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Encyclopedia > Violin
Violin
Classification

String instrument (bowed) Violin Violin is a novel by American horror writer Anne Rice, released on 15 October 1997. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1100, 31 KB) Summary inexpensive Chinese 4/4 violin ca. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ...

Playing range
Related instruments
Musicians
Builders
  • Luthiers
More articles

This article is part of the Fiddle and Violin series. In music, the range of a musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (868x508, 3 KB) Range & tuning of a violin, self made with Sibelius3 & The Gimp File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Violin ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The Violin family of instruments was developed in Italy in the 17th Century. ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... Various sizes of viol, from Michael Praetorius Syntagma musicum (1618) Early Italian tenor viola da gamba, detail from the painting , by Raphael Sanzio, c. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... This is a list of notable violinists. ... Image File history File links Scroll_and_ear. ... “Fiddler” redirects here. ...

The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest and highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which also includes the viola and cello. The distinctive sound of a violin is the result of interactions between its many parts. ... This list of fiddlers shows some crossover with the List of violinists since the instruments used are quite similar, if not identical (given that each violin or fiddle has its own individual character). ... An intricately carved 17th century (circa 1660) British Royal Family violin, on display in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. ... // Jazz The earliest references to jazz performance using the violin as a solo instrument are documented during the first decades of the 20th century. ... Making violins Just a few tools There is a three-dimensional geometric underlying construction that explains the main properties and placement of the different parts and proportions. ... The violin player usually holds the instrument under the chin, supported by the left shoulder (but see below for variations of this posture). ... This article covers the anatomy of a violin and some of its accessories. ... The Violin family of instruments was developed in Italy in the 17th Century. ... This is a list of notable violinists. ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ... The perfect fifth or diapente is one of three musical intervals that span five diatonic scale degrees; the others being the diminished fifth, which is one semitone smaller, and the augmented fifth, which is one semitone larger. ... The Violin family of instruments was developed in Italy in the 17th Century. ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ...


A violin is sometimes informally called a fiddle, regardless of the type of music played on it. The word "violin" comes to us through the Romance languages from the Middle Latin word vitula, meaning "stringed instrument";[1] this word may also be the source of the Germanic "fiddle". “Fiddler” redirects here. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Medieval Latin refers to the Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church. ...


A person who plays the violin is called a violinist or fiddler, and a person who makes or repairs them is called a luthier, or simply a violin maker. An engravers impression of Antonio Stradivari examining an instrument. ...

Contents

History

The earliest stringed instruments were mostly plucked (e.g. the Greek lyre). Bowed instruments may have originated in the equestrian cultures of Central Asia, an example being the Mongolian instrument Morin huur: “Lyres” redirects here. ... Mongolian musician playing the Morin khuur The morin khuur or morin huur (from the Mongolian: морин хуур) or matouqin (from the Chinese: 馬頭琴) is a chordophone of Mongolian origin whose name roughly translates as horse-head fiddle in English. ...

Turkic and Mongolian horsemen from Inner Asia were probably the world’s earliest fiddlers. Their two-stringed upright fiddles are strung with horsehair strings, played with horsehair bows, and often feature a carved horse’s head at the end of the neck. ... The violins, violas, and cellos we play today, and whose bows are still strung with horsehair, are a legacy of the nomads.[2].

It is believed that these instruments eventually spread to China, India, and the Middle East, where they developed into instruments such as the erhu (China) and rebab (Middle East), and esraj (India). The violin in its present form emerged in early 16th century in Northern Italy, where the port towns of Venice and Genoa maintained extensive ties through the trade routes of the Mongol Empire. Side view of an erhu. ... For Afghan Rubab, see Rubab. ... The Esraj, also known sometimes as Israj, or Dilruba, is a string instrument found in two forms throughout the north, central, and east regions of India. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ...


The modern European violin evolved from various bowed stringed instruments which were brought from the Middle East.[3] Most likely the first makers of violins borrowed from three types of current instruments: the rebec, in use since the 10th century (itself derived from the Arabic rebab), the Renaissance fiddle, and the lira da braccio.[4] One of the earliest explicit descriptions of the instrument, including its tuning, was in the Epitome musical by Jambe de Fer, published in Lyon in 1556.[5] By this time, the violin had already begun to spread throughout Europe. The rebec in Virgin among Virgins (1509), by Gerard David. ... Arabic music includes several genres and styles of music ranging from Arab classical to Arabic pop music and from secular to sacred music. ... For Afghan Rubab, see Rubab. ... Italianische lyra de bracio as illustrated by Michael Praetorius in his Syntagma Musicum The lira da braccio was a European bowed string instrument of the Renaissance. ... This article is about the French city. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The oldest documented violin to have four strings, like the modern violin, was constructed in 1555 by Andrea Amati. (Other violins, documented significantly earlier, only had three strings.) The violin immediately became very popular, both among street musicians and the nobility, illustrated by the fact that the French king Charles IX ordered Amati to construct 24 violins for him in 1560.[6] The oldest surviving violin, dated inside, is from this set, and is known as the "Charles IX," made in Cremona c. 1560. "The Messiah" or "Le Messie" (also known as the "Salabue") made by Antonio Stradivari in 1716 remains pristine, never having been used. It is now located in the Ashmolean Museum of Oxford.[7] This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Charles IX (June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) born Charles-Maximilien, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from 1560 until his death. ... Cremona is a city in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left shore of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura padana (Po valley). ... Antonio Stradivari examining an instrument, in a Romantic 19th-century print. ... Ashmolean Museum main entrance. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ...

San Zaccaria Altarpiece (detail), Venice, Giovanni Bellini, 1505
San Zaccaria Altarpiece (detail), Venice, Giovanni Bellini, 1505

The most famous violin makers (luthiers) between the late 16th century and the 18th century included: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (740x850, 110 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (740x850, 110 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Naked Young Woman in Front of the Mirror, Bellinis first female nude, painted when he was about 85 years old. ... A luthier is someone who builds or repairs stringed instruments, ranging from guitars to violins. ...

