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Encyclopedia > Virgil
Publius Vergilius Maro

A bust of Virgil, from the entrance to his tomb in Naples, Italy.
Born: October 15, 70 BC
Andes, North Italy
Died: September 21, 19 BC
Brundisium
Occupation: Poet
Nationality: Roman
Genres: Epic poetry
Subjects: Farming, pastoral poetry
Literary movement: Augustan poetry
Debut works: Bucolics
Influences: Homer
Influenced: The Nationalist movement Dante Alighieri

Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BCSeptember 21, 19 BC), later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Vergil, was a classical Roman poet, the author of epics in three modes: the Bucolics [commonly but less correctly called the Eclogues], the Georgics and the substantially completed Aeneid, the last being an epic poem in the heroic mode, which comprised twelve books (as opposed to 24 in each of the epic poems by Homer) and became the Roman Empire's national epic. Since Virgil depicted his hero Aeneas seeking advice from his father Anchises in the underworld, Dante Alighieri made the shade of Virgil his own guide for his pilgrimage through the inferno and part of purgatory in his own epic poem The Divine Comedy. There are several important things named Virgil Virgil was the famous Roman poet. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 377 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Virgil Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... A bust can be one of: Bust (sculpture), a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC... Brundisium (Gr. ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Agriculture (encompassing farming, grazing, and the tending of orchards, vineyards and timberland) is the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. ... Pastoral poetry is a literary work dealing with the lives of shepherds or rural life in general and typically drawing a contrast between the innocence and serenity of a simple life and the misery and corruption of city and especially court life // The characters in pastoral poetry are often used... ... Augustan poetry is named for Caesar Augustus. ... The Eclogues is one of three major works by the Latin poet Virgil. ... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Eclogues is one of three major works by the Latin poet Virgil. ... The Eclogues is one of three major works by the Latin poet Virgil. ... Georgics Book III, Shepherd with Flocks, Vatican The Georgics, published in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos): is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BCE (between 29 and 19 BCE) that tells the legendary story... In mathematics, see epic morphism. ... This article is about the type of character. ... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... Aeneas Bearing Anchises from Troy, by Carle van Loo, 1729 (Louvre) In Greek mythology, Anchises was a son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus, son of Tros) or Hieromneme, a naiad. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... // Inferno means a large fire in general or hell in particular; it derives from Latin infernus, meaning hell, underworld ( beneath). ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... The Divine Comedy (Italian: , later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio), written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321, is widely considered the central epic poem of Italian literature, and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature. ...

Contents

Life

Legend has it that Virgil was born in the village of Andes, near Mantua in Cisalpine Gaul (Gaul south of the Alps; present-day northern [[Some scholars have claimed Celtic ancestry based upon the location of his birth and upon a perceived "Celtic" strain in his verse. Other scholars suggest Etruscan or Umbrian descent by examining the linguistic or ethnic markers of the region. Analysis of his name has led to beliefs that he descended from earlier Roman colonists. Modern speculation ultimately is not supported by narrative evidence either from his own writings or his later biographers. Etymological fancy has noted that his cognomen MARO shares its letters anagrammatically with the twin themes of his epic: AMOR (love) and ROMA (Rome). Mantua (in Italian Mantova, in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo language Mantua) is an important city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province with the same name. ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ...


Early works

Again legend unsupported by independent data has it that Virgil received his first education when he was 5 years old and that he later went to Rome to study rhetoric, medicine, and astronomy, which he soon abandoned for philosophy; also that in this period, while in the school of Siro the Epicurean, he began to write poetry. A group of small works attributed to the youthful Virgil survive, but are largely considered spurious. One, the Catalepton, consists of fourteen short poems, some of which may be Virgil's, and another, a short narrative poem titled the Culex (the mosquito), was attributed to Virgil as early as the 1st century AD. These dubious poems are sometimes referred to as the Appendix Vergiliana. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of spoken language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... The Appendix Vergiliana is a collection of writings traditionally ascribed as juvenilia of Virgil, although there are general doubts as to their authorship. ...


