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Encyclopedia > Virginity
In Roman times, the Vestal Virgins remained celibate for 30 years on penalty of death
In Roman times, the Vestal Virgins remained celibate for 30 years on penalty of death

A virgin is a young woman characterized by absence of sexual experience (see Etymology). Virginity is the state of being a virgin. The word also has extended applications, by relaxing the age, gender or sexual specifics. Hence, more mature women can be virgins (The Virgin Queen), men can be virgins, and potential initiates into many fields can be colloquially termed virgins. Look up virgin, virginity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A vestal virgin, detail of an engraving by Sir Frederick Leighton, created Lord Leighton, the first British aritist to be given a title. ... A vestal virgin, detail of an engraving by Sir Frederick Leighton, created Lord Leighton, the first British aritist to be given a title. ... Image of a Roman Vestal Virgin In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins (sacerdos Vestalis), were the virgin holy priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. ... Virgin redirects here. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ...


The word is emotive, for some, because it distinguishes between unmarried women who have had no sexual partners, and those who have (see Feminist criticism). The idea that a virgin has an emotional "blank slate", without complications for her potential intimate emotional life with men,[1] leads to the abstraction of unadulterated purity, which can be applied even to non-human referents. Unalloyed metal is sometimes described as virgin. Some cocktails can be described as virgin, when lacking the alcoholic admixture. Similarly, olive oil may be called virgin or extra-virgin, if it comes from the first pressing and contains no refined oil. Virgin redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cocktail (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ...


The last instance also incorporates an additional association of virginity — the notability of its loss. More properly, the association is with the significance of the addition of a new status, rather than a loss. Hence this association is typically found in references to the first instance of a potentially extended series of like events. Just as virgin olive oil is from the first pressing, so a maiden or virgin speech is an incumbent's first address. A maiden may refer to: A female virgin. ... A maiden speech is the first speech given by a newly elected representative in such bodies as the House of Commons or the United States House of Representatives. ... Open seat redirects here. ...


Wool can be virgin. Computer systems can be virgin.[2] Unfertilized gametes can be virgin. Females of various species, by analogy with Homo sapiens, if they have never mated, can also be called virgin. A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετης; translated gamete = wife, gametes = husband) is a cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word virgin is the root form of the Latin noun virgo, genitive virgin-is, meaning "young woman" or "girl". The Latin word probably arose by analogy with a suit of lexemes based on vireo, meaning "to be green, fresh or flourishing", mostly with botanic reference — in particular, virga meaning "strip of wood".[3] The first known use of virgin in English comes from an Anglo-Saxon manuscript held at Trinity College, Cambridge. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Definition A lexeme is an abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics, that roughly corresponds to a set of words that are the same in basic meaning. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street...

  • c. 1200: Ðar haueð ... martirs, and confessors, and uirgines maked faier bode inne to women. — Trinity College Homilies 185 [ms B.15.34 (369)]

In this, and many later contexts, the reference is specifically Christian — alluding to members of the order of virgins known to have existed since the early church from the writings of the Church Fathers.[4] However, within about a century, the word was expanded to apply also to Mary, the mother of Jesus, hence to sexual virginity explicitly. This is a listing of illuminated manuscripts produced in Anglo-Saxon monasteries, or by Anglo-Saxon scribes or illuminators working in continental scriptoria. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

  • c. 1300: Conceiud o þe hali gast, born o þe virgine marie. — Cursor Mundi 24977

Further expansion of the word to include virtuous (or naïve) young women, irrespective of religious connection, occured over about another century. Cursor Mundi (Latin, Runner of the World) is a lengthy religious history written around 1300 AD by an anonymous cleric. ...

These are just three of the eighteen definitions of virgin from the first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED1, pages 230-232). Most of the OED1 definitions, however, are very similar. The Alexander Romance is any of several collections of legends concerning the mythical exploits of Alexander the Great. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


Frank Harris (1923) claims to have given the following humorous etymology in a lecture, " 'vir,' as everyone knows, is Latin for a man, while 'gin' is good old English for a trap; virgin is therefore a mantrap."[5] Other, serious, but unsupported etymologies exist in print. Frank Harris by Alvin Langdon Coburn. ...


