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Encyclopedia > Violence

Violence is the exertion of physical force so as to injure or abuse. The word is used broadly to describe the destructive action of natural phenomena like storms and earthquakes. More frequently the word describes forceful human destruction of property or injury to persons, usually intentional, and forceful verbal and emotional abuse that harms others. Look up violence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Barry Bonds batting Photo:Agência Brasil In baseball, batting is the act of facing the opposing pitcher and trying to produce offense for ones team. ... Boh Runga seen in the Violent music video, featuring drummer Andrew Maclaren behind her Violent is New Zealand band Stellar*s fourth single, and their third single from their debut album Mix. ... Categories: Stub ... Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998. ...

Contents

Psychology and Sociology

See also: Aggression

The causes of violent behavior in humans are often research topics in psychology and sociology. Neurobiologist Jan Volavka emphasizes that for those purposes, “violent behavior is defined as overt and intentional physically aggressive behavior against another person."[1] In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous...


Scientists disagree on whether violence is inherent in humans. Among prehistoric humans, there is archaeological evidence for both contentions of violence and peacefulness as primary characteristics.[2]


Riane Eisler, who describes early matriarchal societies, and Walter Wink, who coined the phrase “the myth of redemptive violence,” suggest that human violence, especially as organized in groups, is a phenomenon of the last five to ten thousand years. Riane Eisler is an Austrian born American scholar, writer, and social activist. ... Dr. Walter Wink is Professor at Auburn Theological Seminary in New York City. ...


The “violent male ape” image is often brought up in discussions of human violence. Dale Peterson and Richard Wrangham in “Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence” write that violence is inherent in humans.[3] However, William L. Ury, editor of a book called "Must We Fight? From the Battlefield to the Schoolyard--A New Perspective on Violent Conflict and Its Prevention” debunks the "killer ape" myth in his book which brings together discussions from two Harvard Law School symposiums. The conclusion is that “we also have lots of natural mechanisms for cooperation, to keep conflict in check, to channel aggression, and to overcome conflict. These are just as natural to us as the aggressive tendencies."[4] Richard Wrangham is a professor in Biological Anthropology at Harvard University. ...


James Gilligan writes violence is often pursued as an antidote to shame or humiliation.[5] The use of violence often is a source of pride and a defense of honor, especially among males who often believe violence defines manhood.[6]


Stephen Pinker in a New Republic article “The History of Violence” offers evidence that on the average the amount and cruelty of violence to humans and animals has decreased over the last few centuries.[7] For other uses, see New Republic. ...


Law

One of the main functions of law is to regulate violence and violent crimes. Sociologist Max Weber stated that state power is the monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force on a specific territory. Law enforcement is the main means of regulating nonmilitary violence in society. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... The monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force designs an essential attribute of the states sovereignty. ... For the band, see The Police. ...


Governments regulate the use of violence through legal systems governing individuals and political authorities, including the police and military. Most societies condone some amount of police violence to maintain the status quo and enforce laws. A legal system is the mechanism for creating, interpreting and enforcing the laws in a given jurisdiction. ...


However, German political theorist Hannah Arendt noted: "Violence can be justifiable, but it never will be legitimate ... Its justification loses in plausibility the farther its intended end recedes into the future. No one questions the use of violence in self-defence, because the danger is not only clear but also present, and the end justifying the means is immediate".[8] Many governments do abuse their monopoly on power to engage in violence against citizens. In the twentieth century in acts of democide governments may have killed more than 260 million of their own people through police brutality, execution, massacre, slave labor camps, and through sometimes intentional famine.[9] Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Democide is a term coined by political scientist R. J. Rummel for the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder. Rummel created the term as an extended concept to include forms of government murder that are not covered by the legal definition... January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... Look up massacre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... This is an incomplete list of major famines, ordered by date. ...


Damage to property is usually considered a less serious offense unless the damage injures, or potentially could injure, others. Unpremeditated or small-scale acts of random violence or coordinated violence by unsanctioned private groups usually are prosecuted. While most societies condone the killing of animals for food and sport, increasingly they have adopted mores and laws against animal cruelty. Property damage is damage or destruction done to public or private property, caused either by a person who is not its owner or by natural phenomena. ... Cruelty to animals refers to treatment which causes unacceptable suffering to animals. ...


The Federal Bureau of Investigation classifies violence resulting in homicide, into criminal homicide and justifiable homicide (e.g. self defense).[10] F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ... This article is about fatal harm. ... The concept of justifiable homicide in criminal law stands on the dividing line between an excuse and an exculpation. ...


Below are some forms of violent crimes outlawed by governmental legal entities:

  • Abuse - to use wrongly or improperly used; misuse
  • Assault and battery - an assault involving actual bodily contact
    • Assault - an unlawful physical attack upon another or threat to do violence to another
      • Aggravated assault - assault with the use of weapons or in other circumstances beyond the realm of normal assault
    • Battery - an unlawful attack upon another person by beating or wounding, or by touching in an offensive manner
  • Cruelty to animals - a cruel act upon an animal
  • Child abuse - cruelty to children (people under the age of 18)
  • Domestic violence - acts of violence against a person living in one's household or a member of one's immediate family
  • Homicide - the killing of another human being
  • Murder - homicide in certain proscribed conditions
  • Property damage - damage to another's property (ie: breaking of things, burning, or harming in a devastating manner)
  • Rape - the unlawful compelling of someone through physical force or duress to have sexual intercourse

Abuser redirects here. ... Assault and battery is the combination of two violent crimes: assault (the threat of violence) and battery (actual physical violence). ... Aggravated assault is a form of violent crime. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cruelty to animals refers to the treatment or standards of care that cause unwarranted or unnecessary suffering or harm to animals. ... Child abuse is the physical, emotional or sexual abuse or neglect of children by parents, guardians, or others. ... Domestic disturbance redirects here. ... Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ... Property damage is damage or destruction done to public or private property, caused either by a person who is not its owner or by natural phenomena. ...

War

War is a state of prolonged violent, large-scale conflict involving two or more groups of people, usually under the auspices of government. War is fought as a means of resolving territorial and other conflicts, as war of aggression to conquer territory or loot resources, in national self-defense, or to suppress attempts of part of the nation to secede from it. For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... In international law, a war of aggression is generally considered to be any war for which the purpose is not to repel an invasion, or respond to an attack on the territory of a sovereign nation. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...


Since the Industrial Revolution, the lethality of modern warfare has steadily grown. World War I casualties were over 40 million and World War II casualties were over 70 million. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Pie chart showing deaths by alliance and military/civilian. ... Military and civilian deaths during World War II for the Allied and the Axis Powers. ...


Nevertheless, some hold the actual deaths from war have decreased compared to past centuries. Lawrence H. Keeley, a professor at the University of Illinois, calculates that 87 per cent of tribal societies were at war more than once per year, and some 65 per cent of them were fighting continuously. The attrition rate of numerous close-quarter clashes, which characterize endemic warfare, produces casualty rates of up to 60%, compared to 1% of the combatants as is typical in modern warfare.[11] Stephen Pinker agrees, writing that “in tribal violence, the clashes are more frequent, the percentage of men in the population who fight is greater, and the rates of death per battle are higher.”[12] A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that contemporary tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. ... Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ...


Jared Diamond in his award-winning books, Guns, Germs and Steel and The Third Chimpanzee provides sociological and anthropological evidence for the rise of large scale warfare as a result of advances in technology and city-states. The rise of agriculture provided a significant increase in the number of individuals that a region could sustain over hunter-gatherer societies, allowing for development of specialized classes such as soldiers, or weapons manufacturers. On the other hand, tribal conflicts in hunter-gatherer societies tend to result in wholesale slaughter of the opposition (other than perhaps females of child-bearing years) instead of territorial conquest or slavery, presumably as hunter-gatherer numbers could not sustain empire-building.[citation needed] Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies cover Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of physiology at UCLA. It won the Pulitzer Prize for 1998, as well as the Aventis Prize for best science book in the... The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal (ISBN 0-06-098403-1), originally published in English in 1992, is the first book-length work of non-fiction from Jared Diamond, evolutionary biologist, physiologist and award-winning author. ...


Religious and Political Ideology

Many Ahmedabad's buildings were set on fire during 2002 Gujarat violence
Many Ahmedabad's buildings were set on fire during 2002 Gujarat violence

Religious and political ideologies have been the cause of interpersonal violence, and violent riots, political repression, ethnic cleansing and genocide through out history.[13] Ideologues often falsely accuse others of violence, such as the ancient blood libel against Jews, the medieval accusations of casting witchcraft spells against women, caricatures of black men as “violent brutes” that helped excuse the late nineteenth century Jim Crow laws in the United States,[14] and modern accusations of satanic ritual abuse against day care center owners and others.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1184x800, 325 KB) Summary This is a scan of a photograph taken by me during the Communal riots on Ahmedabad in February/March 2002. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1184x800, 325 KB) Summary This is a scan of a photograph taken by me during the Communal riots on Ahmedabad in February/March 2002. ... , Ahmedabad (Gujarati: , Hindi: अहमदाबाद ) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of almost 51 lakhs (5. ... The skyline of Ahmedabad filled with smoke as buildings and shops are set on fire by rioting mobs. ... Categories: Stub | Riots ... Political repression is the oppression or persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of society. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Witch redirects here. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Jim Crow laws refers to a series of laws enacted mostly in the Southern United States in the later half of the 19th century that restricted most of the new privileges granted to African-Americans after the Civil War. ... Satanism Associated organizations The Church of Satan First Satanic Church Prominent figures Anton LaVey | Blanche Barton | Peter H. Gilmore | Peggy Nadramia | Karla LaVey Associated concepts Left-Hand Path | Pentagonal Revisionism | Suitheism | Might is Right Books and publications The Satanic Bible | The Satanic Rituals | The Satanic Witch | The Devils Notebook...


