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Encyclopedia > Viral marketing

Viral marketing and viral advertising refer to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness, through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of pathological and computer viruses. It can be word-of-mouth delivered or enhanced by the network effects of the Internet. [1] Viral marketing is a marketing phenomenon that facilitates and encourages people to pass along a marketing message voluntarily.[2] Viral promotions may take the form of funny video clips, interactive Flash games, advergames, images, or even text messages. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... Not to be confused with social network services such as MySpace, etc. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... Viral phenomena are objects or patterns able to replicate themselves or convert other objects into copies of themselves when these objects are exposed to them. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... In computer security technology, a virus is a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents (for a complete definition: see below). ... For other uses, see Word of mouth (disambiguation). ... // == Macromedia Flash == ==]] Using Macromedia Flash 8 (bundled in Studio 8) in Windows XP. Maintainer: Adobe Systems (formerly Macromedia) Latest release: 8 / September 30th, 2005 OS: Windows (no native Windows XP Professional x64 Edition support), Mac OS X, Linux (i386 only, via wine [1]) Use: Multimedia Content Creator License: Proprietary Website... Advergaming is the practice of using games, particularly computer games, to advertise or promote a product, organisation or viewpoint. ... This is the practise of taking the marketing message directly to the personal pocket of the prospect. ...


It is claimed that a satisfied customer tells an average of three people about a product or service he/she likes, and eleven people about a product or service which he/she did not like.[3] Viral marketing is based on this natural human behaviour.


The goal of marketers interested in creating successful viral marketing programs is to identify individuals with high Social Networking Potential (SNP) and create Viral Messages that appeal to this segment of the population and have a high probability of being passed along. Social Networking Potential (SNP) is a numeric coefficient, derived through algorithms to represent both the size of an individuals social network and their ability to influence that network. ... Viral Messages refer to marketing messages that are passed from person to person through their Social Networks. ...


The term "viral marketing" is also sometimes used pejoratively to refer to stealth marketing campaigns[4]--the use of varied kinds of astroturfing both online and offline [5] to create the impression of spontaneous word of mouth enthusiasm. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... Undercover marketing is a subset of guerrilla marketing where the consumer doesnt realize theyre being marketed to. ... Astroturfing is a term for formal public relations campaigns in politics and advertising that seek to create the impression of being spontaneous, grassroots behavior. ... For other uses, see Word of mouth (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

The term Viral Marketing was coined by a Harvard Business School professor, Jeffrey F. Rayport, in a December 1996 article for Fast Company The Virus of Marketing. [6] The term was further popularized by Tim Draper and Steve Jurvetson of the venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson in 1997 to describe Hotmail's e-mail practice of appending advertising for itself in outgoing mail from their users.[7] Timothy C. Draper is the Founder of the global venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson. ... Steven T. Jürvetson (born in Arizona, USA, 1967) is a Managing Director of Draper Fisher Jurvetson (DFJ). ... Hotmail is a free webmail e-mail service, which is accessible via a web browser. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Advert redirects here. ...


Among the first to write about viral marketing on the Internet was media critic Douglas Rushkoff in his 1994 book Media Virus. The assumption is that if such an advertisement reaches a "susceptible" user, that user will become "infected" (i.e., sign up for an account) and can then go on to infect other susceptible users. As long as each infected user sends mail to more than one susceptible user on average (i.e., the basic reproductive rate is greater than one), standard in epidemiology imply that the number of infected users will grow according to a logistic curve, whose initial segment appears exponential. Media studies is an area of scholarly inquiry approached from both humanities and social science perspectives that considers the nature and effects of mass media upon individuals and society, as well as analysing actual media content and representations. ... Douglas Rushkoff (born 18 February 1961) is a New York-based writer, columnist and lecturer on technology, media and popular culture. ... The basic reproductive rate or the intrinsic rate of reproduction is the number of secondary infections caused by a single infectious case. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... The logistic function or logistic curve is defined by the mathematical formula: for real parameters a, m, n, and . ...


Among the first to write about algorithms designed to identify people with high Social Networking Potential is Bob Gerstley in Advertising Research is Changing. Gerstley uses SNP algorithms in quantitative marketing research to help marketers maximize the effectiveness of viral marketing campaigns.