The German for "virgin" is de:Jungfrau. Although Jungfrau literally means "young woman", the standard German word for a young woman, without implications regarding sexuality, is de:Fräulein. Fräuline is also used as a title of respect (like Miss in English). Jungfrau is the word reserved specifically for sexual inexperience. Clearly it implies a female referent, as de:Frau means "woman". Unlike English, German has a specific word for a male virgin de:Jüngling. It is, however, rarely used in this sense. German also distinguishes between young women and girls, who are denoted by the word de:Mädchen. The English cognate "maid" was often used to imply virginity, especially in poetry. Señorita redirects here. ... For other uses, see Girl (disambiguation). ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


By contrast, the Greek word for "virgin" is parthenos (el:παρθένος, see Parthenon). Although typically applied to women, like English, it is also applied to men, in both cases specifically denoting absence of sexual experience. When used of men, it does not carry a strong association of "never-married" status. However, in reference to women, historically, it was sometimes used to refer to an engaged woman — parthenos autou (παρθένος αὐτού, his virgin) = his fiancée as opposed to gunē autou (γυνή αὐτού, his woman) = his wife. This distinction is necessary due to there being no specific word for wife (or husband) in Greek. For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... “Engaged” redirects here. ...


One could take the modern day example of Andy Rogers, of LSE FC fame, who's high moral values have kept him in his virgin state as a prime example of what a ridiculous condition it is to suffer from


In culture

The status of virginity has historically been respected in various ways, particularly when there are traditional or religious views associating sexual exclusiveness with marriage. This article is about human sexual perceptions. ...


Female virginity is closely interwoven with personal or even family honour in many cultures, especially those known as shame societies. In such cultures the loss of virginity before marriage is a matter of deep shame. For example, among the Bantu of South Africa, virginity testing or even the suturing of the labia majora (called infibulation) has been commonplace. This would typically involve personal inspection by a female elder.[citation needed] Traditionally, Kenuzi girls (of the Sudan) are married before puberty (Godard, 1867), by adult men who inspect them manually for virginity (Kenedy, 1970). Female circumcision is later performed at puberty to ensure chastity (Barclay, 1964). A shame society is one in which the primary device for gaining control over children and maintaining control over adults is the inculcation of shame and the complementary threat of ostracism. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (light brown) vs. ... For other uses, see Suture (disambiguation). ... Parts of a vulva The external genital organs of the female are collectively known as the vulva (also sometimes called the pudenda). ... Infibulation, in its modern use of the word, is the practice of surgical closure of the female labia majora by sewing them together to seal off the female genitalia, leaving only a small hole for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. ... Female circumcision (including excision) loosely refers to a number of procedures performed on the female genitalia and which are generally of a cultural, rather than medical, nature. ...


In Western marriage ceremonies, brides traditionally wear veils and white wedding dresses, which are inaccurately believed by many people to be symbols of virginity. In fact, wearing white is a comparatively recent custom among western brides, who previously wore whatever colors they wished or simply their "best dress." Wearing white became a matter first of trendy fashion and then of custom and tradition only over the course of the 19th century.


Some feminists have claimed that the very notion of virginity is a sexist construct, since it is rarely applied to men, even in the conservative societies that prize virginity most highly.[citation needed] History evidences laws and customs that required a man who seduced or raped a virgin to take responsibility for the consequences of his offense by marrying the girl or by paying compensation to her father on her behalf.[6] Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Sexism is discrimination between people based on their Sex rather than their individual merits. ...


Technical virginity

Some historians and anthropologists note that many societies that place a high value on virginity before marriage, such as the United States before the sexual revolution, actually have a large amount of premarital sexual activity that does not involve vaginal penetration: for example, oral sex, anal sex and mutual masturbation. This is considered by some people "technical" virginity, as vaginal intercourse has not occurred but the participants are sexually active.[citation needed] This distinction is not identical to the distinction President Bill Clinton made in the Lewinsky scandal, when he said, "I did not have sexual relations with that woman," but it is closely related to it. Some cynics remarked that "blow jobs don't count," in the Lewinsky matter: the same rule is often applied to both adultery and virginity. Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... For the Macy Gray song, see Sexual Revolution (song). ... Sexual penetration (as opposed to outercourse) typically involves the insertion of the penis into a bodily orifice. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Monica Lewinsky scandal was a political-sex scandal emerging from a sexual relationship between United States President Bill Clinton and a then 22-year-old White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. ... Bill Clinton denying the allegations of sexual misconduct. ... Oral sex consists of all those sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, tongue, etc. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ...


