pieces Osmose (1995) and Ephémère (1998). Maurice Benayoun's work introduced metaphorical, philosophical or political content, combining VR, network, generation and intelligent agents, in works like Is God Flat (1994), The Tunnel under the Atlantic (1995), World Skin (1997). Other pioneering artists working in VR have included Rita Addison, Rebecca Allen, Perry Hoberman, Jacki Morie, and Brenda Laurel. American Artist 1952- David Em is a pioneer in the use of computers in art. ... 3 (three) is the natural number following 2 and preceding 4. ... The JPL complex in Pasadena, Ca. ... California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, United States. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Tunnel under the Atlantic is an interactive art installation by Maurice Benayoun. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Perry Hoberman is an installation artist who has worked extensively with machines and media. ... Brenda Laurel is a pioneering writer, researcher, designer and entrepeneur in the fields of human-computer interaction, interactive narrative and cultural aspects of technology. ...


Marketing

A side effect of the chic image that has been cultivated for virtual reality in the media is that advertising and merchandise have been associated with VR over the years to take advantage of the buzz. This is often seen in product tie-ins with cross-media properties, especially gaming licenses, with varying degrees of success. The NES Power Glove by Mattel from the 1980s was an early example as well as the U-Force and later, the Sega Activator. Marketing ties between VR and video games are not to be unexpected, given that much of the progress in 3D computer graphics and virtual environment development (traditional hallmarks of VR) has been driven by the gaming industry over the last decade. TV commercials featuring VR have also been made for other products, however, such as Nike's "Virtual Andre" in 1997, featuring a teenager playing tennis using a goggle and gloves system against a computer generated Andre Agassi. “NES” redirects here. ... The Japanese Nintendo Power Glove, manufactured by PAX The Power Glove (1989) is a controller accessory for the Nintendo Entertainment System designed by the team of Grant Goddard and Sam Davis for Abrams/Gentile Entertainment, made by Mattel in the United States and PAX in Japan. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... The U-Force is an accessory for the Nintendo Entertainment System made by Brøderbund. ... The Sega Activator was an octagonal game controller for the Sega Genesis that used infrared beams to interpret movements. ...


Health care education

While its use is still not widespread, virtual reality is finding its way into the training of health care professionals. Use ranges from anatomy instruction (example) to surgery simulation (example). Annual conferences are held to examine the latest research in utilizing virtual reality in the medical fields. Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...


Therapeutic uses

The primary use of VR in a therapeutic role is its application to various forms of exposure therapy, ranging from phobia treatments, to newer approaches to treating PTSD. A very basic VR simulation with simple sight and sound models has been shown to be invaluable in phobia treatment (notable examples would be various zoophobias, and acrophobia) as a step between basic exposure therapy such as the use of simulacra and true exposure. A much more recent application is being piloted by the U.S. Navy to use a much more complex simulation to immerse veterans (specifically of Iraq) suffering from PTSD in simulations of urban combat settings. While this sounds counterintuitive, talk therapy has limited benefits for people with PTSD, which is now thought by many to be a result of changes either to the limbic system in particular, or a systemic change in stress response. Much as in phobia treatment, exposure to the subject of the trauma or fear seems to lead to desensitization, and a significant reduction in symptoms. Some information on this can be found at this Businessweek article as well as this Office of Naval Research article. For other uses, see Phobia (disambiguation). ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... Zoophobia may have one of two closely related meanings: a generic term for the class of specific phobias to particular animals, or an irrational fear or even simply dislike of any non-human animals. ... View through the glass floor of the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... Desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organisms negative reaction to a substance or stimulus. ...


Real estate

The real estate sector has used the term "virtual reality" for websites that offer panoramic images laced into a viewer such as QuickTime Player in which the viewer can rotate to see all 360 degrees of the image. Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... QuickTime Player is the default media player for QuickTime movies and is shipped with the standard QuickTime installation for both Mac OS and Windows. ...