During the civil strife that killed the Roman Republic, when the dictator Julius Caesar had been assassinated in 44 BCE, the army led by his assassins Brutus and Cassius met defeat by Caesar's faction, including his chief lieutenant Mark Antony and his newly adopted son Octavian Caesar in 42 BCE in Greece near Philippi, to which in the next age the Apostle Paul would direct epistles. The victors paid off their soldiers with land expropriated from towns in northern Italy, supposedly including an estate near Mantua belonging to Virgil: again an inference from themes in his work and not supported by independent sources. Virgil dramatizes the contrasting feelings caused by the brutality of expropriation but also by the promise attaching to the youthful figure of Caesar's heir in the Bucolics, where he works out the mythic framework for life-long ambition to conquer Greek epic for Rome. In themes the ten eclogues develop and vary epic song, relating it first to Roman power (ecl. 1), then to love, both homosexual (ecl. 2) and panerotic (ecl. 3), then again to Roman power and Caesar's heir imagined as authorizing Virgil to surpass Greek epic and refound tradition (ecll. 4 and 5), shifting back to love then as a dynamic source considered apart from Rome (ecl. 6). Hence in the remaining eclogues Virgil withdraws from his newly minted Roman mythology and gradually constructs a new myth of his own poetics: he casts the remote Greek region of Arcadia, home of the god Pan, as the place of poetic origin itself. In passing he again rings changes on erotic themes, such as requited and unrequited homosexual and heterosexual passion, tragic love for elusive women or magical powers of song to retrieve an elusive male. He concludes by establishing Arcadia as a poetic ideal that still resonates in Western literature and visual arts. Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Ancient marble bust of Marcus Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (85 BC – 42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... May refer to the persons: Augustus, Roman Emperor Pope John XIII nigger Category: ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC... Map of Greece showing Philippi Philippi (in Ancient Greek / Philippoi) was a city in eastern Macedonia, founded by Philip II in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. ... Mantua (in Italian Mantova, in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo language Mantua) is an important city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province with the same name. ... The Eclogues is one of three major works by the Latin poet Virgil. ... For the opening number of Fiddler on the Roof, see Tradition (song). ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Arcadia or Arkadía (Greek Αρκαδία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. ... // Look up pan, pan-, Pan, PAN in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arcadia or Arkadía (Greek Αρκαδία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. ...


Readers often naively did and sometimes do identify the poet himself with various characters and their vicissitudes, whether gratitude by an old rustic to a new god (ecl. 1), frustrated love by a rustic singer for a distant boy (his master's pet, ecl. 2), or a master singer's claim to have composed several eclogues (ecl. 5). Modern scholars largely reject such efforts to garner biographical details from fictive texts preferring instead to interpret the diverse characters and themes as representing the poet's own contrastive perceptions of contemporary life and thought.


Biographical reconstruction supposes that Virgil soon became part of the circle of Maecenas, Octavian's capable agent d'affaires who sought to counter sympathy for Mark Antony among the leading families by rallying Roman literary figures to Octavian's side. It also appears that Virgil gained many connections with other leading literary figures of the time, including Horace and Varius Rufus (who later helped finish the Aeneid). After he had completed the Bucolics [so-called in homage to Greek Theocritus, who had been the first to write short epic poems taking herdsmen's life as their apparent theme: 'bucolic' in Greek meaning 'on care for cattle'], Virgil spent the ensuing years (perhaps 37 BCE29 BCE) on the longer epic called Georgics (from Greek, 'on working the earth', because farming is their apparent theme, in the tradition of Greek Hesiod), which he dedicated to Maecenas [source of the expression tempus fugit ("time flies")]. Virgil and Maecenas took turns reading the Georgics to Octavian upon his return from defeating Antony and his consort Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. In 27 BCE the Roman Senate conferred on Octavian the more than human title Augustus, well suited to Virgil's ambition to write an epic to challenge Homer, a Roman epic developed from the Caesarist mythology introduced in the [[Bucolics]] and incorporating now the Julian Caesars' family legend that traced their line back to a mythical Trojan prince who escaped the fall of Troy. Gaius or Cilnius Maecenas (70 - 8 BC) was a confidant and political advisor to Augustus Caesar, as well as an important sponsor of young poets. ... May refer to the persons: Augustus, Roman Emperor Pope John XIII nigger Category: ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... Lucius Varius Rufus (c 74 - 14 BC), Roman poet of the Augustan age. ... The Eclogues is one of three major works by the Latin poet Virgil. ... Theocritus (Greek Θεόκριτος), the creator of Ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of him beyond what can be inferred from his writings. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC... (Redirected from 29 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26... Georgics Book III, Shepherd with Flocks, Vatican The Georgics, published in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Tempus fugit is a latin expression meaning time flees, more commonly translated as time flies. It is frequently used as an inscription on clocks. ... Georgics Book III, Shepherd with Flocks, Vatican The Georgics, published in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... The Fall of Troy is a three-piece post-hardcore/prog-rock band from Mukilteo, Washington. ...