The notion of technical virginity is widely derided by many social commentators. Assertions of technical virginity, often made for religious reasons, may be regarded by some as grossly hypocritical and self delusional.


The well known advice columnist Dan Savage frequently ridicules such assertions when made by correspondents to his column and podcast Savage Love. His view, shared by many, is that "having sex", explicitly includes sexual activity other than vaginal intercourse, including oral or anal sex, or mutual masturbation. It therefore follows that once an individual has engaged in such sexual activity, they are no longer a virgin in any meaningful sense. Dan Savage speaking at Bradley University Daniel Keenan Savage (born October 7, 1964[1] near Chicago, Illinois, United States) is an openly gay American sex advice columnist, author, media pundit, journalist, and newspaper editor. ... Savage Love is a syndicated sex-advice column by Dan Savage, appearing weekly in several dozen newspapers, mainly free city papers in the U.S. and Canada, but also newspapers in Europe and Asia. ...


Loss of virginity

The act of losing one's virginity, that is, of a first sexual experience, is commonly considered within Western culture to be an important life event and a rite of passage. It is highlighted by many mainstream Western movies (particularly films aimed at a teenaged audience). The loss of virginity can be viewed as a milestone to be proud of or as a failure to be ashamed of, depending on cultural perceptions. Historically, these perceptions were heavily influenced by perceived gender roles, such that for a male the association was more often with pride and for a female the association was more often with shame. For other uses, see Rite of passage (disambiguation). ... Look up mainstream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... The teen film (also called teen movie or teenpic) is a film genre in which the plot is based upon the special interests of teenagers, such as coming of age, first love, rebellion, conflict with parents, teen angst and alienation. ... A bagpiper in military uniform. ...


Among human females, the hymen is a membrane, part of the vulva, which partially occludes the entrance to the vagina which stretches, or is sometimes torn when the woman first engages in sexual intercourse. The human hymen can vary widely in thickness, shape, and flexibility. The presence of an intact membrane has historically been seen as physical evidence of virginity in the broader technical sense, though this method does not account for the fact that its absence might not indicate the opposite. [citation needed] For the Greek god of marriage, see Hymenaios. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... The external genital organs of the female are collectively known as the vulva (plural vulvae or vulvas)[1]. In common speech, the term vagina is often used improperly to refer to the vulva or female genitals generally, even though, strictly speaking, the vagina is a specific internal structure, whereas the... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ...


In the majority of women, the hymen is sufficiently vestigial as to pose no obstruction to the entryway of the vagina. The presence of a broken hymen may therefore indicate that the vagina has been penetrated but also that it was broken via physical activity or the use of a tampon or dildo. Many women possess such thin, fragile hymens, easily stretched and already perforated at birth, that the hymen can be broken, or merely disappear, in childhood, without the woman's even being aware of it. A hymen can sometimes be broken while riding a horse or bicycle, though this is not common. A vestigial organ is an organ whose original function has been lost during evolution. ... For the commune of Réunion, see Le Tampon. ... A 7-inch silicone dildo A dildo (or dildoe, a rare alternate spelling) is a sex toy, often explicitly phallic in appearance, intended for bodily interaction during masturbation or sexual intercourse. ...


In contrast to the common cases of an absent or partial hymen, in rare cases a woman may possess an imperforate hymen, such as prevents the release of menstrual discharge. A surgical procedure known as hymenotomy, which creates an opening in the hymen, is sometimes required to avert deleterious health effects. The playwright Ben Jonson claimed that Queen Elizabeth I of England, the Virgin Queen, had a "membranum" that made her "incapable of Man", and that a friend of hers, a "chirurgeon", had offered to remedy the problem with his scalpel and that Elizabeth had demurred. “Surgeon” redirects here. ... A Hymenotomy is a minor medical procedure involving the surgical removal or opening of the hymen. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


(Another explanation of Elizabeth's apparent lifelong virginity is obvious: under English law in her time, Elizabeth was the first Queen regnant, as powerful as a king—and she knew it—but only while unmarried: as soon as she married, her husband would take all her power away. King Phillip II of Spain courted her for this very reason. She liked being queen, so she turned down a number of suitors, including a few she liked. It is possible that she took a lover without being married, but this has not been shown.) Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a woman monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of her...