Notable examples of viral marketing

  • BusinessWeek (2001) described web-based campaigns for Hotmail (1996) and The Blair Witch Project (1999) as striking examples of viral marketing, but warned of some dangers for imitation marketers. [8]
  • Burger King's The Subservient Chicken campaign was cited in Wired as a striking example of viral or word-of-mouth marketing. [9]
  • In 2000, Slate described TiVo's unpublicized gambit of giving free TiVo's to web-savvy enthusiasts to create "viral" word of mouth, pointing out that a viral campaign differs from a publicity stunt. [10]
  • Cadbury's Dairy Milk 2007 Gorilla advert was heavily popularised on YouTube and Facebook.
  • With the emergence of Web 2.0, mostly all web startups like facebook.com, youtube.com, collabotrade.com, myspace.com, and digg.com have made good use of Viral Marketing by merging it with the social networking.
  • The release of the 2007 album Year Zero by Nine Inch Nails involved a viral marketing campaign, including the band leaving USB drives at concerts during NIN's 2007 European Tour.
  • The November 19, 2007 return of Chris Jericho to WWE RAW was heavily promoted on WWE Television with various "Save_Us.222" cryptic-coded videos.

BusinessWeek is a business magazine published by McGraw-Hill. ... Hotmail is a free webmail e-mail service, which is accessible via a web browser. ... The Blair Witch Project is a 1999 independent horror film, financed and distributed by Artisan Entertainment. ... Burger King (NYSE: BKC), often abbreviated to BK, is a global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants. ... The Subservient Chicken is a viral marketing promotion of Burger Kings line of chicken sandwiches and their Have it Your Way campaign. ... Wired can refer to: Wired magazine, a monthly technology magazine. ... The media itself often stage stunts for movies and television shows. ... Gorilla is an advertising campaign launched by Cadbury Schweppes in 2007 to promote Cadbury Dairy Milk-brand chocolate in the United Kingdom. ... On September 30, 2005, OReilly wrote a piece summarizing the subject. ... For the political notion, see Year Zero (political notion). ... NIN redirects here. ... Christopher Keith Irvine (born November 9, 1970), better known by the ring name Chris Jericho, is an American-Canadian actor, radio host, rock musician, and professional wrestler. ... WWE Raw is the Monday night professional wrestling television program for World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) and is the primary broadcast of the RAW brand. ...

See also

Social Networking Potential (SNP) is a numeric coefficient, derived through algorithms to represent both the size of an individuals social network and their ability to influence that network. ... The term viral video refers to video clip content which gains widespread popularity through the process of Internet sharing, typically through email or IM messages, blogs and other media sharing websites. ... A book trailer is a film or video advertisement for a book which employs techniques simliar to those of movie trailers. ... Customer Engagement (CE) refers to the engagement of customers with one another, with a company or a brand. ... Word-of-mouth marketing is a term used in the marketing and advertising industry to describe activities that companies undertake to generate personal recommendations as well as referrals for brand names, products and services. ... Alternate Reality, see Alternate Reality (computer game). ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Direct marketing is a discipline within marketing that involves contacting individual customers (business-to-business or consumer) directly and obtaining their responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships. ... A KMail folder full of spam emails collected over a few days. ... E-mail spam, also known as bulk e-mail or junk e-mail is a subset of spam that involves sending nearly identical messages to numerous recipients by e-mail. ... Example of guerrilla marketing in São Paulo, Brazil promoting the Hopi Hari amusement park. ... Reputation management is the process of tracking an entitys actions and other entities opinions about those actions; reporting on those actions and opinions; and reacting to that report creating a feedback loop. ... Astroturfing is a term for formal public relations campaigns in politics and advertising that seek to create the impression of being spontaneous, grassroots behavior. ... Undercover marketing is a subset of guerrilla marketing where the consumer doesnt realize theyre being marketed to. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ...

References

  1. ^ USAToday: Viral advertising spreads through marketing plans. June 23, 2005, 2005
  2. ^ http://www.marketingterms.com/dictionary/viral_marketing/
  3. ^ Bizsum Book Summary: Secrets of Word Of Mouth Marketing by George Silverman.
  4. ^ Wired: Commentary: Sock Puppets Keep It Shill on YouTube. May 8, 2007
  5. ^ Onion: I'd Love This Product Even If I Weren't A Stealth Marketer. December 14, 2005
  6. ^ The Virus of Marketing.
  7. ^ Montgomery, Alan (Mar-Apr 2001). "Applying Quantitative Marketing Techniques to the Internet" (PDF). Interfaces 31 (2): 90-108. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. 
  8. ^ Viral Marketing Alert!.
  9. ^ Marketers Feverish Over Viral Ads.
  10. ^ TiVo's Stealth Giveaway.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Viral marketing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1830 words)
Viral marketing and viral advertising refer to marketing techniques that seek to exploit pre-existing social networks to produce exponential increases in brand awareness, through viral processes similar to the spread of an epidemic.
Viral marketing is sometimes used to describe some sorts of Internet-based stealth marketing campaigns, including the use of blogs, seemingly amateur web sites, and other forms of astroturfing to create word of mouth for a new product or service.
Viral marketing is popular because of the ease of executing the marketing campaign, relative low-cost (compared to direct mail), good targeting, and the high and rapid response rate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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