Composition of the Aeneid and death

A stamp featuring a mosaic of Virgil which was discovered in a Tunisian villa from the 3rd century AD.
A stamp featuring a mosaic of Virgil which was discovered in a Tunisian villa from the 3rd century AD.

Virgil worked on the Aeneid during the last ten years of his life. Its first six books tell how the Trojan hero Aeneas escapes from the sacking of Troy and makes his way to Italy. On the voyage, a storm drives him to the coast of Carthage, which historically was Rome's deadliest foe. The queen, Dido, welcomes the ancestor of the Romans, and under the influence of the gods falls deeply in love with him. Jupiter recalls Aeneas to his duty towards Rome, however, and he slips away from Carthage, leaving Dido to commit suicide, cursing Aeneas and calling down revenge in a symbolic anticipation of the fierce wars between Carthage and Rome. On reaching Cumae, in Italy, Aeneas consults the Cumaean Sibyl, who conducts him through the Underworld and where Virgil imagines him meeting his father Anchises who reveals his son's Roman destiny to him. Image File history File links Virgil-Mosaic-Tunesia. ... Image File history File links Virgil-Mosaic-Tunesia. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Aeneas recounting the Trojan War to Dido. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Cumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. ... Michelangelos rendering of the Cumaean Sibyl The Cumaean Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Cumae, a Greek colony located near Naples, Italy. ... // In the study of mythology and religion, the underworld is a generic term approximately equivalent to the lay term afterlife, referring to any place to which newly dead souls go. ... Aeneas Bearing Anchises from Troy, by Carle van Loo, 1729 (Louvre) In Greek mythology, Anchises was a son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus, son of Tros) or Hieromneme, a naiad. ...


The six books (of "first writing") are modeled on Homer's Odyssey, but the last six are the Roman answer to the Iliad. Aeneas is betrothed to Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus, but Lavinia had already been promised to Turnus, the king of the Rutulians, who is roused to war by the Fury Allecto. The Aeneid ends with a single combat between Aeneas and Turnus, whom Aeneas defeats and kills, spurning his plea for mercy. Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia) ) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... In Roman mythology, Lavinia was the daughter of Latinus and Amata. ... Latinus or Latinos in Greek mythology, in Hesiods Theogony, was the son of Odysseus and Circe who ruled the Tyrsenoi, that is the Etruscans, with his brothers Agrius and Telegonus. ... In Vergils Aeneid , Turnus was the King of the Rutuli, and the chief antagonist of the hero Aeneas. ... Two Furies, from an ancient vase. ... In Greek mythology the Erinyes (the Romans called them the Furies) were female personifications of vengeance. ...


The ancient biography relates that Virgil traveled with Augustus to Greece. En route, Virgil caught a fever, from which he died in Brundisium harbor, leaving the Aeneid unfinished. Augustus ordered Virgil's literary executors, Lucius Varius Rufus and Plotius Tucca, to disregard Virgil's own wish that the poem be burned, instead ordering it published with as few editorial changes as possible. As a result, the text of the Aeneid that exists may contain faults which Virgil was planning to correct before publication. However, the only obvious imperfections are a few lines of verse that are metrically unfinished (i.e., not a complete line of dactylic hexameter). Other alleged "imperfections" are subject to scholarly debate. Brundisium (Gr. ... Lucius Varius Rufus (c 74 - 14 BC), Roman poet of the Augustan age. ... Dactyllic hexameter (also known as heroic hexameter) is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme. ...


Incomplete or not, the Aeneid was immediately recognized as a masterpiece, it proclaimed the Imperial mission of the Roman Empire, whilst at the same time pitying Rome's victims and feeling their grief. Aeneas was considered to exemplify virtue and pietas (roughly translated as piety, though the word is far more complex and has a sense of being duty-bound and respectful of divine will, family and homeland). Nevertheless, Aeneas struggles between doing what he wants to do as a man, and doing what he must as a virtuous hero. In the view of some modern critics, Aeneas' inner turmoil and shortcomings make him a more realistic character than the heroes of Homeric poetry, such as Odysseus. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Piety is a desire and willingness to perform spiritual, often ascetic rituals. ... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... For other meanings, see Odysseus crater, 1143 Odysseus “Ulysses” redirects here. ...