The presence of a hymen is a possible indication, but no guarantee, of virginity, given that it is speculated that some degree of sexual activity may occur without rupturing the hymen and because there may exist varying definitions as to the type and extent of sexual activity that is required to terminate the state of "virginity". This is further complicated by the availability of hymenorrhaphy surgical procedures to repair or replace the hymen. (This procedure, while rare in the U.S., is more common in countries where virginity is greatly prized, as in the Middle East. It is also more common among the wealthier classes than the poorer classes: this is a classical case of elective surgery performed with no medical benefit.) Hymenorrhaphy or hymen reconstruction surgery is the surgical restoration of the hymen. ... Elective surgery is surgery that is not urgently required due to an emergency. ...


In some cultures, women are not regarded as virgins after a sexual assault, but some people disavow this notion. There are also those who take this "spiritual" concept of virginity to its maximum, considering "born again virgins" to be virgins, regardless of their past sexual conduct. However, the word "chastity" is often used in this context rather than "virginity". The Catholic Church prefers nuns to be virgins—certainly young ones must be—but it does allow a few widows to take the veil, on the assumption that their sex lives—and family loyalties that might conflict with their vocations—expired with their husbands. [citation needed] Sexual assault is any physical contact of a sexual nature without voluntary consent. ... Born again is a term used originally and mainly in Christianity, where it is associated with salvation, conversion and spiritual rebirth. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ...


In males, there is no physically visible indicator of virginity. The sexual partner during the loss of virginity is sometimes colloquially said to "take" the virginity of the virgin partner. In some places, this colloquialism is only used when the partner is not a virgin, but in other places, the virginity of the partner does not matter. The archaic term "deflower" is sometimes used in modern times to also describe the act of the virgin's partner, and the clinical term "defloration" is another way to describe the event. A sexual partner is a person with whom one engages in sex acts. ... Look up Colloquialism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ...


One slang term used for virginity is "cherry" (often, this term refers to the hymen, but can refer to virginity in males or females) and for a virgin, deflowering is said to "pop their cherry," a reference to destruction of the hymen during first intercourse. "Popping the cherry" can also refer to a person's first experience of receptive anal sex, and for this reason the anal sphincter can be referred to as the "cherry". For the Greek god of marriage, see Hymenaios. ... The word intercourse refers to: Look up intercourse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A curious term often seen in English translations of the works of the Marquis de Sade is to depucelate. This word is apparently a literal translation of dépuceler, a French verb derived from pucelle (n.f.), which means "virgin". Joan of Arc was commonly called "la Pucelle" by her admirers. Portrait of the Marquis de Sade by Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo (c. ... Look up literal, literally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Joan of Arc (disambiguation). ...


In some countries until the late 20th century, if a man did not marry a woman whose virginity he had taken, the woman was allowed to sue the man for money, in some languages named "wreath money".[7] In the U.S., it is still possible to sue for breach of promise, but the issue is not generally virginity. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Wreath money is not a legal term, but the literal translation of German Kranzgeld, is money paid by a man to a woman as a fine on having sexual intercourse with her under the pretence of an offer of marriage which is then withdrawn. ... Breach of promise is a former tort. ...


Academic study

Although wide variety of terminology is employed within academic literature, a common term for "losing virginity" is sexual debut. One theory hypothesizes there is an appropriate developmental stage for this, hence an approximate age (see age of consent). Age of consent laws Worldwide While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any...