  • Amati family of Italian violin makers, Andrea Amati (1500-1577), Antonio Amati (1540-1607), Hieronymus Amati I (1561-1630), Nicolo Amati (1596-1684), Hieronymus Amati II (1649-1740)
  • Guarneri family of Italian violin makers, Andrea Guarneri (1626-1698), Pietro of Mantua (1655-1720), Giuseppe Guarneri (Joseph filius Andreae) (1666-1739), Pietro Guarneri (of Venice) (1695-1762), and Giuseppe (del Gesu) (1698-1744)
  • Stradivari family (1644-1737) of Cremona
  • Gagliano family of Italian violin makers, Alexander, Nicolo I and Ferdinand are outstanding of these
  • Giovanni Battista Guadagnini of Piacenza (1711-1786)
  • Jacob Stainer (1617-1683) of Absam in Tyrol

Significant changes occurred in the construction of the violin in the 18th century, particularly in the length and angle of the neck, as well as a heavier bass bar. The majority of old instruments have undergone these modifications, and hence are in a significantly different state than when they left the hands of their makers, doubtless with differences in sound and response.[8] But these instruments in their present condition set the standard for perfection in violin craftsmanship and sound, and violin makers all over the world try to come as close to this ideal as possible. This article is about the Amati family of luthiers. ... Guarneri is the family name of a group of highly acclaimed violin makers (luthiers) from Cremona in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries, whose standing is considered comparable to those of the Amati and Stradivari families. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Antonio Stradivari (1644? - December 18, 1737) was an Italian luthier (maker of violins and other stringed instruments), the most prominent member of that profession. ... Cremona is a city in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left shore of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura padana (Po valley). ... Nicolo Gagliano (fl. ... Giovanni Battista Guadagnini (also known as J. B. Guadagnini or Giambattista Guadagnini; June 23, 1711 - September 18, 1786) was an Italian musical instrument maker, one of the greatest luthiers (makers of violins and other string instruments) in history. ... violin by J.Stainer Jacob Stainer (c. ... Absam is a small village located approximately 13 km east of Innsbruck. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and...


To this day, instruments from the "Golden Age" of violin making, especially those made by Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesù, are the most sought-after instruments by both collectors and performers.


Construction and mechanics

The construction of a violin
The construction of a violin

A violin typically consists of a spruce top (the soundboard, also known as the top plate, table, or belly), maple ribs and back, two endblocks, a neck, a bridge, a soundpost, four strings, and various fittings, optionally including a chinrest, which may attach directly over, or to the left of, the tailpiece. A distinctive feature of a violin body is its "hourglass" shape and the arching of its top and back. The hourglass shape comprises two upper bouts, two lower bouts, and two concave C-bouts at the "waist," providing clearance for the bow. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article covers the anatomy of a violin and some of its accessories. ... Species About 35; see text. ... The sounding board is the largest part of a string musical instruments body. ... A Violin Bridge blank and finished bridge A bridge is a device for supporting the strings on a stringed instrument and transmitting the vibration of those strings to some other structural component of the instrument in order to transfer the sound to the surrounding air balls. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The tailpiece is an element found in all musical instruments of the violin family. ... For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ...


The "voice" of a violin depends on its shape, the wood it is made from, the graduation (the thickness profile) of both the top and back, and the varnish which coats its outside surface. The varnish and especially the wood continue to improve with age, making the fixed supply of old violins much sought-after.


All parts of the instrument which are glued together are done so using animal hide glue, a traditional strong water-based adhesive that is reversible, as glued joints can be disassembled if needed. Weaker, diluted glue is usually used to fasten the top to the ribs, and the nut to the fingerboard, since common repairs involve removing these parts. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The purfling running around the edge of the spruce top provides some protection against cracks originating at the edge. It also allows the top to flex more independently of the rib structure. Painted-on faux purfling on the top is a sign of an inferior instrument. The back and ribs are typically made of maple, most often with a matching striped figure, referred to as "flame," "fiddleback" or "tiger stripe" Purfling is a narrow decorative wooden strip inlaid into the top and (often) bottom plates of stringed instruments. ... Look up faux in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... In wood, figure refers to the appearance, on a longitudinal surface (side-grain): a figured wood is not plain. ...


The neck is usually maple with a flamed figure compatible with that of the ribs and back. It carries the fingerboard, typically made of ebony, but often some other wood stained or painted black. Ebony is the preferred material because of its hardness, beauty, and superior resistance to wear.[9] Fingerboards are dressed to a particular transverse curve, and have a small lengthwise "scoop," or concavity, slightly more pronounced on the lower strings, especially when meant for gut or synthetic strings. The neck is the part of certain string instruments that projects from the main body and is the base of the fingerboard, where the fingers are placed to stop the strings at different pitches. ... For other uses, see Fingerboard (disambiguation). ... The term transverse means side-to-side, as opposed to longitudinal, which means front-to-back. In automotive engineering, the term transverse refers to an engine in which the crankshaft is oriented side-to-side relative to the wheels of the vehicle. ...


Some old violins (and some made to appear old) have a grafted scroll, evidenced by a glue joint between the pegbox and neck. Many authentic old instruments have had their necks reset to a slightly increased angle, and lengthened by about a centimeter. The neck graft allows the original scroll to be kept with a Baroque violin when bringing its neck into conformance with modern standards. The scroll of a double bass A scroll is the decoratively carved end of the pegbox on certain stringed instruments, mainly members of the violin family. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...

Closeup of a violin tailpiece, with a fleur-de-lis
Closeup of a violin tailpiece, with a fleur-de-lis
Bridge blank and finished bridge
Bridge blank and finished bridge
Sound post seen through f-hole
Sound post seen through f-hole

The bridge is a precisely cut piece of maple that forms the lower anchor point of the vibrating length of the strings and transmits the vibration of the strings to the body of the instrument. Its top curve holds the strings at the proper height from the fingerboard in an arc, allowing each to be sounded separately by the bow. The sound post, or "soul post," fits precisely inside the instrument between the back and top, below the treble foot of the bridge, which it helps support. It also transmits vibrations between the top and the back of the instrument. The tailpiece is an element found in all musical instruments of the violin family. ... Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1446x584, 76 KB) Summary The finished bridge is a bit extreme, with more air (and less wood) in it than most. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1446x584, 76 KB) Summary The finished bridge is a bit extreme, with more air (and less wood) in it than most. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1200, 67 KB) Summary Close-up view of a working violin, warts and all. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1200, 67 KB) Summary Close-up view of a working violin, warts and all. ... A cello with f-holes A guitar with a round hole A sound hole is a hole in the upper sounding board of a string musical instrument. ... A Violin Bridge blank and finished bridge A bridge is a device for supporting the strings on a stringed instrument and transmitting the vibration of those strings to some other structural component of the instrument in order to transfer the sound to the surrounding air balls. ... In a string instrument, the sound post is a small dowel inside the instrument directly under the treble end of the bridge, spanning the space between the top and back plates and held in place by friction. ...


The tailpiece anchors the strings to the lower bout of the violin by means of the tailgut, which loops around the endpin, which fits into a tapered hole in the bottom block. Very often the E string will have a fine tuning lever worked by a small screw turned by the fingers. Fine tuners may also be applied to the other strings, especially on a student instrument, and are sometimes built in to the tailpiece. The tailpiece is an element found in all musical instruments of the violin family. ...


At the scroll end, the strings wind around the tuning pegs in the pegbox. Strings usually have a colored silk wrapping at both ends, for identification and to provide friction against the pegs. The tapered pegs allow friction to be increased or decreased by the player applying appropriate pressure along the axis of the peg while turning it. Tuning Peg is a small peg that is used to hold a string for a stringed instrument. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ...