Later views of Virgil

Even as the Roman empire collapsed, literate men acknowledged that the Christianized Virgil was a master poet. Gregory of Tours read Virgil whom he quotes in several places, and some other Latin poets, though he cautions us that "We ought not to relate their lying fables, lest we fall under sentence of eternal death." The Aeneid remained the central Latin literary text of the Middle Ages and retained its status as the grand epic of the Latin peoples, and of those who considered themselves to be of Roman provenance, such as the English. It also held religious importance as it describes the founding of the Holy City. Virgil was made palatable for his Christian audience also through a belief in his prophecy of Christ in his Fourth Eclogue. Cicero and other classical writers too were declared Christian due to similarities in moral thinking to Christianity. Surviving medieval collections of manuscripts containing Virgil's works include the Vergilius Augusteus, the Vergilius Vaticanus and the Vergilius Romanus. Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... The Vergilius Augusteus is a manuscript from late antiquity, containing the works of the Roman author Virgil, written probably around the 4th century. ... Folio 22r from the Vatican Virgil contains an illustration from the Aeneid of the flight from Troy. ... Folio 14 recto of the Vergilius Romanus contains an author portrait of Virgil. ...


Dante made Virgil his guide to Hell and the greater part of Purgatory in The Divine Comedy. Dante also mentions Virgil in De vulgari eloquentia, along with Ovid, Lucan and Statius as one of the four regulati poetae (ii, vi, 7). Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... For other uses, see Hell (disambiguation). ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... The Divine Comedy (Italian: , later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio), written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321, is widely considered the central epic poem of Italian literature, and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature. ... De vulgari eloquentia (On Vernacular Speech) is the title of an important essay by Dante Alighieri, written in Latin and initially meant to consist in four books, but aborted after the second. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... Publius Papinius Statius, (c. ...


Virgil is still considered one of the greatest of the Latin poets, and the Aeneid is a fixture of most classical studies programs.


Mysticism and hidden meanings

A 5th century portrait of Virgil from the Vergilius Romanus.
A 5th century portrait of Virgil from the Vergilius Romanus.

In the Middle Ages, Virgil was considered a herald of Christianity for his Eclogue 4 verses (PP Ecl.4) concerning the birth of a boy, which were read as a prophecy of Jesus' nativity. The poem may actually refer to the pregnancy of Octavian's wife Scribonia, who in fact gave birth to a girl. Image File history File links RomanVirgilFolio014rVergilPortrait. ... Image File history File links RomanVirgilFolio014rVergilPortrait. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Folio 14 recto of the Vergilius Romanus contains an author portrait of Virgil. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of humanities resources. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Scribonia (70 BC/68 BC-16) was the daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo and Cornelia Sulla, the granddaughter of Pompey the Great and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. ...


Also during the Middle Ages, as Virgil was developed into a kind of magus, manuscripts of the Aeneid were used for divinatory bibliomancy, the Sortes Virgilianae, in which a line would be selected at random and interpreted in the context of a current situation (Compare the ancient Chinese I Ching). The Old Testament was sometimes used for similar arcane purposes. Even in the Welsh myth of Taliesin, the goddess Cerridwen is reading from the "Book of Pheryllt"—that is, Virgil. The Three Wise Men are given the names Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar in this Romanesque mosaic from the Basilica of St Apollinarius in Ravenna, Italy. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... Bibliomancy is the use of books in divination. ... The sors Vergiliana, also spelled sors Virgiliana (Latin: Vergilian lot), plural sortes Vergilianae or sortes Virgilianae, is a form of divination by bibliomancy in which advice or predictions of the future are sought by randomly selecting a passage from Vergils Aeneid. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ... Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... In Welsh mythology, Ceridwen was a magician, mother of Taliesin, Morfran, and a beautiful daughter. ...


In some legends, such as Virgilius the Sorcerer, the powers attributed to Virgil were far more extensive. Virgilus the Sorcerer is a fairy tale. ...


Virgil's tomb

The tomb known as "Virgil's tomb" is found at the entrance of an ancient Roman tunnel (also known as "grotta vecchia") in the Parco di Virgilio in Piedigrotta, a district two miles from old Naples, near the Mergellina harbor, on the road heading north along the coast to Pozzuoli. The site called Parco Virgiliano is some distance further north along the coast. While Virgil was already the object of literary admiration and veneration before his death, in the following centuries his name became associated with miraculous powers, his tomb the destination of pilgrimages and veneration. The poet himself was said to have created the cave with the fierce power of his intense gaze. The tomb known as Virgils tomb, is found at its entrance of Posilippo Cave (also known as grotta vecchia) in the Parco Virgiliano, located in the town of Campania in the Piedigrotta district not far from Naples, on the road heading north along the coast. ... Church of the Madonna of Piedigrotta Piedigrotta Literally, at the foot of the grotto. A section of the Mergellina quarter of Naples, Italy, so-called for the presence of the Church of the Madonna of Piedigrotta near the entrance to an ancient Roman tunnel. ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Mergellina is a section of the city of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. ... Pozzuoli is a city of the province of Napoli, in the Italian region of Campania. ...