Challenges

Virtual reality has been heavily criticized for being an inefficient method for navigating non-geographical information. At present, the idea of ubiquitous computing is very popular in user interface design, and this may be seen as a reaction against VR and its problems. In reality, these two kinds of interfaces have totally different goals and are complementary. The goal of ubiquitous computing is to bring the computer into the user's world, rather than force the user to go inside the computer. The current trend in VR is actually to merge the two user interfaces to create a fully immersive and integrated experience. See simulated reality for a discussion of what might have to be considered if a flawless virtual reality technology was possible. Another obstacle is the headaches due to eye strain, caused by VR headsets. RSI can also result from repeated use of the handset gloves. Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp, or sometimes ubiqcomp) integrates computation into the environment, rather than having computers which are distinct objects. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... This article is about the machine. ... Simulated reality is the idea that reality could be simulated — often computer-simulated — to a degree indistinguishable from true reality. ...


Pioneers and notables

The Banff Centre is a highly respected arts, cultural, and educational institution in Banff, Alberta Canada. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Mark Bolas is a research scientist, artist, and designer exploring perception, agency, and intelligence. ... Frederick Phillips Brooks, Jr. ... Dr. James H. Clark (born 1944) is a prolific entrepreneur and former computer scientist. ... Doug Church is an American computer game designer and producer. ... Donna Cox is a Professor of Art at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. ... Tom DeFanti is a computer graphics researcher and pioneer. ... David Deutsch (born 1953) is a physicist at Oxford University. ... American Artist 1952- David Em is a pioneer in the use of computers in art. ... Scott Fisher is an artist and technologist who has worked extensively on virtual reality, including stints at NASA, Atari Research Labs, MITs Architecture Machine Group and Keio University. ... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... Morton Heilig was a thought-leader in Virtual Reality (VR). ... Myron Krueger (born 1942 in Gary, Indiana) is an American computer artist who developed early interactive works. ... Jaron Lanier Jaron Lanier (born 1960) is a virtual reality developer. ... Brenda Laurel is a pioneering writer, researcher, designer and entrepeneur in the fields of human-computer interaction, interactive narrative and cultural aspects of technology. ... Mark Pesce in downtown Sydney, Australia Mark Pesce, (December 8, 1962) one of the early pioneers in practical Virtual Reality, is a writer, teacher, and high technologist living in Sydney, Australia. ... Warren Robinett is a designer of interactive computer graphics software, notable as the developer of Adventure, the first graphical adventure video game, and as the founder of The Learning Company, where he designed Rockys Boots. ... Dan Sandin Daniel J. Sandin (born 1942) is a video and computer graphics artist/researcher. ... Susumu Tachi (born January 1, 1946) is currently a professor at the Department of Information Physics and Computing of the University of Tokyo. ... Ivan Sutherland Ivan Sutherland, working at MIT (1963) Ivan Edward Sutherland (born 1938 in Hastings, Nebraska) is a computer programmer and Internet pioneer. ...