Both supporters and opponents of the twenty-first century war on terrorism regard it largely as an ideological and religious war.[16] (20th century - 21st century - 22nd century - other centuries) Definition In calendars based on the Christian Era or Common Era, such as the Gregorian calendar, the 21st century is the current century, as of this writing, lasting from 2001-2100. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11 2001. ...


Vittorio Bufacchi describes two different modern concepts of violence, one the “minimalist conception” of violence as an intentional act of excessive or destructive force, the other the “comprehensive conception” which includes violations of rights, including a long list of human needs.[17] These concepts are reflected in conflicts between “left wing” anti-capitalists and “right wing’” pro-capitalists. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... An anti-capitalist poster printed by the Industrial Workers of the World in 1911. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ...


Anti-capitalists assert that “capitalism is violent.” They believe private property, trade, interest and profit survive only because police violence defends them and that capitalist economies need war to expand.[18] Many contest calling any form of property damage “violent.”[19] Similarly, many anti-capitalists lambast what they call “structural violence” which denotes a form of violence in which social institutions kill people slowly by preventing them from meeting their basic needs, often leading further to social conflict and violence. Anti-capitalism is any and all opposition to capitalism. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... For other senses of this word, see interest (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Structural violence, a term which was first used in the 1970s and which has commonly been ascribed to Johan Galtung, denotes a form of violence which corresponds with the systematic ways in which a given social structure or social institution kills people slowly by preventing them from meeting their basic... A social institution is any institution in a socity that works to socialize the groups or people in it. ...


Supporters of capitalism are wary of a wide definition of violence that requires the state and its violent enforcement agencies to fulfill all needs denied by structural violence. However, unlike those critics who support state capitalism[20], free market supporters argue that it is violently enforced state laws intervening in markets which cause many of the problems anti-capitalists attribute to structural violence.[21] There are multiple definitions of the term state capitalism. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...


Throughout history, some religions like Jainism, Buddhism, Quakerism and individuals like Mahatma Gandhi have preached that humans are capable of eliminating individual violence and organizing societies through purely nonviolent means. Gandhi himself once wrote: “A society organized and run on the basis of complete non-violence would be the purest anarchy.”[22] Modern political ideologies which espouse similar views include pacifist varieties of voluntarism, mutualism, anarchism and libertarianism. Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Voluntarism (lat. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Mutualism is a political and economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, it ought to receive... Anarchist redirects here. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ...


Health and prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines violence as "Injury inflicted by deliberate means", which includes assault, as well as "legal intervention, and self-harm".[23] The World Health Organization ( “WHO”) in its first World Report on Violence and Health defined violence as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation."[24] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... WHO redirects here. ...


WHO estimates that each year around 1.6 million lives are lost world-wide due to violence. It is among the leading causes of death for people ages 15-44, especially of males.[25]


Recent estimates for murders per year in various countries include: 55,000 murders in Brazil[26], 30,000 murders in Russia, 25,000 murders in Colombia,[27], 20,000 murders in South Africa, 15,000 murders in Mexico, 14,000 murders in the United States,[28], 11,000 murders in Venezuela, 6,000 murders in El Salvador, 1,600 murders in Jamaica[29], 1000 murders in France, 500 murders in Canada, and 200 murders in Chile.[30]


Violence in the media

The topic of violence in popular media is controversial. This includes violence in films, television, music, comic books, and video games and televised sports. Violence in the media has led to government censorship and regulation. In the United States the FCC regulates television and radio, as does the CRTC in Canada. Media also self-regulate, as through many movie rating systems and the Entertainment Software Rating Board for video games.[31] Media violence research attempts to determine whether a link between consuming media violence and subsequent aggressive and violent behavior exists. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... This article is about computer and video games. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... FCC redirects here. ... The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, in French Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes) was established in 1968 by the Canadian Parliament to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors. ... The ESRBs logo. ...


Violent content has been a central part of video game controversy. Critics like Dave Grossman and Jack Thompson argue that violence in games (some of which they both call "murder simulators") hardens children to unethical acts.[32] Video games have been the subject of controversy and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sex themes, consumption of illegal drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, or profanity in some games. ... Lieutenant Colonel Dave Grossman is an author who has specialized in the study of the psychology of killing. ... Jack Thompson is the name of several persons: Jack Thompson (actor) (born 1940), Australian film and television star Jack Thompson (attorney) (born 1951), American lawyer Jack Thompson (boxer) (1904–1946), American boxer Jack Thompson (football player) (born 1956), American football quarterback from Samoa Jack E. Thompson, British scientist Category: ...


Historical examples of violence

Acts of violence are commonly found in historical record. The following is an incomplete list of some of the more large-scale examples of violence in history.


- Caesar's campaigns. As many as 1 million people (probably 1 in 4 of the Gauls) died, another million were enslaved, 300 tribes were subjugated and 800 cities were destroyed during the Gallic Wars (present-day France). The entire population of city of Avaricum (Bourges) (40,000 in all) was slaughtered.[33] During Julius Caesar's campaign against the Helvetii (modern-day Switzerland) approximately 60% of the tribe was destroyed, and another 20% was taken into slavery.[34] The institution of slavery in ancient Rome made many people non-persons before their legal system. ... Combatants Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus Mark Antony Quintus Cicero Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius, among other The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. ... Avaricum was a city in ancient Gaul, on the site of what is now the city of Bourges. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... A map of Gaul showing the northern Alpine position of the Helvetii. ... Slave redirects here. ...


- Boudica's uprising. Boudica (d. 60/61AD) was a queen of the Celtic Iceni people of Norfolk in Roman-occupied Britain who led a major uprising of the tribes against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire. They destroyed Camulodunum (Colchester, a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers), Londinium (London) and Verulamium (St Albans). In the three cities destroyed, between 70,000 and 80,000 people are said to have been killed. Tacitus says the Britons had no interest in taking or selling prisoners, only in slaughter by gibbet, fire or cross. Cassius Dio's account gives more prurient detail: that the noblest women were impaled on spikes and had their breasts cut off and sewn to their mouths, "to the accompaniment of sacrifices, banquets, and wanton behaviour" in sacred places, particularly the groves of Andraste.[35][36] A sculpture depicting Boudica, the warrior queen of the Iceni who led the revolt against the Romans in AD 61, and her daughters, commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft, stands near Westminster Pier, London Boudica (also spelt Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a woman monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of her... This article is about the European people. ... The Iceni or Eceni were a Brythonic tribe who inhabited an area of Britain corresponding roughly to the modern-day county of Norfolk between the 1st century BC and 1st century AD. The Cenimagni, who surrendered to Julius Caesar during his second expedition to Britain in 54 BC, may have... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the town in England. ... For other places with the same name, see Colchester (disambiguation). ... Londinium may refer to: An ancient Roman name for London (see History of London) Londinium (movie) A song by Catatonia A fictional planet in the TV show Firefly, (see moons and planets in Firefly) Londinivm, a free MMORPG. Londinium (album), an album by the band Archive This is a disambiguation... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Remains of the city walls Verulamium was the third largest city in Roman Britain. ... , St Albans is the main urban area of the City and District of St Albans in southern Hertfordshire, England, around 22 miles (35km) north of central London. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...


- Albigensian Crusade. The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (12091229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Pope Innocent III of the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. Béziers was a Languedoc stronghold of Catharism and the first city to be sacked, on July 22, 1209. In the bloody massacre which followed, no one was spared, not even those who took refuge in the churches. The commander of the Crusade was the Papal Legate Arnaud-Amaury (or Arnald Amalaricus, Abbot of Citeaux). When asked by a Crusader how to distinguish between the Catholics and Cathars once they'd taken the city, the abbot famously replied, "Kill them all, God will know His own" - "Neca eos omnes. Deus suos agnoscet".[37] According to "Caesarius of Heisterbach: Medieval Heresies," after the city was taken, at a cost in life of thousands of defenders, about 450 heretics were "examined" by the inquisitors and many of them claimed to be good Catholicss rather than being heretics. Fearing the possibility that these were lying, must have caused the infamous phrase to first be uttered.[38] In the end, the Albigensian Crusade killed an estimated 1,000,000 people, not only Cathars but much of the population of southern France.[39] The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ... Events February 18 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... For the language called Langue doc, see Occitan language. ... Béziers (Besièrs in Occitan, and Besiers in Catalan) is a town in Languedoc, in the southwest of France. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Albigensian Crusade against Cathars (1209-1218) the Franciscans are founded. ... Arnaud Amalric, or Arnau Amalric, (d. ... 16th century Citeaux, perspective view (engraving) Cîteaux Abbey (abbaye de Cîteaux) is a Catholic abbey located in Saint-Nicolas-les-Cîteaux, south of France. ... Statue of Caesarius made by Ernemann Sander in Königswinter-Oberdollendorf Caesar of Heisterbach, also known as Caesarius of Heisterbach ca. ...