Violin and bow.
Violin and bow.

cropped from early 20th century photo postcard This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... cropped from early 20th century photo postcard This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ...

Strings

Strings were first made of sheep gut (commonly known as catgut), stretched, dried and twisted. Modern strings may be gut, solid steel, stranded steel, or various synthetic materials, wound with various metals. Most E strings are unwound, either plain or gold-plated steel. The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ...


Violinists often carry replacement strings with their instruments to have one available in case a string breaks. Strings have a limited lifetime; apart from obvious things, such as the winding of a string coming undone from wear, a player will generally change a string when it no longer plays "true," with a negative effect on intonation, or when it loses the desired tone. The longevity of a string depends on how much and how intensely one plays. The E string, being the thinnest, tends to break or lose the desired tone more quickly than the others.


For more information, see the strings section of Violin construction. This article covers the anatomy of a violin and some of its accessories. ...


Pitch range

The compass of the violin is from G3 (G below middle C) to the highest note of the modern piano. The top notes, however, are often produced by natural or artificial harmonics. This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... In Western music, the expression middle C refers to the note C or Do located exactly between the two staves of the grand staff, quoted as C4 in note-octave notation (also known as scientific pitch notation). ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... This article is about the components of sound. ...


Acoustics

See also Sound production (string instruments)

The arched shape, the thickness of the wood, and its physical qualities govern the sound of a violin. Patterns of the nodes made by sand or glitter sprinkled on the plates with the plate vibrated at certain frequencies, called "Chladni patterns," are occasionally used by luthiers to verify their work before assembling the instrument. [1] A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... A standing wave. ... Ernst Chladni Ernest Florenz Friedrich Chladni (November 30, 1756–April 3, 1827) was a German physicist. ... An engravers impression of Antonio Stradivari examining an instrument. ...


Sizes

Children typically use smaller string instruments than adults. Violins are made in so-called "fractional" sizes for young students: Apart from full-size (4/4) violins, 3/4, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/10, 1/16, and even 1/32-sized instruments exist. Extremely small sizes were developed, along with the Suzuki program for violin students as young as 3 years old. Finely-made fractional sized violins, especially smaller than 1/2 size, are extremely rare or nonexistent. Such small instruments are typically intended for beginners needing a rugged violin, and whose rudimentary technique does not justify the expense of a more carefully made one. The Suzuki method, (Japanese: スズキ・メソード) (sometimes called Talent Education, the mother-tongue method, or the Suzuki movement) is a way of teaching, or educational philosophy which strives to create high ability and beautiful character in its students through a nurturing environment. ...


These fractional sizes have nothing to do with the actual dimensions of an instrument; in other words, a 3/4-sized instrument is not three-quarters the length of a full size instrument. The body length (not including the neck) of a "full-size" or 4/4 violin is about 14 inches (35 cm), smaller in some 17th century models. A 3/4 violin is about 13 inches (33 cm), and a 1/2 size is approximately 12 inches (30 cm). With the violin's closest family member, the viola, size is specified as body length in inches or centimeters rather than fractional sizes. A "full-size" viola averages 16 inches (40 cm). The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ...


Occasionally, an adult with a small frame may use a so-called "7/8" size violin instead of a full-size instrument. Sometimes called a "lady's violin", these instruments are slightly shorter than a full size violin, but tend to be high-quality instruments capable of producing a sound that is comparable to fine full size violins.


Violin sizes are not standardised and dimensions vary slightly between makers.


Tuning

Scroll and pegbox, correctly strung
Scroll and pegbox, correctly strung
The pitches of open strings on a violin
The pitches of open strings on a violin

Violins are tuned by turning the pegs in the pegbox under the scroll, or by adjusting the fine tuner screws at the tailpiece. All violins have pegs; fine tuners (also called fine adjusters) are optional. Most fine tuners consist of a metal screw that moves a lever to which the string is attached. They permit very small pitch adjustments with much more ease than the pegs. Image File history File links Violin_peg_strings. ... Image File history File links Violin_peg_strings. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tuning Peg is a small peg that is used to hold a string for a stringed instrument. ... The tailpiece is an element found in all musical instruments of the violin family. ...


Fine tuners are usually used with solid metal or composite strings that may be difficult to tune with pegs alone; they are not used with gut strings, which are more elastic and don't respond adequately to the very small movements of fine tuners. Some violinists have fine tuners on all 4 strings; most classical players have only a single fine tuner on the E string. Most violinists prefer one fine tuner because fine tuners often can damage the top of the violin. In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ...


To tune a violin, the A string is first tuned to a standard pitch (usually 440 Hz), using either a tuning device or another instrument. (When accompanying a fixed-pitch instrument such as a piano or accordion, the violin tunes to it.) The other strings are then tuned against each other in intervals of perfect fifths by bowing them in pairs. A minutely higher tuning is sometimes employed for solo playing to give the instrument a brighter sound; conversely, Baroque music is sometimes played using lower tunings to make the violin's sound more gentle. After tuning, the instrument's bridge may be examined to ensure that it is standing straight and centered between the inner nicks of the f-holes; a crooked bridge may significantly affect the sound of an otherwise well-made violin. Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... A cello with f-holes A guitar with a round hole A sound hole is a hole in the upper sounding board of a string musical instrument. ...


The tuning G-D-A-E is used for most violin music. Other tunings are occasionally employed; the G string, for example, can be tuned up to A. The use of nonstandard tunings in classical music is known as scordatura; in some folk styles, it is called "cross-tuning." One famous example of scordatura in classical music is Saint-Saëns' Danse Macabre, where the solo violin's E string is tuned down to E flat to impart an eerie dissonance to the composition. Another example would be in the third movement of Contrasts, by Béla Bartók, where the E string is tuned down to E flat and the G tuned to a G sharp. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... A scordatura (literally Italian for mistuning) is an alternate tuning used for the open strings of a string instrument. ... Danse Macabre (first performed in 1875) is the name of opus 40 by French composer Camille Saint-Saëns. ... Bartok redirects here. ...


While most violins have four strings, there are some instruments with five strings,[10] six, or even seven. The extra strings on such violins typically are lower in pitch than the G-string; these strings are usually tuned to C, F, and B flat. If the instrument's playing length, or string length from nut to bridge, is equal to that of an ordinary full-scale violin i.e., a bit less than 13 inches (330 mm), then it may be properly termed a violin. Some such instruments are somewhat longer and should be regarded as violas. Violins with five strings or more are often used in jazz or folk music. The Five string violin is a descendant of the traditional four string violin. ...