See also

Artificial reality was the term Myron W. Krueger used to describe his interactive immersive environments, based on video recognition techniques, that put a user in full, unencumbered contact with the digital world. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Augmented reality. ... Augmented reality (AR) is a field of computer research which deals with the combination of real world and computer generated data. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Interactive art is a form of art that involves the spectator in some way. ... The idea of a Virtuality Continuum (VC) was introduced my Paul Milgram[1] to highlight how Mixed Reality, Virtual Reality, Augmented Virtuality, Augmented Reality, and Reality displays relate to one another. ... A Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (better known by the recursive acronym CAVE) is an immersive virtual reality environment where projectors are directed to four, five or six of the walls of a room-sized cube. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Social constructionism. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... An open surface with u- and v-flow lines and Z-contours shown. ... It has been suggested that Virtual world be merged into this article or section. ... DotSoul is an immersive 3D Virtual Reality MMORPG open to those who observe its Code. ... This article is about video games. ... A GeoWall is a low cost interactive 3D stereoscopic projection system. ... The Geospatial Web or Geoweb is a relatively new term that implies the merging of geographical (location-based) information with the abstract information that currently dominates the Internet. ... A Head Mounted Display (HMD) is a device that one wears on ones head to have video information directly displayed in front of ones eyes. ... In semiotics and postmodern philosophy, the term hyperreality characterizes the inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from fantasy, especially in technologically advanced postmodern cultures. ... The term metaverse comes from Neal Stephenson’s 1992 novel Snow Crash, and is now widely used to describe the vision behind current work on fully immersive 3D virtual spaces. ... There are a number of methods by which virtual reality (VR) can be done. ... A narrative environment is a space, whether physical or virtual, in which stories can unfold. ... Omnidirectional treadmill-based immersive simulator An omnidirectional treadmill, or ODT, is a device that allows a person to perform locomotive motion in any direction. ... Parallel rendering is used to improve the performance of computer graphics. ... QuickTime VR (virtual reality) (also known as QTVR) is a type of image file format supported by Apples QuickTime. ... VR Photography is the name the emerging field of virtual reality photography is being called. ... This article is about a virtual world. ... Simulated reality is the idea that reality could be simulated — often computer-simulated — to a degree indistinguishable from true reality. ... A Virtual artifact (VA) is an immaterial object that exists in the human mind or in a digital environment, for example the Internet, intranet, virtual reality, etc. ... Nintendos Virtual Boy ) (also known as the VR-32 during development) was the first portable game console capable of displaying true 3D graphics. ... A virtual tour (or virtual reality tour) is virtual reality simulation of an actually existing location, usually comprising 2D panoramic images, a sequence of hyperlinked still or video images, and/or image-based models of the real location, as well as other multimedia elements such as sound effects, music, narration... VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language, pronounced vermal or by its initials, originally known as the Virtual Reality Markup Language) is a standard file format for representing 3-dimensional (3D) interactive vector graphics, designed particularly with the World Wide Web in mind. ... A virtual retinal display (VRD), also known as a retinal scan display (RSD), is a new display technology that draws a raster display (like a television) directly onto the retina of the eye. ... NASA World Wind, an open source virtual globe with stars and advanced atmosphere & sunlight effects Microsoft Virtual Earth 3D within Windows Live Local site Earthsim, real-time Earth render with atmosphere modeling 3D Weather Globe & Atlas, Earth render with satellite cloud coverage and atmosphere A virtual globe is a 3D... A Virtual Facility (VF) is a highly realistic digital representation of a data center (primarily). ... VirtuSphere is a virtual reality device. ... v-Business is the sale of real or virtual products from a virtual world. ... X3D is the ISO standard for real-time 3D computer graphics, the successor to Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). ... XVROS stands for the eXtensible Virtual Reality Operating System. The projects goal is to develop a collection of open protocols for building distributed online virtual reality environments. ...

References

Notes
  1. ^ Garb, Yaakov (Winter 1987). "Virtual reality". Whole Earth Review (57): 118ff. 
  2. ^ http://www.jaronlanier.com/general.html
  3. ^ Times Online
  4. ^ http://virtualreality.universityvillagepress.com/index.php?itemid=25&catid=4
Bibliography
  • Brooks Jr., F. P. (1999). "What's Real About Virtual Reality?", IEEE Computer Graphics And Applications, 19(6), 16
  • Burdea, G. and P. Coffet (2003). Virtual Reality Technology, Second Edition. Wiley-IEEE Press.
  • Kalawsky, R. S. (1993). The Science of Virtual Reality and Virtual Environments: A Technical, Scientific and Engineering Reference on Virtual Environments, Addison-Wesley, Wokingham, England ; Reading, Mass.
  • Kelly, K., A. Heilbrun and B. Stacks (1989). "Virtual Reality; an Interview with Jaron Lanier", Whole Earth Review, Fall 1989, no. 64, pp. 108(12)
  • Krueger, M. W. (1991). Artificial Reality II, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts
  • Lanier, J., and F. Biocca (1992). "An Insider's View of the Future of Virtual Reality." Journal of Communication, 42(4), 150
  • Packer, Randall, and Ken Jordan (eds). 2002. Multimedia: From Wagner to Virtual Reality, Expanded Edition. W.W. Norton.
  • Packer, Randall, and Ken Jordan (eds). 2000. Virtual Art Museum - Multimedia: From Wagner to Virtual Reality
  • Rheingold, H. (1992). Virtual Reality, Simon & Schuster, New York, N.Y.
  • Robinett, W. (1994). "Interactivity and Individual Viewpoint in Shared Virtual Worlds: The Big Screen vs. Networked Personal Displays." Computer Graphics, 28(2), 127
  • Slater, M., Usoh, M.(1993). “The Influence of a Virtual Body on Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments” Virtual Reality International 93, Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Virtual Reality, London, April 1993, pages 34--42. Meckler, 1993
  • Stanney, K. M. ed. (2002). Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah, New Jersey
  • Sutherland, I. E. (1965). "The Ultimate Display". Proceedings of IFIP 65, vol 2, pp. 506-508
  • Goslin, M, and Morie, J. F., (1996). "Virtopia" Emotional experiences in Virtual Environments", Leonardo, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 95-100.
  • Robles-De-La-Torre G. The Importance of the Sense of Touch in Virtual and Real Environments. IEEE Multimedia 13(3), Special issue on Haptic User Interfaces for Multimedia Systems, pp. 24-30 (2006).
  • Hayward V, Astley OR, Cruz-Hernandez M, Grant D, Robles-De-La-Torre G. Haptic interfaces and devices. Sensor Review 24(1), pp. 16-29 (2004).
  • Monkman. G.J. ‑ An Electrorheological Tactile Display ‑ Presence (Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments) ‑ Vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 219-228, MIT Press, July 1992.
  • Monkman. G.J. - 3D Tactile Image Display - Sensor Review - Vol 13, issue 2, pp. 27-31, MCB University Press, April 1993.
  • Klein. D, D. Rensink, H. Freimuth, G.J. Monkman, S. Egersdörfer, H. Böse, & M. Baumann - Modelling the Response of a Tactile Array using an Electrorheological Fluids - Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol 37, no. 5, pp794-803, 2004
  • Klein. D, H. Freimuth, G.J. Monkman, S. Egersdörfer, A. Meier, H. Böse M. Baumann, H. Ermert & O.T. Bruhns - Electrorheological Tactile Elements. Mechatronics - Vol 15, No 7, pp883-897 - Pergamon, September 2005.