- Mongol Empire. Quoting Eric Margolis, Adam Jones observes, in his book Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction, that in the 13th century the Mongol horsemen of Genghis Khan were genocidal killers (génocidaires) who were known to kill whole nations leaving nothing but empty ruins and bones.[40] Many ancient sources described Genghis Khan's conquests as wholesale destruction on an unprecedented scale in their certain geographical regions, and therefore probably causing great changes in the demographics of Asia. For example, over much of Central Asia speakers of Iranian languages were replaced by speakers of Turkic languages. The eastern part of the Islamic world experienced the terrifying holocaust of the Mongol invasions, which turned northern and eastern Iran into a desert. Between 1220 and 1260, the total population of Persia may have had dropped from 2,500,000 to 250,000 as a result of mass extermination and famine.[41] (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... This article is about the person. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... This article is about fatal harm. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


Before the Mongol invasion, Chinese dynasties reportedly had approximately 120 million inhabitants; after the conquest was completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people.[42] About half of the Russian population died during the Mongol invasion of Rus.[43] Historians estimate that up to half of Hungary's two million population at that time were victims of the Mongol invasion of Europe.[44] The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ...


The Pope Innocent IV’s envoy to the Mongol Khan, who passed through Kiev in February 1246, wrote: Innocent IV, né Sinibaldo de Fieschi ( 1180/90 - December 7, 1254), pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to one of the first families of Genoa, and, educated at Parma and Bologna, passed for one of the best canonists of his time. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...

"They [the Mongols] attacked Russia, where they made great havoc, destroying cities and fortresses and slaughtering men; and they laid siege to Kiev, the capital of Russia; after they had besieged the city for a long time, they took it and put the inhabitants to death. When we were journeying through that land we came across countless skulls and bones of dead men lying about on the ground. Kiev had been a very large and thickly populated town, but now it has been reduced almost to nothing, for there are at the present time scarce two hundred houses there and the inhabitants are kept in complete slavery."[45]

- Timur’s conquests. Timur Lenk was a 14th century conqueror of much of Middle East and Central Asia, and founder of the Timurid dynasty. He thought of himself as a ghazi, but his biggest wars were against Muslim states. In 1383 Timur started the military conquest of Persia. He captured Herat, Khorasan and all eastern Persia to 1385 and massacred almost all inhabitants of Neishapur and other Iranian cities. When revolts broke out in Persia, he ruthlessly suppressed them, massacring the populations of whole cities. When Timur entered Delhi (India), the city was sacked, destroyed, and left in ruins. When Timur conquered Persia, Iraq and Syria, the civilian population was decimated. In the city of Isfahan he ordered the building of a pyramid of 70,000 human skulls, from those that his army had beheaded,[46] and a pyramid of some 20,000 skulls was erected outside the Aleppo.[47] Timur herded thousands of citizens of Damascus into the Cathedral Mosque before setting it aflame,[48] and had 70,000 people beheaded in Tikrit, and another 90,000 more in Baghdad.[49] After the capture of Bagdad, Timur ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him (many warriors were so scared they killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign just to ensure they had heads to present to Timur). Nestorian Christians east of Iraq were almost entirely eliminated by Timur.[50] As many as 17 million people may have died from his conquests.[51] For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim Turco-Mongol dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia and parts of modern Iran and modern Turkey, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... This article is about the history and concept of ghazw and ghāzÄ«. For other meanings of gazi, see Gazi (disambiguation). ... Islam in the world. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... The word massacre has a number of meanings, but most commonly refers to individual events of deliberate and direct mass killing, especially of noncombatant civilians or other innocents without any reasonable means of defense, that would often qualify as war crimes or atrocities. ... Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Looking north along the Tigris towards Saddams Presidential palace in April 2003 Tikrit (تكريت, TikrÄ«t also transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit) is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river (at 34. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East...


- Aztec human sacrifice. The Aztecs sacrificed thousands of victims (often slaves or prisoners of war) annually to the sun god Huitzilopochtli; an offering to Huitzilopochtli would be made to restore the blood he lost, as the sun was engaged in a daily battle. Human sacrifices would prevent the end of the world that could happen on each cycle of 52 years. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, the Aztecs reported that they sacrificed about 80,400 people over the course of four days. According to Ross Hassing, author of Aztec Warfare, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed in the ceremony.[52][53] The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Slave redirects here. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... // Huitzilopochtli, as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis. ... Sol redirects here. ... Human sacrifice was practiced in many ancient cultures. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ...


- Vlad the Impaler. Vlad the Impaler, also known as Vlad Dracula, the 15th century ruler of Wallachia in present-day Romania, has been characterized as exceedingly cruel. Impalement was his preferred method of torture and execution. As expected, death by impalement was slow and painful. Victims sometimes endured for hours or days. Impalement was Vlad's favourite method of torture but was by no means his only one. The list of tortures he is alleged to have employed is extensive: nails in heads, cutting off of limbs, blinding, strangulation, burning, cutting off of noses and ears, mutilation of sexual organs (especially in the case of women), scalping, skinning, exposure to the elements or to animals, and boiling alive. No one was immune to Vlad the Impaler's attentions. His victims included women and children, peasants and great lords, ambassadors from foreign powers and merchants.[54] In 1459, he had 30,000 of the Saxon merchants and officials of the Transylvanian city of Kronstadt who were transgressing his authority impaled.[55][56] In 1462 Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, during his campaign against Wallachia, was “greeted” by the sight of veritable forest of stakes on which Vlad the Impaler had impaled 20,000 Turkish prisoners.[57] Dracula was probably killed in battle against the Ottoman Empire near Bucharest in December of 1476. Vlad Tepes redirects here. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses, see impale. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Location of BraÅŸov Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor George Scripcaru (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 267. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى Meḥmed-i sānÄ«, Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from... // Combatants Wallachia Ottoman Empire Commanders Vlad III Dracula Mehmed II Strength up to 30,000[1] most realistic source mentions 60,000 regulars and 20-30,000 irregulars (90,000); 120 cannons[2] Casualties 5,000 [3] 15,000 [3] The Night Attack (Romanian: ) was a skirmish fought between Vlad... Ottoman redirects here. ...


- Thirty Years' War. The Thirty Years' War was fought between 1618 and 1648, primarily on the territory of Holy Roman Empire. Virtually all of the major European powers were involved. The Thirty Years' War was the most destructive conflict in Europe prior to World War I. Atrocities and massacres, such as Sack of Magdeburg, became standard methods of warfare. During the war, Germany's population was reduced by 30% on average; in the territory of Brandenburg, the losses had amounted to half, while in some areas an estimated two thirds of the population died. Germany’s male population was reduced by almost half. The population of the Czech lands declined by a third. The Swedish armies alone destroyed 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages and 1,500 towns in Germany, one-third of all German towns.[58][59][60] Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... This article is about the medieval empire. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... During the Thirty Years War the city of Magdeburg was besieged by the Holy Roman Empires Imperial Army from November 1630 to 20 May 1631 in the Sack of Magdeburg. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia - 1892, then part of Austria-Hungary Bohemia and Moravia-Silesia within Czechoslovakia in 1928 The Czech lands (Czech: ÄŒeské zemÄ›) is an auxiliary term used mainly to describe the combination of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia. ...


- Reconquest of Ireland. It is estimated that as much as a third of the entire population of Ireland perished during the civil wars and subsequent Cromwellian conquest in the mid-17th century. Since the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Ireland had been mainly under the control of the Irish Confederate Catholics. The Cromwellian reconquest of Ireland was extremely brutal, and it has been alleged that many of the army's actions during the reconquest would today be called war crimes or even genocide. William Petty who conducted the first scientific land and demographic survey of Ireland in the 1650s (the Down Survey), concluded that at least 400,000 people and maybe as many as 620,000 had died in Ireland between 1641 and 1653, many as a result of famine and plague. At the time, Ireland had around 1.5 million inhabitants.[61] The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody intercommunal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ... Motto Pro Deo, Rege et Patria, Hibernia Unanimis(Latin) For God, King and Country, Ireland is United Capital Kilkenny Language(s) English, Latin, Irish Religion Government Monarchy King  - 1642–49 Charles I  - 1649–53 Charles II1 Historical era Wars of the Three Kingdoms  - Rebellion October 1641  - Established Summer 1642  - Cessation... Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - Dec. ... Presentism is a mode of historical analysis in which present-day ideas and perspectives are anachronistically introduced into depictions or interpretations of the past. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Sir William Petty (May 27, 1623 – December 16, 1687) was an English economist, scientist and philosopher. ... A demographic or demographic profile is a term used in marketing and broadcasting, to describe a demographic grouping or a market segment. ... The Down Survey, also known as the Civil Survey, is the title of the mapping of Ireland carried out by William Petty, English scientist in 1655 and 1656. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ...