Cultural anthropology

Anthropology is the study of humanity, its development and diversity. A large area within anthropology is cultural anthropology. Field-work in cultural anthropology involves collecting information regarding a culture to produce an ethnography, which can then be compared and contrasted with other cultures. Many ethnographies provide information regarding cultural views of sexual behaviour, including rules and reasons, rewards and punishments. Societies often have clearly differing food and clothing, languages and technology. However, there are universal patterns in language, and broad classifications of technological levels can be made like stone, agriculture, pottery, bronze and iron. Likewise, anthropologists have long known that marriage, family and incest taboo are common to all societies. More recently they have discovered that romantic love and sexual jealousy are also universal features of human relationships.[8] Social values related to virginity clearly reflect both sexual jealousy and ideals of romantic love. For better or for worse, they appear to be deeply embedded in human nature. Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... The incest taboo refers to the prohibition, both formal and unstated, against incest in many societies. ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ... Sexual jealousy is a special form of jealousy in sexual relationships, present in animals that reproduce through internal fertilization, and based on suspected or imminent sexual infidelity. ...


Evolutionary biology

Biology studies the chemical and physical processes associated with life. One aspect of this is the study of the way species evolve over time to adapt to their environments. Animal behaviour (ethology), especially the social behaviour of many mammals is thought to evolve according to similar principles. A recent study provides an example of how evolutionary theory suggests an important question regarding the consequences of human sexual behaviour. Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

In mating systems where individuals pair, separate and re-pair repeatedly (i.e. serial monogamy), some males monopolize more than one female's reproductive life span and thus leave other males effectively mateless. Males who cannot secure females through traditional methods may seek alternatives, such as rape, to ensure gene passage into future generations. Analysis of US government records shows that (i) divorce and remarriage patterns in the United States are likely to increase the variance in male reproductive success, and (ii) rates of divorce and rape correlate positively. The former result suggests that serial monogamy increases the variance in male, relative to female, reproductive success and the latter result suggests that this variance influences the frequency of rape in American society. Because raped females sometimes become pregnant and take these pregnancies to term, our results indicate that rape has current adaptive significance.[9]

If this statistical analysis is sound, a practical application would be that minimizing divorce would help minimize rape. It is difficult to find literature that argues that either divorce or rape should be maximized. A more controversial application would be the legal status of abortion where pregnancy resulted from rape.


Social psychology

Psychology explores the connection between thought and behaviour. Seeking understanding of social (or anti-social) behaviours includes sexual behaviour. Joan Kahn and Kathryn London studied U.S. women married between 1965 and 1985 to see if virginity at marriage influenced risk of divorce. Psychological science redirects here. ...

This article examines the relationship between premarital sexual activity and the long-term risk of divorce among U.S. women married between 1965 and 1985. Simple cross-tabulations from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth indicate that women who were sexually active prior to marriage faced a considerably higher risk of marital disruption than women who [sic] were virgin brides. A bivariate probit model is employed to examine three possible explanations for this positive relationship: (a) a direct causal effect, (b) an indirect effect through intervening "high risk" behaviours (such as having a premarital birth or marrying at a young age), and (c) a selectivity effect representing prior differences between virgins and nonvirgins (such as family background or attitudes and values). After a variety of observable characteristics are controlled, nonvirgins still face a much higher risk of divorce than virgins. However, when the analysis controls for unobserved charateristics affecting both the liklihood of having premarital sex and the likelihood of divorce, the differential is no longer significant. These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital sex and the risk of divorce can be attributed to prior unobserved differences (e.g., the willingness to break traditional norms) rather than to a direct causal effect.[10]

This study makes no recommendation, it simply notes that the women most likely to exercise freedom to enter sexual relationships prior to marriage, overlap significantly with the women most likely to exercise freedom to leave a relationship after marriage. Men were not the subject of this study, they may show a different degree of overlap, greater or lesser.


Famous Virgins include;


Theo Walcott Geardie Doherty Lisa Kudrow Joesph Stalin


Religion

Hinduism

In Sanskrit a virgin is called akṣata-yoni. Kṣata means "diminished", a is the negating prefix and yoni refers to female reproductive organs generically — used freely for womb or vulva as context requires. Hence akṣata-yoni suggests something like "undefiled womb" or "unspoiled vulva", but could be understood specifically as "unruptured hymen". Common related words are kanyā and kumārī, which refer to a young, unmarried girl, a bride or a daughter in general. Whilst virginity is not strictly implied by the words, it is generally presumed. These are also names of the goddess Durga, who is a virgin in some of her aspects or manifestations (see avatar). Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... The external genital organs of the female are collectively known as the vulva (plural vulvae or vulvas)[1]. In common speech, the term vagina is often used improperly to refer to the vulva or female genitals generally, even though, strictly speaking, the vagina is a specific internal structure, whereas the... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... This article is about the concept in Hindu philosophy. ...


a Purāṇa (mythological) text (c. 400) The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ...