Bows

For more information, see Violin Construction (Bow) and Bow (music)
Bow frogs, top to bottom: violin, viola, cello
Bow frogs, top to bottom: violin, viola, cello

A violin is usually played using a bow consisting of a stick with a ribbon of horsehair strung between the tip and frog (or nut, or heel) at opposite ends. A typical violin bow may be 75 cm (29 inches) overall, and weigh about 60 g (2 oz). Viola bows may be about 5 mm (3/16") shorter and 10 g (1/3 oz) heavier. This article covers the anatomy of a violin and some of its accessories. ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2197x1342, 120 KB) Summary scanned Just plain Bill 03:00, 26 January 2006 (UTC) Top to bottom: violin, viola, cello Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Viola Violin family ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2197x1342, 120 KB) Summary scanned Just plain Bill 03:00, 26 January 2006 (UTC) Top to bottom: violin, viola, cello Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Viola Violin family ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ...


At the frog end, a screw adjuster tightens or loosens the hair. Just forward of the frog, a leather thumb cushion and winding protect the stick and provide grip for the player's hand. The winding may be wire, silk, or whalebone (now imitated by alternating strips of yellow and black plastic.) Some student bows (particularly the ones made of solid fiberglass) substitute a plastic sleeve for grip and winding.


The hair of the bow traditionally comes from the tail of a "white" (technically, a grey) male horse, although some cheaper bows use synthetic fiber. Occasional rubbing with rosin makes the hair grip the strings intermittently, causing them to vibrate. The stick is traditionally made of brazilwood, although a stick made from this type of wood which is of a more select quality (and higher price) is referred to as pernambuco (both types are taken from the same tree species). Some student bows are made of fiberglass or various cheap woods. Recent innovations have allowed carbon fiber to be used as a material for the stick at all levels of craftsmanship. A 20 g cake of amber violin bow rosin. ... Brazilwood is a common name for several trees of the family Leguminosae (Pulse family) whose wood yields a red dye called brazilein. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ...


Playing

Main article: Playing the violin

The standard way of holding the violin is with the left side of the jaw resting on the chinrest of the violin, and supported by the left shoulder, often assisted by a shoulder rest. This practice varies in some cultures; for instance, Indian (Carnatic and Hindustani) violinists play seated on the floor and rest the scroll of the instrument on the side of their foot. The strings may be sounded by drawing the hair of the bow across them (arco) or by plucking them (pizzicato). The left hand regulates the sounding length of the string by stopping it against the fingerboard with the fingertips, producing different pitches. The violin player usually holds the instrument under the chin, supported by the left shoulder (but see below for variations of this posture). ... This is a tailpiece on a violin (in the center of the picture) with one fine-tuner on the right, for the E string. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ... Hindustani Classical Music is an Indian classical music tradition that took shape in northern India in the 13th and 14th centuries AD from existing religious, folk, and theatrical performance practices. ... Jazz bass is played almost exclusively in pizzicato. ...

First Position Fingerings
First Position Fingerings

Image File history File links Violin_first_position_fingering_chart. ... Image File history File links Violin_first_position_fingering_chart. ...

Left hand and pitch production

As the violin has no frets to stop the strings, the player must know exactly where to place the fingers on the strings to play with good intonation. Through practice and ear training, the violinist's left hand finds the notes intuitively by muscle memory. Beginners sometimes rely on tapes placed on the fingerboard for proper left hand finger placement, but usually abandon the tapes quickly as they advance. Another commonly-used marking technique uses dots of white-out on the fingerboard, which wear off in a few weeks of regular practice. This practice, unfortunately, is used sometimes in lieu of adequate ear-training, guiding the placement of fingers by eye and not by ear. Especially in the early stages of learning to play, the so-called "ringing tones" are useful. There are nine such notes in first position, where a stopped note sounds a unison or octave with another (open) string, causing it to vibrate sympathetically. The neck of a steel-string acoustic guitar showing the first four frets. ... Intonation, in music, is a players realization of pitch accuracy. ... // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... Two rolls of adhesive tape. ... A bottle of correction fluid Correction fluid is an opaque, white fluid applied to paper to mask errors in text. ... Acoustic resonance is an important consideration for instrument builders as most acoustic instruments use resonators, such as the strings and body of a violin, the length of tube in a flute, and the shape of a drum membrane. ...


The fingers are conventionally numbered 1 (index) through 4 (little finger). Especially in instructional editions of violin music, numbers over the notes may indicate which finger to use, with "0" indicating "open" string. The chart to the left shows the arrangement of notes reachable in first position. Not shown on this chart is the way the spacing between note positions becomes closer as the fingers move up (in pitch) from the nut. The bars at the sides of the chart represent three of the usual tape placements for beginners, at 1st, high 2nd, and 3rd fingers.


Positions

The placement of the left hand on the fingerboard is characterized by "positions". First position, where most beginners start (although some methods start in third position), is the most commonly used position in string music. The lowest note available in this position in standard tuning is an open G; the highest note in first position is played with the fourth finger on the E-string, sounding a B, or reaching up a half step (also known as the "extended fourth finger") to the C two octaves above middle C. In Western music, the expression middle C refers to the note C or Do located exactly between the two staves of the grand staff, quoted as C4 in note-octave notation (also known as scientific pitch notation). ...


Moving the hand up the neck, so the first finger takes the place of the second finger, brings the player into second position. Letting the first finger take the first-position place of the third finger brings the player to third position, and so on. The upper limit of the violin's range is largely determined by the skill of the player, who may easily play more than two octaves on a single string, and four octaves on the instrument as a whole, although when a violinist has progressed to the point of being able to use the entire range of the instrument, references to particular positions become less common. Position names are mostly used for the lower positions and in method books; for this reason, it is uncommon to hear references to anything higher than fifth position. The lowest position on a violin is half-position, where the first finger is a half-step away from the nut. This position is less frequently used. The highest position, practically speaking, is 15th position.


The same note will sound substantially different, depending on what string is used to play it. Sometimes the composer or arranger will specify the string to be used in order to achieve the desired tone quality; this is indicated in the music by the marking, for example, sul G, meaning to play on the G string. For example, playing very high up on the lower strings gives a distinctive quality to the sound. Otherwise, moving into different positions is usually done for ease of playing. In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ...

Audio sample
Violin sounds and techniques: 566 KB 
  • Open strings (arco and pizzicato)
  • A major scale (arco and pizzicato)
  • Beginning of an A major scale with vibrato
  • A major scale played col legno
  • Natural harmonics of an A, E, and an A
  • Artificial (false) harmonic of A7
  • Harmonic glissando on the A string
See the Violins category at Wikipedia Commons for more media

Image File history File links Violin_sounds_and_techniques. ...

Open strings

Bowing or plucking an open string—that is, a string played without any finger stopping it—gives a different sound from a stopped string, since the string vibrates more freely at the nut than under a finger. Other than the low G (which can be played in no other way), open strings are generally avoided in some styles of classical playing. This is because they have a somewhat harsher sound (especially open E) and it is not possible to directly use vibrato on an open string. However, this can be partially compensated by applying vibrato on a note that is an octave higher than the open string. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...