- The Deluge. During the 1640s and 1650s the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was devastated by several conflicts, in which the Commonwealth lost over a third of its populations (over 3 million people).[62] First, the Chmielnicki Uprising when Bohdan Khmelnytsky's Cossacks massacred tens of thousands of Jews and Poles in the eastern and southern areas he controlled (today's Ukraine). It is recorded that Khmelnytsky told the people that the Poles had sold them as slaves "into the hands of the accursed Jews". It is estimated that 100,000 Jews were massacred and 300 of their communities destroyed. The decrease of the Jewish population during that period (referred to in Polish history as The Deluge) is estimated at 100,000 to 200,000, which also includes emigration, deaths from diseases and jasyr (captivity in the Ottoman Empire).[63] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Chmielnicki Uprising or Chmielnicki Rebellion is the name of a civil war in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the years 1648–1654. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: , commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Богда́н Хмельни́цкий, translit. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Slave redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


- Revolt in the Vendée. Vendée is remembered as the place where the peasants revolted against the French Revolutionary government in 1793. They resented the changes imposed on the Roman Catholic Church by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790) and broke into open revolt in defiance of the Revolutionary government's military conscription. This guerrilla war became known as the Revolt in the Vendée, led at the outset by an underground faction called the Chouans. Vendée is a department in west central France, on the Atlantic Ocean . ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The law of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (Fr. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Flag of the so-called Armée Royale et Catholique (Royal and Catholic Army) from Vendée Insigna of the royalist insurgents During the French Revolution, the 1793-1796 uprising in the Vendée, variously known as the Uprising, Insurrection, Revolt, Vendéan Rebellion, or Wars in the Vendée... Chouans were insurrectionary royalists in France, in particular Brittany, during the French Revolution, and even for a time under the Empire, when their head-quarters were in London Their names derive from their muster by night at the sound of the chat-huant, the screech owl, a nocturnal bird of...


Initially the Vendée rebels gained the upper hand, so on August 1 1793 the Committee of Public Safety ordered General Jean-Baptiste Carrier to carry out a pacification of the region. The Republican army was reinforced and the Vendéan army was eventually defeated. The Reign of Terror, seen elsewhere in France, was extraordinarily brutal in the Vendée. There was a massacre of 6,000 Vendée prisoners, many of them women, after the battle of Savenay. Subsequently, there was the drowning of 3,000 Vendée women at Pont-au-Baux. This was followed by 5,000 Vendée priests, old men, women, and children killed by drowning at the Loire River at Nantes in what was called the "national bath" - tied in groups in barges and then sunk into the Loire. Under orders from Committee of Public Safety in February 1794 the Republican forces launched their final "pacification" (the Vendée-Vengé or "'Vendée Avenged") - twelve columns, the colonnes infernales ("infernal columns") under Louis-Marie Turreau, were marched through the Vendée, indiscriminately targeting not only the remaining rebels and the people who had given them support, but the innocent as well.[64][65] is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793-4) of the French Revolution. ... Jean-Baptiste Carrier (1756 - November 16, 1794) was a French Revolutionary. ... For other uses of terror, see Terror. ... The Loire River (pronounced in French), the longest river in France with a length of just over 1000 km, drains an area of 117,000 km², more than a fifth of France. ... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: Favet Neptunus eunti (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Pays de la Loire Department Loire-Atlantique (44) Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault  (PS) (since 1989) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ...


Beyond these massacres there were formal orders for forced evacuation and 'scorched earth' - farms were destroyed, crops and forests burned, and villages razed. There were many reported atrocities and a campaign of mass killing universally targeted at residents of the Vendée regardless of combatant status, political affiliation, age or gender. Some consider these acts to be the first modern genocide.[66][67] The campaign was ordered as such by the Comité de Salut public: For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...

"The committee has prepared measures that tend to exterminate this rebellious race of Vendéeans, to make their abodes disappear, to torch their forests, to cut their crops."

The orders to Turreau were:

"Exterminate the brigands to the last man instead of burning the farms, punish the fleeing ones and the cowards, and crush that horrible Vendée. Combine the most assured means to exterminate all of this race of brigands."

When the campaign dragged to an end in March 1796 the estimated dead numbered between 117,000 and 500,000, of a population of around 800,000.[68][69][70]


- Wahhabist conquests. The Saudi Wahabbist sheiks were convinced that it was their religious mission to wage holy war (jihad) against all other forms of Islam. In 1801 and 1802, the Saudi Wahhabists under Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud attacked and captured the holy Shia cities of Karbala and Najaf in Iraq, massacred the Shiites and destroyed the tombs of the Shiite Imam Husayn and Ali bin Abu Talib. In 1802 they occupied Taif where they massacred the population. In 1803 and 1804 the Wahhabis captured Mecca and Medina. In Mecca and Medina they destroyed monuments and various holy Muslim sites and shrines, such as the shrine built over the tomb of Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammad, and even intended to destroy the grave of the Prophet Muhammad.[71][72][73][74][75] The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 (1157 H.) when the Wahhabi leader Sheikh Mohammed ibn Abd al Wahhab settled in Diriyah and Prince Mohammed Ibn Saud agreed to support and espouse his cause, with a view to cleansing the Islamic faith from distortions. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Najaf (Arabic: ‎; BGN: An Najaf) is a city in Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... Taif in 1970 Taif (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is a city in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of 1700 metres on the slopes of the Al-Sarawat mountains. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


- Taiping Rebellion. During the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) that followed the secession of the Tàipíng Tiānguó (太平天國, Heavenly Kingdom of Perfect Peace) from the Qing empire both sides tried to deprive each other of the resources to continue the war and it became standard practice to destroy agricultural areas, butcher the population of cities and in general exact a brutal price from captured enemy lands in order to drastically weaken the opposition's war effort.[76] This war truly was total in that civilians on both sides participated to a significant extent in the war effort and in that armies on both sides waged war on the civilian population as well as military forces.[77] In total between 20 and 30 million died in the conflict making it bloodier than the World War I or Russian Civil War.[78][79] Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist...


- War of the Triple Alliance. War of the Triple Alliance (1864-1870) was the bloodiest conflict in the history of South America, fought between Paraguay and the allied countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Paraguay’s prewar population of between one and one-half million was reduced to about 221,000 in 1871, of which only about 28,000 were men.[80] Paraguay's dictator, Francisco Solano López, is widely regarded as being responsible for the war, which led to his death. "Conquer or die" became the order of the day. Lopez ordered thousands of executions in the military. In 1868, when the allies were pressing him hard, he convinced himself that his Paraguayan supporters had actually formed a conspiracy against his life. Thereupon several hundred prominent Paraguayan citizens were seized and executed by his order, including his brothers and brothers-in-law, cabinet ministers, judges, prefects, military officers, bishops and priests, and nine-tenths of the civil officers, together with 500 foreigners, among them several members of the diplomatic legations (the San Fernando massacres). The bodies were dumped into mass graves.[81][82] Combatants Paraguay Uruguay, Argentina, Empire of Brazil Commanders Francisco Solano López † José E. Díaz Pedro II of Brazil Duke of Caxias Bartolomé Mitre Venancio Flores Strength at the beginning of the war ca. ... Francisco Solano López Francisco Solano López (24 July 1827 - 1 March 1870) was president of Paraguay from 1862 until his death in 1870. ...


- Indian Wars. In his book The Wild Frontier: Atrocities during the American-Indian War from Jamestown Colony to Wounded Knee, amateur historian William M. Osborn sought to tally every recorded atrocity in the area that would eventually become the continental United States, from first contact (1511) to the closing of the frontier (1890), and determined that 9,156 people died from atrocities perpetrated by Native Americans, and 7,193 people died from those perpetrated by settlers. Osborn defines an atrocity as the murder, torture, or mutilation of civilians, the wounded, and prisoners.[83] For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


- Second Boer War. The English term "concentration camp" was first used to describe camps operated by the British in South Africa during the Second Boer War (1899–1902). It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians...


These had originally been set up as "refugee camps" by the Army for families whose farms had been destroyed by the British under their "Scorched Earth" policy (sweeping the country bare of everything that could give sustenance to the guerrillas, including women and children, and including destroying crops, burning down homesteads and farms, poisoning wells, and salting fields) and thousands of Boers had already been brought into them. For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ...


Kitchener succeeded Roberts as commander-in-chief in South Africa in November 29, 1900 and in an attempt to break the guerilla campaign, initiated plans to "flush out guerrillas in a series of sytematic drives, organized like a sporting shoot, with success defined in a weekly 'bag' of killed, captured and wounded, and to sweep the country bare of everything that could give sustenance to the guerrillas, including women and children. . . . It was the clearance of civilians -- uprooting a whole nation -- that would come to dominate the last phase of the war."[84] Following Kitchener's new policy, more camps were built and converted to prisons and many tens of thousands more women and children were forcibly moved to prevent the Boers from resupplying at their homes. Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was an Anglo-Irish British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman popularly referred to as Lord Kitchener. ... Lord Roberts of Kabul and Kandahar on his Celebrated Charger (Harpers Magazine, European Edition, December 1897, p27) Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, PC (30 September 1832 – 14 November 1914) was a distinguished British soldier and one of the most...