"The sun-god said: O beautiful Pṛthā, your meeting with the demigods cannot be fruitless. Therefore, let me place my seed in your womb so that you may bear a son. I shall arrange to keep your virginity intact, since you are still an unmarried girl."[11]


a legal text attributed to Manu (c. ) In Hinduism, Manu is a title accorded the progenitor of humankind, first king to rule this earth, who saves mankind from the universal flood. ...


"The nuptial texts are applied solely to virgins, (and) nowhere among men to females who have lost their virginity, for such (females) are excluded from religious ceremonies."[12]


contemporary Hinduism


In predominantly Hindu societies in Nepal and India, any form of premarital sexual intercourse is still frowned upon immensely and is considered an act destined to bring great dishonour and disrespect to the family. It is practically impossible for a non-virgin girl to find a partner from a traditional family. Often such girls move from a village to a city to escape the related social stigma. In the process, they typically distance themselves from their families, as well as the gossips and moralists they seek to avoid. If the gossips and moralists are in their families, this distance may be exactly what such a girl seeks.


Judaism

Virginity first appears in the Jewish scriptures in Genesis, where Eliezer is seeking a wife for his master's son. He meets Rebekah, and the narrative tells us, "the damsel was very fair to look upon, a virgin, neither had any man known her" (Genesis 24:16). Virginity is a recurring theme in the Bible — the nation is frequently personified as the virgin daughter of Israel in the prophetic poetry. It is a wistful phrase, since Genesis also says that Israel's (Jacob's) only daughter Dinah was, in fact, raped as she entered the promised land. The Torah also contains laws governing betrothal, marriage and divorce, with particular provisions regarding virginity in Deuteronomy 22. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... Eliezer (אֱלִיעֶזֶר / אֱלִיעָזֶר Help/Court of my God, Standard Hebrew Eliʿézer / Eliʿázer, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlîʿézer / ʾĔlîʿāzer) was Moses and Zipporahs second son. ... Rebekah (Rebecca or Rivkah) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ) is the wife of Isaac. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ...


Sex in Judaism is not seen as dirty or undesirable — in fact, sex within marriage is considered a mitzvah, or desirable virtue. Jewish law contains rules related to and protecting female virgins and dealing with consensual and non-consensual pre-marital sex. The thrust of Jewish law's guidance on sex is effectively that it should not be rejected, but should be lived as a wholesome part of life. This article is about commandments in Judaism. ...


Although there is a provision in Judaism for sex outside of marriage, the idea of a pilegesh, is it very seldom used, partially because of the emphasis placed on marriage and other social pressures, and partially because some prominent Rabbis have been opposed to it, for example Maimonides. A Pilegesh is a concubine. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...


While a child born of certain forbidden relationships, such as adultery or incest, is considered a mamzer, approximately translated as illegitimate, who can only marry another mamzer, a child born out of wedlock is not considered a mamzer unless also adulterous or incestuous. This article is about the act of adultery. ... Incest is defined as sexual intercourse between closely related persons. ... Mamzer (Hebrew: ממזר) in Halakha (Jewish religious law) is a person born of certain illegitimate relationships between two Jews. ...


contemporary Judaism


However, in practice, contemporary Judaism is fairly lenient about sexual relations and has been, since its early days, fairly pragmatic about the realities of sex and sexuality. The more liberal denominations (Reconstructionist Judaism, Reform Judaism, and Conservative Judaism) are relatively open to pre-marital sex: while it is not encouraged, it is not ignored, either—rules governing sexuality still apply, etc. In stricter denominations, such as the Hasidim, sex before marriage can be relatively uncommon, as religious practices of modesty, arranged marriages, marriages at a younger age, and related practices, may apply, thus restricting the mobility of single people. Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Hasidim can refer to Saintly Pharisees Hasidic Judaism This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Greece and Rome