In some cases playing an open string is called for by the composer (and explicitly marked in the music) for special effect, decided upon by the musician for artistic reasons (common in earlier works such as Bach), or played in a fast passage, where they usually cannot be distinguished.


Playing an open string simultaneously with a stopped note on an adjacent string produces a bagpipe-like drone, often used by composers in imitation of folk music. Sometimes the two notes are identical (for instance, playing a fingered A on the D string against the open A string), giving a ringing sort of "fiddling" sound. Playing an open string simultaneously with an identical stopped note can also be called for when more volume is required, especially in orchestral playing. A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... Folk song redirects here. ...


Double stops and drones

Double stopping is when two separate strings are stopped by the fingers, and bowed simultaneously, producing a part of a chord. Sometimes moving to a higher position is necessary for the left hand to be able to reach both notes at once. Sounding an open string alongside a fingered note is another way to get a partial chord. While sometimes also called a double stop, it is more properly called a drone, as the drone note may be sustained for a passage of different notes played on the adjacent string. Three or four notes can also be played at one time (triple and quadruple stops, respectively), and, according to the style of music, the notes might all be played simultaneously or might be played as two successive double stops, favoring the higher notes. A double stop, in music terminology, is the act of playing two notes simultaneously on a stringed instrument, for example a violin, a viola, a cello or a guitar. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... For the military space program, see SUSTAIN (military). ...


Vibrato

Vibrato is a technique of the left hand and arm in which the pitch of a note varies in a pulsating rhythm. While various parts of the hand or arm may be involved in the motion, the end result is a movement of the fingertip bringing about a slight change in vibrating string length. Violinists oscillate backwards, or lower in pitch from the actual note when using vibrato, since perception favors the highest pitch in a varying sound. Vibrato does little, if anything, to disguise an out-of-tune note: in other words, vibrato is a poor substitute for good intonation. Still, scales and other exercises meant to work on intonation are typically played without vibrato to make the work easier and more effective. Music students are taught that unless otherwise marked in music, vibrato is assumed or even mandatory. This can be an obstacle to a classically-trained violinist wishing to play in a style that uses little or no vibrato at all, such as baroque music played in period style and many traditional fiddling styles. Vibrato is a musical effect where the pitch or frequency of a note or sound is quickly and repeatedly raised and lowered over a small distance for the duration of that note or sound. ...


Vibrato can be produced by a proper combination of finger, wrist and arm motions. One method, called "hand vibrato," involves rocking the hand back at the wrist to achieve oscillation, while another method, "arm vibrato," modulates the pitch by rocking at the elbow. A combination of these techniques allows a player to produce a large variety of tonal effects.


The "when" and "what for" of violin vibrato are artistic matters of style and taste. In acoustical terms, the interest that vibrato adds to the sound has to do with the way that the overtone mix (or tone color, or timbre) and the directional pattern of sound projection change with changes in pitch. By "pointing" the sound at different parts of the room in a rhythmic way, vibrato adds a "shimmer" or "liveliness" to the sound of a well-made violin. See Schleske and Weinreich. Vibrato is a musical effect where the pitch or frequency of a note or sound is quickly and repeatedly raised and lowered over a small distance for the duration of that note or sound. ...


Harmonics

Lightly touching the string with a fingertip at a harmonic node creates harmonics. Instead of the normal tone, a higher pitched note sounds. Each node is at an integer division of the string, for example half-way or one-third along the length of the string. A responsive instrument will sound numerous possible harmonic nodes along the length of the string. A standing wave. ... This article is about the components of sound. ...


Harmonics are marked in music either with a little circle above the note that determines the pitch of the harmonic, or by diamond-shaped note heads. There are two types of harmonics: natural harmonics and artificial harmonics (also known as "false harmonics"). To produce an artificial harmonic, a string player (such as a guitarist) holds down a note on the neck with their left hand, thereby shortening the vibrational length of the string, and uses their right hand to lightly touch a point on the string that is an integer divisor of...


Natural harmonics are played on an open string. The pitch of the open string is called the fundamental frequency. Harmonics are also called overtones. They occur at whole-number multiples of the fundamental, which is called the first harmonic. The second harmonic is the first overtone, the third harmonic is the second overtone, and so on. The second harmonic is in the middle of the string and sounds an octave higher than the string's pitch. The third harmonic breaks the string into thirds and sounds an octave and a fifth above the fundamental, and the fourth harmonic breaks the string into quarters sounding two octaves above the first. The sound of the second harmonic is the clearest of them all, because it is a common node with all the succeeding even-numbered harmonics (4th, 6th, etc.). The third and succeeding odd-numbered harmonics are harder to play because they break the string into an odd number of vibrating parts and don't share as many nodes with other harmonics. Approximate harmonic overtones on a string An overtone is a natural resonance or vibration frequency of a system. ... A standing wave. ...


Artificial harmonics are more difficult to produce than natural harmonics, as they involve both stopping the string and playing a harmonic on the stopped note. Using the "octave frame"—the normal distance between the first and fourth fingers in any given position—with the fourth finger just touching the string a fourth higher than the stopped note produces the fourth harmonic, two octaves above the stopped note. Finger placement and pressure, as well as bow speed, pressure, and sounding point are all essential in getting the desired harmonic to sound. And to add to the challenge, in passages with different notes played as false harmonics, the distance between stopping finger and harmonic finger must constantly change, since the spacing between notes changes along the length of the string. In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. ...


The "harmonic finger" can also touch at a major third above the pressed note (the fifth harmonic), or a fifth higher (a third harmonic). These harmonics are less commonly used; in the case of the major third, both the stopped note and touched note must be played slightly sharp otherwise the harmonic does not speak as readily. In the case of the fifth, the stretch is greater than is comfortable for many violinists. In the general repertoire fractions smaller than a sixth are not used. However, divisions up to an eighth are sometimes used and, given a good instrument and a skilled player, divisions as small as a twelfth are possible. In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. ... In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. ...


There are a few books dedicated solely to the study of violin harmonics. Two comprehensive works are Henryk Heller's seven-volume Theory of Harmonics, published by Simrock in 1928, and Michelangelo Abbado's five-volume Tecnica dei suoni armonici published by Ricordi in 1934.


Elaborate passages in artificial harmonics can be found in virtuoso violin literature, especially of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Two notable examples of this are an entire section of Vittorio Monti's Csárdás and a passage towards the middle of the third movement of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's Violin Concerto. Vittorio Monti (6 January 1868 - 20 June 1922) was an Italian composer. ... Czardas or Csárdás (Hungarian csárdás, from csárda, a tavern, beer house) is a traditional Hungarian folk dance. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... A violin concerto is a concerto for solo violin (occasionally, two or more violins) and instrumental ensemble, customarily orchestra. ...