By August 1901, 93,940 Boers were reported to be in "camps of refuge". A report after the war concluded that 27,927 Boers (of whom 24,074 [50% of the Boer child population] were children under 16) had died of starvation, disease and exposure in the concentration camps. In all, about one in four (25%) of the Boer inmates, mostly children, died.[85][86] This article is about the Southern African ethnic group. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ...


- Don Cossacks.

Main article: Red Terror

Following the defeat of the White Army in Russian Civil War, a policy of decossackization (Raskazachivaniye) took place on the surviving Cossacks and their homelands since they were viewed as potential threat to the new Soviet regime.[87] That was the first example when Soviet leaders decided to "eliminate, exterminate, and deport the population of a whole territory".[88][89] The Cossack homelands were often very fertile, and during the collectivisation campaign many Cossacks shared the fate of kulaks. The man-made Holodomor famine of 1932-1933 hit the Don and Kuban territory the hardest. According to historian Michael Kort, "During 1919 and 1920, out of a population of approximately 1.5 million Don Cossacks, the Bolshevik regime killed or deported an estimated 300,000 to 500,000".[90] For other uses, see Red Terror (disambiguation). ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... In 1919 the Soviet engaged in a policy to eliminate the Cossack threat to proletarian power by de-Cossackization: extirpating the Cossack elite; terrorizing all other Cossacks; and bringing about the formal liquidation of the Cossackry. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Kulaks (Russian: кула́к, kulak, fist, literally meaning tight-fisted) was a category of rich peasants in later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and Soviet Union. ... Child victim of the Holodomor Map of Ukrainian SRR in 1932-1933 (7 Oblast`s (Regions) + Moldavian ASSR) administrative borders given in light grey The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Not by Their Own Will. ...


- Spanish Civil War. The number of casualties is disputed; estimates generally suggest that between 500,000 and 1 million people were killed in the Spanish Civil War. Over the years, historians kept lowering the death figures and modern research concludes that 500,000 deaths is the correct figure.[91] Atrocities during the war were committed on both sides.[92][93] At least 50,000 were executed during the civil war.[94] Franco's victory was followed by tens of thousands of summary executions.[95][96] Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... // Franco may refer to: Franco is a common surname in Portuguese and Spanish which derives from the word Frank, in reference to the Germanic tribe of the Franks, who invaded the modern-day France during the Migration period[1]. Political figures Francisco Franco, Spanish head of state. ...


In his recent, updated history of the Spanish Civil War, Antony Beevor "reckons Franco's ensuing 'white terror' claimed 200,000 lives.[97] The 'red terror' had already killed 38,000."[98] Julius Ruiz concludes that "although the figures remain disputed, a minimum of 37,843 executions were carried out in the Republican zone with a maximum of 150,000 executions (including 50,000 after the war) in Nationalist Spain."[99] In Checas de Madrid, César Vidal comes to a nationwide total of 110,965 victims of Republican repression; 11,705 people being killed in Madrid alone.[100] Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... During the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s, many of the Republican forces were violently anti-clerical anarchists and Communists, whose assaults during what has been termed Spains red terror included sacking and burning monasteries and churches and killing 6,832 members of the Catholic clergy. ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ...


- During World War II. -- Germany.

Main articles: Holocaust, German war crimes, and Consequences of German Nazism

During World War II, the holocaust initiated by the German National Socialist party killed millions of people: Slavs, Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Serbs, and especially Jews. After the end of World War II, this genocide came to be known as the Holocaust. Poles, Jehovah's Witnesses, Roma and homosexuals and anybody considered a threat to the Nazi party were rounded up and sent to labour camps, death camps, or just killed in their homes. For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Germany committed war crimes in both World War I and World War II. The most notable of these is the Holocaust, where millions of people, about half of which were Jews, were murdered. ... German Nazism and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities and peoples before, during and after World War II. While the attempt of Germany to exterminate several nations viewed as subhuman by Nazi ideology, was stopped by the Allies, Nazi aggression neverthless led to deaths... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Language(s) Romani, languages of native region Religion(s) Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies...


The Nazi occupation of Poland resulted in the death of one-fifth of the population, some 6 million people, half of them Jewish. The Soviet Union lost an estimated 27 million people during the war, about half of all World War II casualties.[101][102] Of the 5.7 million Soviet POWs captured by the Germans, 3.5 million had died while in German captivity by the end of the war. [103] Military and civilian deaths during World War II for the Allied and the Axis Powers. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


-- Japan.

Main article: Japanese war crimes

Japanese soldiers rounded up and killed millions[104] of civilians and prisoners of wars from surrounding nations, especially from Korea, China, Philippines and US during World War II. At least 20 million Chinese died during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).[105][106] Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata...


Unit 731 was amongst one of the most notorious examples of wartime atrocities committed on a civilian population during World War II, where cruel and inhumane experiments were done to thousands of Chinese civilians and Allied prisoners of war. The Rape of Nanking is another example of atrocity committed by Japanese soldiers on a civilian population. Hundreds of thousands of men were slaughtered, while women of all ages were systematically raped and / or killed by Japanese soldiers.[107] Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II is a 1997 book by Iris Chang (張純如) and William C. Kirby, which presents a history of the 1937-1938 Nanjing Massacre. ...


The Three Alls Policy (Sankō Sakusen) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II, the three alls being: "Kill All, Burn All and Loot All". Initiated in 1940 by Ryūkichi Tanaka, the Sankō Sakusen was implemented in full scale in 1942 in north China by Yasuji Okamura who divided the territory into pacified, semi-pacified and unpacified areas. The approval of the policy was given by Imperial Headquarters Army Order Number 575 on 3 December 1941. The Three Alls Policy (Japanese: 三光作戦, Sankō Sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sánguáng Zhèngcè) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although the Chinese characters literally mean three lights policy, in this case, the character for light actually means all. Thus, the term is more... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... Ryukichi Tanaka (田中 隆吉) was Japanese Major General in the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. He was born in 1896 and died in 1972. ... Northern Peoples Republic of China region. ... General Yasuji Okamura (1884-1966) Yasuji Okamura was a Japanese General, commanding 2nd Division at the begining of the Second Sino-Japanese War. ...


Because of the sheer scale of suffering caused by the Japanese military during the 1930s and 1940s, it is often compared to the military of Nazi Germany during 1933–45. Much of the controversy regarding Japan's role in World War II revolves around the death rates of prisoners of war and civilians under Japanese occupation. The historian Chalmers Johnson has written that: Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Chalmers Ashby Johnson is a professor emeritus of the University of California, San Diego. ...

It may be pointless to try to establish which World War Two Axis aggressor, Germany or Japan, was the more brutal to the peoples it victimised. The Germans killed six million Jews and 20 million Russians [i.e. Soviet citizens]; the Japanese slaughtered as many as 30 million Filipinos, Malays, Vietnamese, Cambodians, Indonesians and Burmese, at least 23 million of them ethnic Chinese. Both nations looted the countries they conquered on a monumental scale, though Japan plundered more, over a longer period, than the Nazis. Both conquerors enslaved millions and exploited them as forced labourers — and, in the case of the Japanese, as [forced] prostitutes for front-line troops. If you were a Nazi prisoner of war from Britain, America, Australia, New Zealand or Canada (but not Russia) you faced a 4 % chance of not surviving the war; [by comparison] the death rate for Allied POWs held by the Japanese was nearly 30 %.[108]

-- Soviet Union. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... Alternate Japanese name Chinese name Korean name Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for the thousands of women who were forced into sexual slavery for Japanese military brothels during World War II.[1] There is still some disagreement about exactly how many women were victimized. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Main article: Soviet war crimes

According to the historian Norman Naimark, the propaganda of Soviet troop newspapers and the orders of Soviet high command were jointly responsible for excesses by members of the Red Army. The general tenor in the writings was that the Red Army had come to Germany as an avenger and judge to punish the Germans. [109] On January 12, 1945 army General Cherniakhovsky turned to his troops with the words: There shall be no mercy - for nobody, as there had also been no mercy for us... The land of the fascists must become a desert …[110] Soviet war crimes gives a short overview about serious crimes committed by the Red Armys (1918-1946, later Soviet Army) leadership and an unknown number of single members of the Soviet armed forces from 1919 to 1990 inclusive including those in Eastern Europe in late 1944 and early 1945... Norman Naimark, is a historian and acclaimed author, specialising in modern East European history, genocide and ethnic cleansing. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Ivan Danilovich Chernyakhovsky, (Cherniakhovsky), 1906 - 1945, Russian General of the Army (the youngest ever to have this rank), twice Hero of the Soviet Union, brilliant commander of the 3rd Belorussian Front, died from wounds received outside Königsberg at age 39. ...