Virginity has been often considered to be a virtue denoting purity and physical self-restraint and is an important characteristic of Greek goddesses Athena, Artemis, and Hestia. The Vestal Virgins were strictly celibate priestesses of Vesta. The Maiden or Virgin is one of the three persons of the Triple Goddess in many Neopagan traditions. The constellation Virgo represents a wide selection of sacred virgins. For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hestia (disambiguation). ... Image of a Roman Vestal Virgin In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins (sacerdos Vestalis), were the virgin holy priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. ... Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman mythology. ... A Triple Goddess symbol (probably originating from Classical Greek lunar symbolism), representing the three aspects of the moon (waxing crescent, full moon, waning crescent) and womankind (maiden, mother, crone). ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... Virgo (pronounced , Latin: , symbol , ) is a constellation of the zodiac. ...


Christianity

Like Judaism, from which it was derived, the New Testament views sex within marriage positively, in fact, it is commanded in 1 Corinthians 7. Just as this chapter is against marriage without sex, so it is against sex without marriage. Self control is valued, however it is considered unrealistic for most.[13] Paul, in fact, only echos Jesus in that view. Matthew 19 reports Jesus forbidding divorce and his disciples complaining that made marriage too hard (for men). Jesus' response is to say not marrying is even harder, but good for those who can do without.[14] The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ...


Some have theorized that the New Testament was not against sex before marriage. The discussion turns on two Greek words — moicheia (μοιχεία, adultery) and porneia (el:πορνεία, fornication see also pornography). The first word is restricted to contexts involving sexual betrayal of a spouse, however the second word is a generic term for illegitimate sexual activity. As such it is not specific about which particular behaviours are considered illegitimate. Elsewhere in 1 Corinthians incest, homosexuality and prostitution are all explicitly forbidden by name. The theory suggests it is these, and only these behaviours that are intended by Paul's prohibition in chapter seven. Two of the strongest arguments against this theory are: 1. Paul speaks as though porneia is widespread and virtually inevitable, which is unlikely of incest, homosexuality and prostitution, but plausible of pre-marital sex; and 2. the Old Testament especially, but also the New outside Corinthians, speaks against pre-marital sex; without evidence Paul permitted pre-marital sex, it is safer to assume he did not. Fornication, or simple fornication, is a term which refers to consensual sexual intercourse between two persons not married to each other[1]. In contrast adultery is consensual sex where one or both of the partners are married to someone else. ... Porn redirects here. ... Incest is defined as sexual intercourse between closely related persons. ...


As in Judaism, the interpretation of Genesis is it that describes sex as a gift from God to be celebrated within the context of marriage. The New Testament also speaks of the Christian's body as a holy temple that the Spirit of God comes to dwell in. (1 Corinthians 3:16) Purity in general is deeply threaded throughout the entire Bible.


Christians have officially accepted the New Testament claim that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was a virgin at the time Jesus was conceived, based on the accounts in the gospels of Matthew and Luke. The Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox denominations, additionally hold to the dogma of the perpetual virginity of Mary. However, Protestants cite evidence against this including Mark 6:3, "Isn't this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and the brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? And aren't His sisters here with us?" (HCSB). Some christians may refer to her as the Virgin Mary or the Blessed Virgin Mary. Virgin Mary redirects here. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... Look up denomination in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... The perpetual virginity of Mary is a doctrine of faith of Roman and Eastern Orthodox Catholic Christianity, as well of Islam, stating that Mary, the mother of Jesus, remained an actual virgin, implying both virginal disposition and physical integrity, before, during, and after the birth of Jesus, and thus is... The Holman Christian Standard Bible is an English-language Bible translation, first published with the complete Old and New Testaments in March 2004. ...

contemporary Christianity

In Finland, the phrase ei ennen papin aamenta (not before priest says Amen) refers to abstinence before marriage. It is also used in any contexts to warn doing anything prematurely or before its time. The phrase includes also a side meaning "but do it for good once the priest has said the amen!". This article is about the Hebrew word. ...


Until recently, some states that have a significant Christian population have or have had laws protecting virginity. Germany abandoned a law (§1300 BGB) only in 1998 that entitled the deflowered virgin to compensation if the relationship ended. In Mexico, there is a very old saying, still used by women today: "Fulfill your promise to marry me (if we had sex), or leave me how I was (a virgin)". Some Christians today say that virginity indicates a state of holiness in terms of sexuality before marriage.[citation needed] The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) was the civil code of the German Empire and continues to act as the central law for german civil law. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ...