It is said that the Chiesa della Santa Maria di Piedigrotta was erected by Church authorities to neutralize this adoration and "Christianize" the site. The tomb, however, is a tourist attraction, and still sports a tripod burner originally dedicated to Apollo, bearing witness to the beliefs held by Virgil. St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ...


Virgil's name in English

In the Middle Ages "Vergilius" was frequently spelled "Virgilius." There are two explanations commonly given for the alteration in the spelling of Virgil's name. One explanation is based on a false etymology associated with the word virgo (maiden in Latin) due to Virgil's excessively "maiden"-like (parthenias or παρθηνιας in Greek) modesty. Alternatively, some argue that "Vergilius" was altered to "Virgilius" by analogy with the Latin virga (wand) due to the magical or prophetic powers attributed to Virgil in the Middle Ages. In an attempt to reconcile his non-Christian background with the high regard in which medieval scholars held him, it was posited that some of his works metaphorically foretold the coming of Christ, hence making him a prophet of sorts. This view is defended by some scholars today, namely Richard F. Thomas of Harvard. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ...


In Norman schools (following the French practice), the habit was to anglicize Latin names by dropping their Latin endings, hence "Virgil." Norman conquests in red. ...


In the 19th century, some German-trained classicists in the United States suggested modification to "Vergil," as it is closer to his original name, and is also the traditional German spelling. Modern usage permits both, though the Oxford Style Manual recommends Vergilius to avoid confusion with the 8th-century Irish grammarian Virgilius Maro Grammaticus. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bust of Homer. ... Virgilius Maro Grammaticus (Virgil the Grammarian) is one of the most puzzling medieval writers. ...


Some post-Renaissance writers liked to affect the sobriquet "The Swan of Mantua." The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... A sobriquet is a nickname or a fancy name, usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a pseudonym assumed as a disguise, but a nickname which is familiar enough such that it can be used in place of a real name without the need of explanation. ...


See also

A Brazen Head (or Brass Head or Bronze Head) was a prophetic device attributed to many medieval scholars who were believed to be wizards. ...

External links

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Wikisource has original works written by or about:
  • Collected Works
    • Works by P.+Vergilius+Maro at PP
      • Latin texts & commentaries
      • Aeneid translated by T. C. Williams, 1910
      • Aeneid translated by John Dryden, 1697
      • Aeneid, Eclogues & Georgics translated by J. C. Greenough, 1900
    • Works of Virgil at Theoi Project
      • Aeneid, Eclogues & Georgics translated by H. R. Fairclough, 1916
    • Works of Virgil at Sacred Texts
      • Aeneid translated by John Dryden, 1697
      • Eclogues & Georgics translated by J.W. MacKail, 1934
    • P. Vergilivs Maro at The Latin Library
      • Latin texts
    • Works by Virgil at Project Gutenberg
      • Latin texts
      • Aeneid translated by E. Fairfax Taylor, 1907
      • Aeneid, Georgics & Eclogues translated by (unnamed)
    • Virgil's works: text, concordances and frequency list.

The article above was originally sourced from Nupedia and is open content. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of humanities resources. ... The Latin Library is a website that collects public domain Latin texts. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... The Georgics, written in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ... ThoughtCast (www. ... Open content, coined by analogy with open source, (though technically it is actually share-alike) describes any kind of creative work including articles, pictures, audio, and video that is published in a format that explicitly allows the copying of the information. ...

Persondata
NAME Vergilius Maro, Publius
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Vergil
SHORT DESCRIPTION Poet
DATE OF BIRTH October 15, 70 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Andes, North Italy
DATE OF DEATH September 21, 19 BC
PLACE OF DEATH Brundisium

The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Northern Italy encompasses eight of the countrys 20 regions. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC... Brundisium (Gr. ...


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Preserve Virgil (468 words)
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In 2005, Virgil voters elected three Preserve Virgil supported candidates to the Village Board to halt consideration of the proposed 2670-home Founders Creek development – and, in a special advisory referendum, voted more than 2 to 1 against the proposed development.
Virgil - Biography and Works (566 words)
Virgil was born on October 15, 70 B.C.E., in a small village near Mantua in Northern Italy.
Virgil attended school at Cremona and Milan, and then went to Rome, where he studied mathematics, medicine and rhetoric, and completed his studies in Naples.
Virgil was buried near Naples but there are doubts as to the authenticity of the so-called Tomb of Virgil in the area.
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