On the German side, any organized evacuation of civilians was forbidden by the Nazi government to boost morale of the troops, now for the first time defending the "Fatherland", even when the Red Army entered German territory in the last months of 1944. It is estimated that Soviet soldiers raped at least 2,000,000 German women and girls, an estimated 200,000 of whom later died from injuries sustained, committed suicide, or were murdered outright.[111][112][113]


- Mao Zedong. Mao’s first political campaigns after founding the People’s Republic were land reform and the suppression of counter-revolutionaries, which centered on mass executions, often before organized crowds. These campaigns of mass repression targeted former KMT officials, businessmen, former employees of Western companies, intellectuals whose loyalty was suspect, and significant numbers of rural gentry.[114] The U.S. State department in 1976 estimated that there may have been a million killed in the land reform, 800,000 killed in the counterrevolutionary campaign.[115] Mao himself claimed a total of 700,000 killed during these early years (1949–53).[116] However, because there was a policy to select "at least one landlord, and usually several, in virtually every village for public execution",[117] 1 million deaths seems to be an absolute minimum, and many authors agree on a figure of between 2 million and 5 million dead.[118][119] In addition, at least 1.5 million people were sent to "reform through labour" camps (laogai).[120] Mao’s personal role in ordering mass executions is undeniable.[121][122] He defended these killings as necessary for the securing of power.[123] Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... -1... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Map of laogai in China Laogai (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), the abbreviation for Laodong Gaizao(勞動改造), which means reform through labor, is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of prison labor in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


It is estimated that hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, perished in the violence of the Cultural Revolution.[124] When Mao was informed of such losses, particularly that people had been driven to suicide, he blithely commented: "People who try to commit suicide - don't attempt to save them! . . . China is such a populous nation, it is not as if we cannot do without a few people."[125] This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ...


- Equatorial Guinea. In September 1968, Francisco Macías Nguema was elected first president of Equatorial Guinea, and independence was granted in October.[126] In July 1970, Nguema created a single-party state. In 1972 Nguema took complete control of the government and assumed the title of President for Life. Nguema’s regime was characterized by abandonment of all government functions except internal security, which was accomplished by terror; he acted as chief judge who sentenced thousands to death. This led to the death or exile of up to 1/3 of the country's population. Out of a population of 300,000, an estimated 80,000 had been killed.[127][128] Uneasy around educated people, he had killed everyone who wore spectacles. All schools were ordered closed in 1975. The economy collapsed, and skilled citizens and foreigners left.[129] Francisco Macías Nguema This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


- Idi Amin Dada. Idi Amin, dictator of Uganda from 1971 to 1979, is notorious for being one of the bloodiest dictators of the 20th century.[130] The exact number of people killed is unknown. The International Commission of Jurists estimated the death toll at no fewer than 80,000 and more likely around 300,000.[131] An estimate compiled by exile organizations with the help of Amnesty International puts the number killed at 500,000. The victims soon came to include members of other ethnic groups, religious leaders, journalists, senior bureaucrats, judges, lawyers, students and intellectuals, criminal suspects, and foreign nationals. In some cases entire villages were wiped out.[132] Bodies were dumped into the River Nile, on at least one occasion in quantities sufficient to clog the Owen Falls Hydro-Electric Dam in Jinja.[133] Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ... The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-government organisation. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... Owen Falls Dam generating electricity. ...


- Ethiopia. During Mengistu’s 17-year reign it was not uncommon to see students, suspected government critics or rebel sympathisers hanging from lampposts each morning. Mengistu himself is alleged to have murdered opponents by garroting or shooting them, saying that he was leading by example.[134] Some experts have estimated that 150,000 university students, intellectuals and politicians were killed during Mengistu's rule.[135] Amnesty International estimates that up to 500,000 people were killed during the Red Terror of 1977 and 1978.[136] On 12 December 2006 Mengistu Haile Mariam was found guilty of genocide and other offences. He was sentenced to life in prison in January 2007.[137] Mengistu Haile Mariam (IPA: //) (born 1937[3][4]) was the most prominent officer of the Derg, the military junta that governed Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987, and the president of the Peoples Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Mengistu Haile Mariam, in December 2006 convicted of genocide in absentia for his role the Red Terror The Ethiopian Red Terror (1977-1978) was a violent political campaign in Ethiopia undertaken during the leadership of the Derg, a socialist military junta. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mengistu Haile Mariam (IPA: //) (born 1937[3][4]) was the most prominent officer of the Derg, the military junta that governed Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987, and the president of the Peoples Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. ...


- Western New Guinea. Amnesty International has estimated that more than 100,000 Papuans, one-sixth of the population, have died as a result of government-sponsored violence against West Papuans,[138] while others had previously specified much higher death tolls.[139] In 2004 the Yale University Law School published "Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua: Application of the Law of Genocide to the History of Indonesian Control",[140] a 75 page report detailing the applicability of Indonesian control to each of the genocide conventions. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... The term Papuan languages refers to those languages of the western Pacific which are neither Austronesian nor Australian. ... Western New Guinea is the Indonesian western half of the island of New Guinea and consists of two provinces, Papua and West Papua. ...


- Algerian Civil War. During the Algerian Civil War of the 1990s, a variety of massacres occurred. The massacres peaked in 1997 (with a smaller peak in 1994), and were particularly concentrated in the areas between Algiers and Oran, with very few occurring in the east or in the Sahara. An estimated 150,000 to 200,000 people lost their lives during the conflict.[141][142] Combatants Algerian government Islamic Armed Movement (MIA) Islamic Salvation Army (AIS) others. ... During the Algerian Civil War of the 1990s, a variety of massacres occurred. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... View of Oran Coat of arms of Oran Oran (Arabic:, pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ...


Starting around April 1997 (the Thalit massacre), Algeria was wracked by massacres of intense brutality and unprecedented size; previous massacres had occurred in the conflict, but always on a substantially smaller scale. Typically targeting entire villages or neighborhoods and disregarding the age and sex of victims, the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) guerrillas killed tens, and sometimes hundreds, of civilians at a time. These massacres continued through the end of 1998, changing the nature of the political situation considerably. The areas south and east of Algiers were hit particularly hard; the Rais and Bentalha massacres in particular shocked worldwide observers. Pregnant women were sliced open, children were hacked to pieces or dashed against walls, men's limbs were hacked off one by one, and, as the attackers retreated, they would kidnap young women to keep as sex slaves. This quotation by Nesroullah Yous, a survivor of Bentalha, expresses the apparent mood of the attackers: The Thalit massacre took place in Thalit village (Médéa, near Ksar el Boukhari; see map), some 70 km from Algiers, on April 3-4 1997. ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallaha) is a Khawarij terrorist organization that wants to overthrow the Algerian government and replace it with an Islamic state. ... On August 29, 1997, one of Algerias bloodiest massacres of the 1990s occurred at the village of Rais, near Larbaa and south of Algiers. ... At the village of Bentalha, west of Algiers (Algeria), on the night of September 22-23, 1997, more than 200 villagers were killed by armed guerrillas. ...

"We have the whole night to rape your women and children, drink your blood. Even if you escape today, we'll come back tomorrow to finish you off! We're here to send you to your God!"[143]

The GIA's responsibility for these massacres is undisputed; it claimed credit for both Rais and Bentalha (calling the killings an "offering to God" and the victims "impious" supporters of tyrants in a press release), and its policy of massacring civilians was cited by the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat as one of the main reasons it split off from the GIA. At this stage, it had apparently adopted a takfirist ideology, believing that practically all Algerians not actively fighting the government were corrupt to the point of being kafirs, and could be killed righteously with impunity; an unconfirmed communiqué by Zouabri had stated that "except for those who are with us, all others are apostates and deserving of death."[144] The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallaha) is a Khawarij terrorist organization that wants to overthrow the Algerian government and replace it with an Islamic state. ... The Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (Arabic: الجماعة السلفية للدعوة والقتال; French: Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédication et le Combat, GSPC; also known as Group for Call and Combat) is a militant Sunni Islamist group which aims to overthrow the Algerian government and institute an Islamic state. ... In Shia terminology, takfir also refers to the practice of crossing the arms when standing upright during salat (or takattuf, called qabd by Sunnis). ... This article is about an Islamic term. ...


- Second Congo War. The Second Congo War, also known as Africa's World War, began in 1998.[145] The largest war in modern African history, one of the deadliest conflicts since World War II, it directly involved eight African nations, as well as about 25 armed groups. Nearly 5 million people have died.[146][147] A U.N. human rights expert reported in July 2007 that sexual atrocities against Congolese women go 'far beyond rape' and include sexual slavery, forced incest, and cannibalism.[148] Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The History of Africa begins from the emergence of modern human beings to its current state as a politically developing continent. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... Incest is defined as sexual intercourse or any form of sexual activity between closely related persons, especially within the nuclear family. ... Cannibal redirects here. ...