Right hand and tone color

The right arm, hand, and bow are responsible for tone quality, rhythm, dynamics, articulation, and most (but not all) changes in timbre. For the popular Tamil film, see Rhythm (film). ... “Fortissimo” redirects here. ... In music an articulation is a sign, direction, or performance technique which indicates or affects the transition or continuity between notes or sounds. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ...


Bowing techniques

The most essential part of bowing technique is the bow grip. It is usually with the thumb bent in the small area between the frog and the winding of the bow. The other fingers are spread somewhat evenly across the top part of the bow.


The violin produces louder notes with greater bow speed or more weight on the string. The two methods are not equivalent, because they produce different timbres; pressing down on the string tends to produce a harsher, more intense sound.


The sounding point where the bow intersects the string also influences timbre. Playing close to the bridge (sul ponticello) gives a more intense sound than usual, emphasizing the higher harmonics; and playing with the bow over the end of the fingerboard (sul tasto) makes for a delicate, ethereal sound, emphasizing the fundamental frequency. Dr. Suzuki referred to the sounding point as the "Kreisler highway"; one may think of different sounding points as "lanes" in the highway. Vibration and standing waves in a string, The fundamental and the first 6 overtones The fundamental tone, often referred to simply as the fundamental and abbreviated fo, is the lowest frequency in a harmonic series. ... Fritz Kreisler (February 2, 1875 – January 29, 1962) was an Austria-born American violinist and composer; one of the most famous violinists of his day. ...


Various methods of 'attack' with the bow produce different articulations. There are many bowing techniques that allow for every range of playing style and many teachers, players, and orchestras spend a lot of time developing techniques and creating a unified technique within the group. These techniques include legato-style bowing, collé, ricochet, sautillé, martelé, spiccato, and staccato. The violin player usually holds the instrument under the chin, supported by the left shoulder (but see below for variations of this posture). ... Spiccato is a bowing technique for stringed instruments in which the bow bounces lightly upon the string. ...


Pizzicato

A note marked pizz. (abbreviation for pizzicato) in the written music is to be played by plucking the string with a finger of the right hand rather than by bowing. (The index finger is most commonly used here.) Sometimes in virtuoso solo music where the bow hand is occupied (or for show-off effect), left-hand pizzicato will be indicated by a "+" (plus sign) below or above the note. In left-hand pizzicato, two fingers are put on the string; one (usually the index or middle finger) is put on the correct note, and the other (usually the ring finger or little finger) is put above the note. The higher finger then plucks the string while the lower one stays on, thus producing the correct pitch. By increasing the force of the pluck, one can increase the volume of the note that the string produces. Jazz bass is played almost exclusively in pizzicato. ...


Col legno

A marking of col legno (Italian for "with the wood") in the written music calls for striking the string(s) with the stick of the bow, rather than by drawing the hair of the bow across the strings. This bowing technique is somewhat rarely used, and results in a muted percussive sound. The eerie quality of a violin section playing col legno is exploited in some symphonic pieces, notably the "Witches' Dance" of the last movement of Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique. Saint-Saens' symphonic poem "Danse Macabre" includes the string section using the col legno technique to imitate the sound of dancing skeletons. Some violinists, however, object to this style of playing as it can damage the finish and impair the value of a fine bow. Col legno (Italian for with the wood) is a method of playing bowed string instruments (particularly the violin, viola, cello, and double bass) whereby the strings are struck with the wood of the bow rather having the hair pulled across them. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ... Symphonie fantastique (Fantastic Symphony) Opus 14, is a symphony written by French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830. ...


Spiccato

A technique where the bow is bounced lightly on the string at a moderato speed, producing a series of sharply-articulated notes, often in conjunction with rapid passage fingering. There are up-bow and down-bow variants of spiccato.


Martelé

Literally "hammered", a strongly accented effect produced by releasing each bowstroke forcefully and suddenly. Martelé can be played in any part of the bow. It is sometimes indicated in written music by an arrowhead.


Tremolo

Very rapid repetition (typically of a single note, but occasionally of multiple notes), usually played at the tip of the bow.


Mute

Attaching a small metal, rubber, or wooden device called a "mute" to the bridge of the violin gives a softer, more mellow tone, with fewer audible overtones; the sound of an entire orchestral string section playing with mutes has a hushed quality. The conventional Italian markings for mute usage are con sord., or con sordino, "with mute," or senza sord. (or simply senza), "without mute." Larger metal, rubber, or wooden mutes are available, known as "practice mutes" or "hotel mutes". Such mutes are generally not used in performance, but are used to deaden the sound of the violin in practice areas such as hotel rooms. Some composers have used practice mutes for special effect, for example at the end of Luciano Berio's Sequenza VIII for solo violin. see also Guitar Mute A mute is a device which alters the timbre and/or reduces the volume of a musical instrument. ... Approximate harmonic overtones on a string An overtone is a natural resonance or vibration frequency of a system. ...


Musical styles

// Jazz The earliest references to jazz performance using the violin as a solo instrument are documented during the first decades of the 20th century. ...

Classical music

Since the Baroque era the violin has been one of the most important of all instruments in classical music, for several reasons. The tone of the violin stands out above other instruments, making it appropriate for playing a melody line. In the hands of a good player, the violin is extremely agile, and can execute rapid and difficult sequences of notes. Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...


Violins make up a large part of an orchestra, and are usually divided into two sections, known as the first and second violins. Composers often assign the melody to the first violins, while second violins play harmony, accompaniment patterns or the melody an octave lower than the first violins. A string quartet similarly has parts for first and second violins, as well as a viola part, and a bass instrument, such as the cello or, rarely, the double bass. For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...


String instruments have the ability to play in any pitch which, in the hands of great players, leads to wonderful range of harmonic colouring, making it possible for the instruments to be very expressive. This ability is at its finest in the string quartet literature where seamless changes from key to key and chord to chord create a kind of perfect harmonic world where even thirds ring with full resonance.


Jazz

The earliest references to jazz performance using the violin as a solo instrument are documented during the first decades of the 20th century. The first great jazz violinist was Joe Venuti who is best known for his work with guitarist Eddie Lang during the 1920s. Since that time there have been many superb improvising violinists including Stéphane Grappelli, Stuff Smith, Regina Carter, Johnny Frigo and Jean-Luc Ponty. While not primarily jazz violinists, Darol Anger and Mark O'Connor have spent significant parts of their careers playing jazz. Giuseppe (Joe) Venuti (September 16, 1903 – August 14, 1978) was a U.S. jazz musician and violinist. ... Eddie Lang (October 25, 1902 – March 26, 1933) was a jazz guitarist, considered by many the finest of his era. ... Stéphane Grappelli (January 26, 1908 – December 1, 1997) was a French pioneer jazz violinist who founded the Quintette du Hot Club de France with guitarist Django Reinhardt. ... Stuff Smith was one of the big three of pre-bop violinists along with Joe Venuti and Stephane Grappelli. ... Regina Carter Regina Carter (born in Detroit, Michigan in 1966) is an American jazz violinist. ... Johnny Frigo (born December 27, 1916) is an American jazz violinist and bassist. ... Grappelli (left) and Jean-Luc Ponty (right). ... Violinist Darol Anger (b. ... Mark OConnor (born August 5, 1961 in Seattle, Washington) is widely considered to be the most prominent fiddler of his generation. ...