Frederick Phillips Brooks, Jr. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Virtual reality (abbreviated VR) describes an environment that is simulated by a computer. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Jaron Lanier Jaron Lanier (born 1960) is a virtual reality developer. ... Whole Earth Review is the former name of a magazine once known as CoEvolution Quarterly and now known as Whole Earth. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Artificial reality was the term Myron W. Krueger used to describe his interactive immersive environments, based on video recognition techniques, that put a user in full, unencumbered contact with the digital world. ... Jaron Lanier Jaron Lanier (born 1960) is a virtual reality developer. ... Howard Rheingold at the Ars Electronica in 2004 Howard Rheingold (born July 7, 1947) is a leading thinker and writer on the cultural, social and political implications of modern communications media such as the Internet, mobile telephony and virtual communities (a term he is credited with inventing). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Warren Robinett is a designer of interactive computer graphics software, notable as the developer of Adventure, the first graphical adventure video game, and as the founder of The Learning Company, where he designed Rockys Boots. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Virtual reality (abbreviated VR) describes an environment that is simulated by a computer. ... Ivan Sutherland Ivan Sutherland, working at MIT (1963) Ivan Edward Sutherland (born 1938 in Hastings, Nebraska) is a computer programmer and Internet pioneer. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The International Federation for Information Processing, usually known as IFIP, is an umbrella organization for national societies working in the field of information technology. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

Information and commentary

Virtual Reality Hardware Distributor: CyberWorld, Inc. HowStuffWorks is a website created by Marshall Brain but now owned by the Convex Group. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Virtual reality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2365 words)
It was primitive both in terms of user interface and realism, and the HMD to be worn by the user was so heavy it had to be suspended from the ceiling, and the graphics comprising the virtual environment were simple wireframe rooms.
In the late 1980s the term "virtual reality" was popularized by Jaron Lanier, one of the modern pioneers of the field.
One difference from current virtual reality technology, however, was that replicators and transporters were used to actually create and place objects in the holodeck, rather than relying solely on the illusion of physical objects, as is done today.
Virtual reality - definition of Virtual reality in Encyclopedia (739 words)
Most virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special stereoscopic goggles, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers.
Virtual reality originally denoted a fully immersive system, although it has since been used to describe systems lacking cybergloves etc., such as VRML on the World Wide Web and occasionally even text-based interactive systems such as MOOs or MUDs.
However, in reality, it is always easy to tell VR from reality: the images are less than realistic, they lag one's movements, and other senses, including the senses of touch and smell, give away the unreality of the scene before you.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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