See also

In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Cartoon physics is a joking reference to the fact that animation allows regular laws of physics to be ignored in humorous ways for dramatic effects. ... Consensual violence, often known as S & M, or Sadism & Masochism (not to be confused with B & D, or Bondage & Discipline) is the phenomenon whereby sex partners will hurt one another in order to increase sexual pleasure. ... Domestic disturbance redirects here. ... Scientific interest in the correlation between genetic factors and violence dates back to the eugenics movement of the 19th century. ... Hooligan redirects here. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... Legislative violence broadly refers to any violent clashes between members of a nations legislature. ... Mutilation or maiming is an act or physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of the (human) body, usually causing death. ... January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ... Religious violence Throughout history, religious beliefs have provoked some believers into violence. ... School violence refers to the phenomenon of violence and crime taking place within educational institutions. ... Sectarian violence or sectarian strife is violence inspired by sectarianism, that is, between different sects of one particular mode of thought, not necessarily religious (e. ... Ultras at FC Twente - SC Heerenveen in 2002 Hooliganism is unruly and destructive behaviour, usually by gangs of young people. ... Social defeat refers losing access to resources due to competition with a conspecific animal. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... For other uses, see Street Fight. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Violence against women (VAW) is a term of art used to collectively refer to violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women. ... In sports which are inherently violent, violence which goes beyond what is permitted by the rules sometimes occurs. ... Violence has long been a controversial part of ice hockey and the National Hockey League. ... In Greek mythology, Bia (force) was the personification of force, daughter of Pallas and Styx. ... A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which the offender uses or threatens violent force upon the victim. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ The Neurobiology of Violence, An Update, Journal of Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 11:3, Summer 1999.
  2. ^ Heather Whipps, Peace or War? How early humans behaved, LiveScience.Com, March 16, 2006.
  3. ^ Peterson, Dale; Richard Wrangham (1997). Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence. Mariner Books.  ISBN 0-395-87743-1 .
  4. ^ Cindy Fazzi, Debunking the "killer ape" myth, Dispute Resolution Journal, May-Jul 2002.
  5. ^ Gilligan, James (1996). Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and Its Causes. Putnam Adult.  ISBN 0-399-13979-6 .
  6. ^ Emotional Competency; Dr. Michael Obsatz,From Shame-Based Masculinity to Holistic Manhood, Robin Morgan, The Demon Lover On the Sexuality of Terrorism, W.W. Norton, 1989, Chapter 5.
  7. ^ Stephen Pinker, The History of Violence, The New Republic, March 19, 2007.
  8. ^ Arendt, Hannah sfdhxvczgrsdfcxzrfergSDS n Violence. {{{title}}}. Harvest Book, 52. .
  9. ^ Twentieth Century Democide; [http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/war-1900.htm Atlas - Wars and Democide of the Twentieth Century.
  10. ^ Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook. Federal Bureau of Investigation (2004)..
  11. ^ http://www.troynovant.com/Franson/Keeley/War-Before-Civilization.html Review of book “War Before Civilization” by Lawrence H. Keeley], July, 2004.
  12. ^ Stephen Pinker.
  13. ^ "Doctrinal War: Religion and Ideology in International Conflict," in Bruce Kuklick (advisory ed.), The Monist: The Foundations of International Order, Vol. 89, No. 2 (April 2006), p. 46.
  14. ^ The Brute Caricature, Ferris State University Museum of Racist Memorabilia.
  15. ^ 42 M.V.M.O. Court Cases with Allegations of Multiple Sexual And Physical Abuse of Children.
  16. ^ John Edwards' 'Bumper Sticker' Complaint Not So Off the Mark, New Memo Shows; Richard Clarke, Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror, Free Press; 2004; Michael Scheuer, Imperial Hubris: Why the West is Losing the War on Terror, Potomac Books Inc., June, 2004; Robert Fisk, The Great War for Civilisation - The Conquest of the Middle East, Fourth Estate, London, October 2005; Leon Hadar, The Green Peril: Creating the Islamic Fundamentalist Threat, August 27, 1992; Michelle Malkin, Islamo-Fascism Awareness Week kicks off, October 22, 2007; John L. Esposito, Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam, Oxford University Press, USA, September 2003.
  17. ^ Vittoriio Bufacchi, Two Concepts of Violence, Political Studies Review, April 2005, Volume 3, Issue 2, Page 193-204.
  18. ^ Michael Albert Life After Capitalism - And Now Too. Zmag.org, December 10, 2004; Capitalism explained .
  19. ^ L.A. Kaufman, Who were those masked anarchists in Seattle?, December 10, 1999; Eco-Warrior Celebrates Another Year Behind Society's Bars of Ignorance; Liz Highleyman, The Global Justice Movement.
  20. ^ Bruce Bawer, The Peace Racket, September 7, 2007.
  21. ^ Hans-Hermann Hoppe, From the Economics of Laissez Faire to The Ethics of Libertarianism.
  22. ^ Bharatan Kumarappa, Editor, "For Pacifists," by M.K. Gandhi, Navajivan Publishing House, Ahmedabad, India, 1949.
  23. ^ CDC Definition of Violence.
  24. ^ World Report on Violence and Health, October 3, 2002..
  25. ^ WHO: 1.6 million die in violence annually.
  26. ^ Brazil murder rate similar to war zone, data shows.
  27. ^ Colombia's Uribe wins second term.
  28. ^ Twentieth Century Atlas - Homicide.
  29. ^ Jamaica 'murder capital of the world'.
  30. ^ Crime Statistics.
  31. ^ Sheet 15 - Children and Violence in the Media.
  32. ^ Violence in Media Entertainment; Childhood Exposure to Media Violence Predicts Young Adult Aggressive Behavior, According to a New 15-year Study, American Psychological Association press release, March 9, 2003.
  33. ^ Julius Caesar The Conquest of Gaul
  34. ^ Helvetti
  35. ^ Boudica
  36. ^ Jason Burke, "Dig uncovers Boudicca's brutal streak", The Observer , 3 December 2000
  37. ^ Jewish History 1200 - 1299
  38. ^ http://www.hendersons.net/straitway/2001/03012001.htm
  39. ^ Massacre of the Pure
  40. ^ Jones References, p.4 note 12 Eric s. Margolis War at the top of the World, the struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir and Tibet (New York, Routledge, 2001) p.155
  41. ^ Battuta's Travels: Part Three - Persia and Iraq
  42. ^ Ping-ti Ho, "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song, Series 1, No 1, (1970) pp. 33-53.
  43. ^ History of Russia, Early Slavs history, Kievan Rus, Mongol invasion
  44. ^ Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History
  45. ^ The Destruction of Kiev
  46. ^ Timur's history
  47. ^ The Seven Years Campaign
  48. ^ Battle of Damascus
  49. ^ New Book Looks at Old-Style Central Asian Despotism
  50. ^ Nestorian Church
  51. ^ Timur Lenk (1369-1405)
  52. ^ Hassig, Ross (2003). "El sacrificio y las guerras floridas". Arqueología mexicana, p. 46-51.
  53. ^ The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice
  54. ^ The Historical Dracula
  55. ^ History of Central Europe
  56. ^ Vlad the Impaler
  57. ^ The Real Prince Dracula
  58. ^ Germany - The Thirty Years' War - The Peace of Westphalia
  59. ^ Population
  60. ^ The Thirty Years' War
  61. ^ The curse of Cromwell - BBC
  62. ^ About Poland
  63. ^ Judaism Timeline 1618-1770
  64. ^ The Heart of Darkness: How Visceral Hatred of Catholicism Turns Into Genocide
  65. ^ Wars Of The Vendee
  66. ^ Jones, Adam Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction p.7 (Routledge/Taylor & Francis Publishers Forthcoming 2006)
  67. ^ [1] Masson, Sophie Remembering the Vendee (Godspy 2004. First published in "Quadrant" magazine Australia, 1996)
  68. ^ Three State and Counterrevolution in France by Charles Tilly
  69. ^ Vive la Contre-Revolution!
  70. ^ McPhee, Peter Review of Reynald Secher, A French Genocide: The Vendée H-France Review Vol. 4 (March 2004), No. 26
  71. ^ The Destruction of Holy Sites in Mecca and Medina
  72. ^ Saudi Arabia - THE SAUD FAMILY AND WAHHABI ISLAM
  73. ^ Nibras Kazimi, A Paladin Gears Up for War, The New York Sun, November 1, 2007
  74. ^ John R Bradley, Saudi's Shi'ites walk tightrope, Asia Times, March 17, 2005
  75. ^ Amir Taheri, Death is big business in Najaf, but Iraq's future depends on who controls it, The Times, August 28, 2004
  76. ^ Ch'ing China: The Taiping Rebellion
  77. ^ Taiping Rebellion: The destruction of the Chinese culture
  78. ^ Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China
  79. ^ The Great War: A Review of the Explanations
  80. ^ Nineteenth Century Death Tolls
  81. ^ War of the Triple Alliance
  82. ^ Paraguay - The War of the Triple Alliance
  83. ^ The Wild Frontier: Atrocities During The American-Indian War
  84. ^ Thomas Pakenham, The Boer War
  85. ^ Niall Ferguson, Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order, p. 250
  86. ^ Australian War Memorial
  87. ^ Cossacks history
  88. ^ Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7
  89. ^ Soviet order to exterminate Cossacks is unearthed
  90. ^ Kort, Michael (2001). The Soviet Colosus: History and Aftermath, p. 133. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0396-9.
  91. ^ Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War (2001), pp. xviii & 899–901, inclusive.
  92. ^ Spain: Repression under Franco after the Civil War
  93. ^ Spain poised to seek the graves of Franco's disappeared
  94. ^ Spain torn on tribute to victims of Franco
  95. ^ A revelatory account of the Spanish civil war
  96. ^ Spanish Civil War: Casualties
  97. ^ "Men of La Mancha". Rev. of Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain. The Economist (June 22, 2006).
  98. ^ A Week in Books
  99. ^ Julius Ruiz, "Defending the Republic: The García Atadell Brigade in Madrid, 1936". Journal of Contemporary History 42.1 (2007):97.
  100. ^ International justice begins at home by Carlos Alberto Montaner, Miami Herald, August 4, 2003
  101. ^ Leaders mourn Soviet wartime dead
  102. ^ Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in Eastern Europe
  103. ^ Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II
  104. ^ Rummel, R.J. Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900 Chapter 3. LIT Verlag Münster-Hamburg-Berlin-Wien-London-Zürich (1999)
  105. ^ Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan
  106. ^ Remember role in ending fascist war
  107. ^ Chinese city remembers Japanese 'Rape of Nanjing'
  108. ^ Johnson, Looting of Asia, [2]
  109. ^ Norman M. Naimark Cambridge: Belknap, 1995 ISBN 0-674-78405-7
  110. ^ Antony Beevor, Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Penguin Books, 2002, ISBN 0-670-88695-5
  111. ^ Richard Overy, Russia's War: Blood upon the Snow (1997), ISBN 1-57500-051-2
  112. ^ 'They raped every German female from eight to 80'
  113. ^ Red Army troops raped even Russian women as they freed them from camps
  114. ^ China Misperceived: American Illusions and Chinese Reality by Steven W. Mosher, pp 72, 73
  115. ^ Deaths in China Due to Communism by Stephen Rosskamm Shalom, pg 24
  116. ^ Mao: The Unknown Story by Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, pg 337: "Mao claimed that the total number executed was 700,000, but this did not include those beaten or tortured to death in the post-1949 land reform, which would at the very least be as many again. Then there were suicides, which, based on several local inquiries, were very probably about equal to the number of those killed." Also cited in Mao Zedong, by Jonathan Spence, as cited here.
  117. ^ Twitchett, Denis; John K. Fairbank. The Cambridge history of China. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052124336X. Retrieved on 2007-03-25. 
  118. ^ The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression by Stephane Courtois, et al; China: A Long March into Night by Jean-Louis Margolin, pg 479
  119. ^ Estimates, sources and calculations from R.J. Rummel’s China’s Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900 (See lines 1 through 90)
  120. ^ Short, Philip (2001). Mao: A Life. Owl Books, 436. ISBN 0805066381. “At least a million-and-a-half more disappeared into the newly established 'reform through labour' camps, purpose-built to accommodate them.” 
  121. ^ Commentary transferred to Huang Jing regarding the supplementary plan to suppress counterrevolutionaries in Tianjin
  122. ^ Mao's "Killing Quotas" by Li Changyu. Human Rights in China (HRIC). September 26, 2005, at Shandong University
  123. ^ Terrible Honeymoon: Struggling with the Problem of Terror in Early 1950s China by Jeremy Brown
  124. ^ Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Twentieth Century Hemoclysm. Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century. Retrieved on 2007-02-27.
  125. ^ MacFarquhar, Roderick and Schoenhals, Michael. Mao's Last Revolution. Harvard University Press, 2006. p. 110 ISBN 0674023323
  126. ^ Francisco Macias Nguema
  127. ^ Coup plotter faces life in Africa's most notorious jail
  128. ^ True hell on earth: Simon Mann faces imprisonment in the cruellest jail on the planet
  129. ^ If you think this one's bad you should have seen his uncle
  130. ^ 2003: 'War criminal' Idi Amin dies
  131. ^ Idi Amin
  132. ^ Idi Amin killer file
  133. ^ Idi Amin: 'Butcher of Uganda', CNN, August 16, 2003
  134. ^ Guilty of genocide: the leader who unleashed a 'Red Terror' on Africa by Jonathan Clayton, The Times Online, December 13, 2006
  135. ^ 'Butcher of Addis Ababa' is guilty of genocide with torture regime
  136. ^ Zimbabwe won't extradite former Ethiopian dictator
  137. ^ Ethiopian Dictator Sentenced to Prison by Les Neuhaus, The Associated Press, January 11, 2007
  138. ^ Report claims secret genocide in Indonesia - University of Sydney
  139. ^ West Papua Support
  140. ^ Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua: Application of the Law of Genocide to the History of Indonesian Control (PDF)
  141. ^ Attacks raise spectre of civil war
  142. ^ Journalists in Algeria are caught in middle
  143. ^ Nesroullah Yous & Salima Mellah (2000). Qui a tué a Bentalha?. La Découverte, Paris. ISBN 2-7071-3332-9. 
  144. ^ El Watan, 21 January (quoted in Willis 1996)
  145. ^ Inside Congo, An Unspeakable Toll
  146. ^ Conflict in Congo has killed 4.7m, charity says
  147. ^ Congo crisis is deadliest since Second World War
  148. ^ Congo's Sexual Violence Goes 'Far Beyond Rape', July 31, 2007. The Washington Post.