Islam

Islam provides a decree that sexual activity must occur only between married individuals. Quotes such as 'Do not even go near Adultery' (Al-Isra 17: 32), are testament to this. Islam teaches both partners in a marriage to fulfill and satisfy each other to the fullest extent. Marriage is considered to be "half of the deen (faith)". The husband and wife must always keep in mind the needs, both sexual and emotional, of each other. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Surat Al-Isra (Arabic: سورة الإسراء ) (ie The Night Journey) is the 17th sura of the Quran . ... Deen (دين) is an Arabic word usually explained as way of life or complete code of life. It is not exclusive to Islam, as it also used by Arab Christians. ...


Qur'an 17:32 says "And come not near to the unlawful sexual intercourse. Verily, it is a Fâhishah [i.e. anything that transgresses its limits (a great sin)], and an evil way (that leads one to Hell unless Allâh forgives him)." Unlawful sexual intercourse zina (الزناء) refers both to adultery and premarital sex. Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ...


Medicine and biology

In early modern Europe, prolonged virginity in women was believed to cause the disease of chlorosis or "green sickness". In medicine, chlorosis (also termed an antiquated greensickness) is a form of anemia named for the greenish tinge of the skin of a patient. ...


For cross breedings of some laboratory animals, females are needed that have not already copulated in order to insure that the offspring possess the intended genotype. To do this in Drosophila flies for example, females are used that are maximally 6 to 8 hours old (at 25°C); only after this period has elapsed do inseminations begin. ... Type species Drosophila funebris (Fabricius, 1787) Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called fruit flies, or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger...


References

  1. ^ "The emotional stress of serial non-marriage plays havoc with the possibility of partnering for life." Angela Shanahan, 'Sex revolution robbed us of fertility', The Australian 15 September, 2007.
  2. ^ Denis Howe, 'Virgin', The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, 1993-2007.
  3. ^ 'Virgin', Online Etymology Dictionary.
  4. ^ 'Consecrated virgins and widows', Catechism of the Catholic Church 922–24.
  5. ^ Frank Harris, My Life and Loves, volume 3, (1923).
  6. ^ Deuteronomy 22, see also Shotgun wedding.
  7. ^ Brockhaus 2004, Kranzgeld
  8. ^ Donald Brown, Human Universals, 1991.
  9. ^ Philip T. Starks, Caroline A. Blackie, 'The relationship between serial monogamy and rape in the United States (1960-1995)', Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 267 (2000): 1259-1263.
  10. ^ Joan R. Kahn, Kathryn A. London, 'Premarital Sex and the Risk of Divorce', Journal of Marriage and the Family 53 (1991): 845-855.
  11. ^ Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.24.34, trans. by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda.
  12. ^ Manu-smṛti 8.226, translated by Georg Bühler, (Oxford, 1886).
  13. ^ 1 Corinthians 7.
  14. ^ Matthew 19:1-12.

The Australian is a national daily broadsheet newspaper published by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Frank Harris by Alvin Langdon Coburn. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into forced marriage. ... Cover of Proceedings of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society of London. ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... In Hinduism, Manu is a title accorded the progenitor of humankind, first king to rule this earth, who saves mankind from the universal flood. ...

See also

Almah (עלמה) or plural: alamot (עלמות) is a Hebrew feminine noun, for a girl who has reached puberty but is still under the shielding protection of her family; she is a young, marriageable (i. ... Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ...

External links

Journal articles
Websites
  • University of California, Santa Barbara's SexInfo — advice concerning first time sex

Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ...

Literature

Journals
  • Armour, Stacy and Dana L Haynie. 'Adolescent Sexual Debut and Later Delinquency'. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 36 (2007): 141-152. [abstract only]
  • Goodson, P., A. Evans and E. Edmundson. 'Female adolescents and onset of sexual intercourse: A theory-based review of research from 1984 to 1994.' Journal of Adolescent Health 21 (1997): 147-156. [abstract only]
Monographs
  • Carpenter, Laura. Virginity Lost: An Intimate Portrait of First Sexual Experiences. New York University Press, 2005. ISBN 0814716539

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