Violins also appear in ensembles supplying orchestral backgrounds to many jazz recordings.


For a more complete list, see jazz violinists. This is a list of notable violinists. ...


Popular music

Up to the 1970s, most types of popular music used bowed strings. The hugely popular Motown recordings of the 1960s and 1970s relied heavily on strings as part of their trademark texture. Earlier genres of pop music, at least those separate from the rock and roll movement, tended to make use of fairly traditional orchestras, sometimes large ones; examples include the American "Crooners" such as Bing Crosby. This carried through into 1970s disco music such as I will survive by Gloria Gaynor and Love's theme by Love Unlimited Orchestra. Motown Records, Inc. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Left To Right, Frank Sinatra, Bing Crosby and Dean Martin Crooner is an epithet given to a male singer of a certain style of popular songs, dubbed pop standards. ... This article is about the music genre. ... Gloria Gaynor (born Gloria Fowles September 7, 1949) is an American singer, best-known for the disco era hits I Will Survive (Hot 100 #1, 1979), Never Can Say Goodbye (Hot 100 #9, 1974), and I Am What I Am (Hot 100 #82, 1983). ... Barry White ( September 12, 1944 - July 4, 2003) was an American record producer and singer responsible for the creation of numerous hit soul and disco songs. ...


The rise of electronically created music in the 1980s saw a decline in their use, as synthesized string sections took their place. However, while the violin has very little usage in rock music it has some history in progressive rock (e.g. The Electric Light Orchestra, King Crimson) and has a stronger place in modern fusion bands, notably The Corrs. The fiddle has also always been a part of British folk-rock music, as exemplified by the likes of Fairport Convention and Steeleye Span. For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... Electric Light Orchestra (ELO) was a successful Birmingham rock music group of the 1970s and 1980s. ... This article is about the musical group. ... The Corrs are a multi-platinum, Grammy-nominated Celtic folk-rock and pop rock group from Dundalk, Republic of Ireland. ... Bob Dylans folk rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... Fairport Convention are often credited with being the first English electric folk band. ... Steeleye Span are a British folk-rock band, formed in 1969 and remaining active today. ...


Indian and Arabic pop music is filled with the sound of violins, both soloists and ensembles.


In the 1990s and 2000s, violins began to appear in rock bands. Smashing Pumpkins are well-known for their violin-based sections, and James' Saul Davies, who is also a guitarist, was enlisted by the band as a violinist. For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... The Smashing Pumpkins (circa 1995) left to right: James Iha, DArcy, Billy Corgan and Jimmy Chamberlin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ...


The popularity of crossover music since the last years of the 20th century has brought the violin back into the popular music arena, with both electric and acoustic violins being used by popular bands. In music crossover is a term used to describe artists of a certain style or genre whose popularity crosses the considered boundaries of where the music of that style or genre is normally found. ...


Indian classical music

Main article: Carnatic Violin

The violin is a very important part of South Indian classical music (Carnatic music). It is believed to have been introduced to the South Indian tradition by Baluswamy Dikshitar. Though primarily used as an accompaniment instrument, the violin has become popular as a solo instrument in the orchestration. Popular film composers such as Ilaiyaraaja have used the violin extensively in film music scoring. The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... Carnatic music, also known as is one of the two styles of Indian classical music, the other being Hindustani music. ...   (Tamil: இளையராஜா, IPA: ) (born June 2, 1943 as Gnanadesikan) is an Indian film composer, singer, and lyricist. ...

See also: Indian classical musical style and Indian violinists (including Carnatic and Hindustani)

// Jazz The earliest references to jazz performance using the violin as a solo instrument are documented during the first decades of the 20th century. ... This is a list of notable violinists. ...

Folk music and fiddling

Hins-Anders painted by Anders Zorn, 1904
Hins-Anders painted by Anders Zorn, 1904

Like many other instruments used in classical music, the violin descends from remote ancestors that were used for folk music. Following a stage of intensive development in the late Renaissance, largely in Italy, the violin had improved (in volume, tone, and agility), to the point that it not only became a very important instrument in art music, but proved highly appealing to folk musicians as well, ultimately spreading very widely, sometimes displacing earlier bowed instruments. Ethnomusicologists have observed its widespread use in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. Image File history File links Anders_Zorn_-_Hins_Anders_(1904). ... Image File history File links Anders_Zorn_-_Hins_Anders_(1904). ... Anders Zorn: Self-portrait in red 1915 Anders Zorn (February 18, 1860 – August 22, 1920) was a Swedish painter who painted a portrait of, among others, the former American President Grover Cleveland in 1899. ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the 2000s . ... Folk song redirects here. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Ethnomusicology, formerly comparative musicology, is cultural musicology or the study of music in its cultural context. ...


In many traditions of folk music, the tunes are not written but are memorized by successive generations of musicians and passed on in both informal and formal contexts. Folk song redirects here. ...


Fiddle

Main article: Fiddle

When played as a folk instrument, the violin is ordinarily referred to in English as a fiddle (though the term "fiddle" may be used informally no matter what the genre of music). “Fiddler” redirects here. ...


There is technically no difference between a fiddle and a violin. However, some folk fiddlers alter their instruments for various reasons. One example may be seen in American (e.g., bluegrass and old-time) fiddling: in these styles, the bridge is sometimes shaved down so that it is less curved. This makes it easier to play double stops and triple stops, allowing one to play chords with less effort. Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music. ... West Virginia fiddler Edden Hammons, accompanied by his son James on the banjo Old-time music is a form of North American folk music, with roots in the folk musics of many countries, including England, Scotland and Ireland, as well as the continent of Africa. ... A double stop, in music terminology, is the act of playing two notes simultaneously on a stringed instrument, for example a violin, a viola, a cello or a guitar. ... A double stop, in music terminology, is where a musician plays two notes simultaneously on a stringed instrument, for example a violin, a viola or a cello. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ...