Richard A. Clarke (born 1951) provided national security advice to four U.S. presidents: Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, consulting on issues of intelligence and terrorism, from 1973 to 2003. ... Michael F. Scheuer is a 22-year CIA veteran. ... Robert Fisk during a lecture at Carleton University, Canada, 2004 Robert Fisk (born July 12, 1946 in Maidstone, Kent) is a British journalist and is currently a Middle East correspondent for the British newspaper The Independent. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Arqueología mexicana is a bimonthly publication edited by the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History). ... For the original newspaper of the same name, see The New York Sun (historical) The New York Sun is a contemporary five-day daily newspaper published in New York City. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Asia Times Online is an Internet-only publication that reports and examines geopolitical, political, economic and business issues, looking at these from an Asian perspective. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stéphane Courtois is a French historian, currently employed as research director (i. ... The Black Book of Communism The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book that describes the history of political repressions by Communist states, including extrajudicial executions, deportations, and man-made famines that the book argues resulted from communist policies. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by Knight Ridder. ... Norman Naimark, is a historian and acclaimed author, specialising in modern East European history, genocide and ethnic cleansing. ... Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... Jonathan D. Spence (Chinese name: simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , August 11, 1936– ) is a British-born historian and public intellectual specializing in Chinese history. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Black Book of Communism The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book that describes the history of political repressions by Communist states, including extrajudicial executions, deportations, and man-made famines that the book argues resulted from communist policies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Roderick Lemonde MacFarquhar (born December 2, 1930) is a Harvard University professor and China specialist, British politician, newspaper and television journalist and academic orientalist. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... El-Watan (Arabic, The Homeland), is an Algerian newspaper started on October 8, 1990, as Algeria moved from a one-party state towards democracy (a process that was impeded by the outbreak of the Algerian Civil War). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Walter Benjamin's Critique of Violence
  • Jacques Derrida
  • Arno Gruen psychoanalyst who has written extensively on the origins of violence
  • Hegel
  • Marx
  • Nietzsche
  • Plato
  • Georges Sorel
  • Gene Sharp
  • Rene Girard
  • Flannery, D.J., Vazsonyi, A.T.& Waldman, I.D. (Eds.) (2007). The Cambridge handbook of violent behavior and aggression. Cambridge University Press, NY.
  • Nazaretyan, A.P. (2007). Violence and Non-Violence at Different Stages of World History: A view from the hypothesis of techno-humanitarian balance. In: History & Mathematics. Moscow: KomKniga/URSS. P.127-148. ISBN 9785484010011.

Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (July 15, 1892 – September 27, 1940) was a German Marxist literary critic, essayist, translator, and philosopher. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Arno Gruen Arno Gruen is a Swiss-German psychologist and psychoanalyst. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Marx is a common German surname. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Georges Eugène Sorel (2 November 1847-29 August 1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of revolutionary syndicalism. ... Gene Sharp (born 21 January 1928) is a political scientist, author and founder of the Albert Einstein Institution, a non-profit organisation which studies and promotes the use of nonviolent action. ... René Girard is a French philosopher, historian and philologist. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Violence
  • Information on James W. Prescott's work
  • 1986 Seville Statement on Violence
  • Introduction and Updated Information on the Seville Statement on Violence
  • The Meanings of Violence and the Violence of Meanings Intercultural discussions on violence
  • Institute on Violence, Abuse and Trauma
  • Violence Prevention Institute
  • Text of Dom Helder Camara's classic 1971 "Spiral of Violence"
  • Boys Equally At Risk For Partner Violence
  • Violent YouthI like eggs
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  Results from FactBites:
 
National Domestic Violence Hotline: 1-800-799-7233 or 1-800-787-3224 (TTY) - Break the silence, make the call. (714 words)
At the National Domestic Violence Hotline… We believe that every caller deserves to be treated with dignity and respect.
On the occasion of the National Domestic Violence Hotline’s 10th Anniversary and the recent reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act, the Hotline hosted the DECADE FOR CHANGE SUMMIT, a series of three meetings which were held across the country last year.
Leaders from across the country are convening to change the face of domestic violence in America.
Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing 1995 (1071 words)
Violence against women is a manifestation of the historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of women's full advancement.
Violence against women throughout the life cycle derives essentially from cultural patterns, in particular the harmful effects of certain traditional or customary practices and all acts of extremism linked to race, sex, language or religion that perpetuate the lower status accorded to women in the family, the workplace, the community and society.
Images in the media of violence against women, in particular those that depict rape or sexual slavery as well as the use of women and girls as sex objects, including pornography, are factors contributing to the continued prevalence of such violence, adversely influencing the community at large, in particular children and young people.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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