Electric violins

Main article: Electric violin
acoustic and electric violin

An electric violin is a violin equipped with an electric signal output of its sound, and is generally considered to be a specially constructed instrument which can either be: This electric violin, made by Leo Fender in the late 1950s, has a non-traditional design. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

  • an electro-acoustic violin capable of producing both acoustic sound and electric signal
  • an electric violin capable of producing only electric signal

To be effective as an acoustic violin, electro-acoustic violins retain much of the resonating body of the violin, often looking very much like, sometimes even identical to, an acoustic violin or fiddle. They are often varnished with bright colours and made from alternative materials to wood. The first specially built electric violins date back to the late 1930s and were made by Victor Pfeil, Oskar Vierling, George Eisenberg, Benjamin Miessner, George Beauchamp, Hugo Benioff and Fredray Kislingbury. The majority of the first electric violinists were musicians playing jazz and popular music. This electric violin, made by Leo Fender in the late 1950s, has a non-traditional design. ... George D. Beauchamp (1899 - 1941), inventor of musical instruments and co-founder of National Stringed Instrument Corporation and Rickenbacker. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This electric violin, made by Leo Fender in the late 1950s, has a non-traditional design. ...


Violin authentication

Main article: Violin authentication

Violin authentication is the process of determining the maker and date of a violin. Multiple references may be required to assist in the process of authentication.[citation needed] This is often employed to combat fraudulent practices such as violin forgery and other forms of misrepresentation. Violin Authentication is the process of determining the maker and date of a violin. ...


See also

For instruments related to the violin, see String instruments. A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ...

A violin concerto is a concerto for solo violin (occasionally, two or more violins) and instrumental ensemble, customarily orchestra. ... A violin sonata is a musical composition for solo violin, often (but not always) accompanied by a piano or other keyboard instrument, or by figured bass in the Baroque. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... This electric violin, made by Leo Fender in the late 1950s, has a non-traditional design. ... A baroque violin is, in common usage, any violin whose neck, fingerboard, bridge, and tailpiece are of the type used during the baroque period. ... An engravers impression of Antonio Stradivari examining an instrument. ... A Stroh violin has a metal horn and resonator instead of a sound box. ... Making violins Just a few tools There is a three-dimensional geometric underlying construction that explains the main properties and placement of the different parts and proportions. ... The distinctive sound of a violin is the result of interactions between its many parts. ... Antonio Stradivari, by Edgar Bundy, 1893: a romanticized image of a craftsman-hero One of the violins in the Stradivarius collection of the Palacio Real, Madrid, Spain A Stradivarius is a stringed instrument built by members of the Stradivari family, especially by Antonio Stradivari. ...

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Principles of Violin Playing and Teaching, by Ivan Galamian (1999), Shar Products Co. ISBN 0-9621416-3-1
  • The Contemporary Violin: Extended Performance Techniques, by Patricia and Allen Strange (2001), University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22409-4
  • The Fiddle Book, by Marion Thede (1970), Oak Publications. ISBN 0-8256-0145-2
  • Latin Violin, by Sam Bardfeld, ISBN 0-9628467-7-5
  • The Cambridge Companion to the Violin, edited by Robin Stowell (1992), Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39033-8
  • The Violin Explained - Components Mechanism and Sound by James Beament (1992/1997), Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-816623-0
  • Antonio Stradivari, his life and work, 1644-1737', by William Henry Hill; Arthur F Hill; Alfred Ebsworth Hill (1902/1963), Dover Publications. 1963. OCLC 172278. ISBN 0486204251
  • An Encyclopedia of the Violin, by Alberto Bachmann (1965/1990), Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80004-7
  • Violin - And Easy Guide, by Chris Coetzee (2003), New Holland Publishers. ISBN 1-84330-332-9
  • The Violin, by Yehudi Menuhin (1996), Flammarion. ISBN 2-08-013623-2
  • The Book of the Violin, edited by Dominic Gill (1984), Phaidon. ISBN 0-7148-2286-8
  • Violin-Making as it was, and is, by Ed. Heron-Allen (1885/1994), Ward Lock Limited. ISBN 0-7063-1045-4
  • Violins & Violinists, by Franz Farga (1950), Rockliff Publishing Corporation Ltd.
  • Viols, Violins and Virginals, by Jennifer A. Charlton (1985), Ashmolean Museum. ISBN 0-907849-44-X
  • The Violin, by Theodore Rowland-Entwistle (1967/1974), Dover Publications. ISBN 0-340-05992-3
  • The Early Violin and Viola, by Robin Stowell (2001), Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62555-6
  • The Complete Luthier's Library. A Useful International Critical Bibliography for the Maker and the Connoisseur of Stringed and Plucked Instruments by Roberto Regazzi. ISBN 88-85250-01-7
  • The Violin, by George Dubourg (1854), Robert Cocks & Co.
  • Violin Technique and Performance Practice in the Late 18th and Early 19th Centuries, by Robin Stowell (1985), Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23279-1
  • History of the Violin, by William Sandys and Simon Andrew (2006), Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-45269-7
  • The Violin: A Research and Information Guide, by Mark Katz (2006), Routledge. ISBN 0-8153-3637-3

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Roberto Regazzi pictured by Marco Lenzi in his Bolognese atelier in the 90s Roberto Regazzi (born 1956 in Bologna, Italy) Notable contemporary violin maker and scholar who received his initiation to the craft from Otello Bignami, Bologna, in the early 80s of the past century. ...

References

  1. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary.
  2. ^ {{cite web |title = The Silk Road: Connecting Cultures, Creating Trust, Silk Road Story 2: Bowed Instruments |publisher = Smithsonian Center for Folk life and Cultural Heritage |url = http://www.silkroadproject.org/smithsonian/nomads/story.html
  3. ^ The NPR® Classical Music Companion: Terms and Concepts from A to Z.
  4. ^ Arkenberg, Rebecca (October 2002). Renaissance Violins. Retrieved on 2006-09-22.
  5. ^ Deverich, Robin Kay (2006). Historical Background of the Violin. Retrieved on 2006-09-22.
  6. ^ Bartruff, William. The History of the Violin. Retrieved on 2006-09-22..
  7. ^ Violin by Antonio Stradivari, 1716 (Messiah; la Messie, Salabue). Cozio.com..
  8. ^ Richard Perras. Violin changes by 1800. Retrieved on 2006-10-29..
  9. ^ Ebony.
  10. ^ 2000 Silakowski 5-String. Casey Driessen (personal web site).

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • The history of the violin - A quick overview about the history of the violin, including answers to questions such as "Why old master instruments sound so good"
  • National Music Museum- Violins Pictures of violins by Andrea Amati, Cremona, ca. 1560, and other rare instruments.
  • Violin Acoustics - University of New South Wales
  • Musical Instrument Samples - University of Iowa Electronic Music Studios; anechoic recordings of violin sounds, both arco and pizzicato at various dynamics.
  • Why is the violin so hard to play? - Answers this question, as well as explaining the mechanics of bowed strings. Technical but very accessible.
  • Violin Making, step by step
  • Path Through the Woods - The Use of Medical Imaging in Examining Historical Instruments The use of computer-aided tomography to examine the dendochronology of the great Italian instruments

Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning. ... Dendochronology is the study of the age of trees by the study and counting of the rings of a tree. ...



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