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Encyclopedia > Vinegar
Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano.
Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano.

Vinegar is a liquid condiment produced from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid. It has been an important culinary condiment to enhance flavors in Western and European, Asian, and other traditional cuisines of the world since ancient times. Download high resolution version (480x640, 54 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 54 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An infusion is a beverage made by steeping a flavoring substance in hot or boiling water. ... Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. Oregano or Pot Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) is a species of Origanum, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Occident redirects here. ... See the individual entries for: // Belarusian cuisine Bulgarian cuisine Czech cuisine Hungarian cuisine Jewish cuisine Polish cuisine Romanian cuisine Russian cuisine Slovak cuisine Slovenian cuisine Ukrainian cuisine British cuisine English cuisine Scottish cuisine Welsh cuisine Anglo-Indian cuisine Modern British cuisine Nordic cuisine Danish cuisine Finnish cuisine Icelandic cuisine Lappish... Asian cuisine is a term for the various cuisines of South, East and Southeast Asia and for fusion dishes based on combining them. ...


The acetic acid concentration ranges typically from 4 to 8 percent by volume for table vinegar[1] (typically 5%) and higher concentrations for pickling (up to 18%) although in some countries the minimum strength may be less. Naturally fermented vinegars also contain smaller amounts of tartaric acid, citric acid, and other acids. The word "vinegar" derives from the Old French vin aigre, meaning "sour wine." Louis Pasteur showed in 1864 that vinegar results from a natural fermentation process. Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid. ... Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ...

Contents

Chemical Properties

pH Value

The pH of vinegar is typically in the range of 2 to 3.5, depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Commercially available vinegar usually has a pH of about 2.4[citation needed]. For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...


Density

Vinegar has a density of approximately 0.96 g/mL. The density level depends on the acidity of the vinegar. BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... The litre or liter (U.S. spelling, see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ...


History

Vinegar has been made and used by people for thousands of years. Traces of it have been found in Egyptian urns from around 3000 BC.[4] Look up BC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the Bible, it is mentioned as something not very pleasant (Ps. 69:21, Prov. 25:20), but Boaz allows Ruth to "dip her piece of bread in the vinegar" (Ruth 2:14). Nazirites, on the other hand, were not allowed to drink either wine vinegar or malt vinegar. Jesus was offered vinegar while on the cross according to the King James version of the Bible, yet actually it was sour wine or wine that was turning which was given out by women of charity to comfort people dying on the cross as this was a common daily occurrence as a Roman punishment of the time[citation needed]. People nowadays use vinegar for many foods to cook. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... Proverbs may refer to: The plural of the word proverb. ... Boaz (Heb. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... Not to be confused with Nazarene. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Production

Vinegar is made from the oxidation of ethanol in wine, cider, beer, fermented fruit juice, or nearly any other liquid containing alcohol. Commercial vinegar is produced either by fast or slow fermentation processes. Slow methods are generally used with traditional vinegars and fermentation proceeds slowly over the course of weeks or months. The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria and soluble cellulose, known as the mother of vinegar. Fast methods add mother of vinegar (i.e. bacterial culture) to the source liquid and then add air using a venturi pump system or a turbine to promote oxygenisation to give the fastest fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced in a period ranging between 20 hours and three days. The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Juice is the liquid naturally contained in plants. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Genera Acetobacter Acidicaldus Acidiphilium Acidisphaera Acidocella Acidomonas Asaia Belnapia Craurococcus Gluconacetobacter Gluconobacter Kozakia Leahibacter Muricoccus Neoasaia Oleomonas Paracraurococcus Rhodopila Roseococcus Rubritepida Saccharibacter Stella Swaminathania Teichococcus Zavarzinia Acetic acid bacteria are bacteria that derive their energy from the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid during respiration. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Mother of vinegar is a slime composed of yeast and acetic acid bacteria that develops on fermenting alcoholic liquids, which turns alcohol into acetic acid with the help of oxygen from the air. ... A copper aspirator. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ...


Vinegar eels (Turbatrix aceti), a form of nematode, may occur in some forms of vinegar. These feed on the mother and occur in naturally fermenting vinegar.[2] Most manufacturers filter and pasteurize their product before bottling to eliminate any potential adulteration. Vinegar eels are nematodes (Turbatrix aceti) that feed on the microbial culture, called mother of vinegar that is used to create vinegar and may continue to persist in unfiltered vinegar. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria    Subclass Tylenchia The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum Nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ... Pasteurization is the process of heating food for the purpose of killing harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ...


Types of vinegar

White

So-called "white vinegar" (actually transparent in appearance), or sometimes referred to as spirit vinegar,[3] can be made by oxidizing a distilled alcohol. A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ...


Alternatively, it may be nothing more than a solution of acetic acid in water. Most commercial white vinegars are 5% acetic acid solutions, although some U.S. states such as Virginia have laws prohibiting the sale of any product not made from acetous fermentation of alcohol as vinegar. They are made from grain (often maize) and water. R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Grain redirects here. ... This article is about the maize plant. ...


White vinegar is typically stronger and sharper than other vinegars, and as such is used in pickling recipes. It is also used for cleaning purposes. Look up pickle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Malt

Malt vinegar is made by malting barley, causing the starch in the grain to turn to maltose. An ale is then brewed from the maltose and allowed to turn into vinegar, which is then aged. It is typically light brown in color. Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage. ... For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ...


A cheaper alternative, called "non-brewed condiment," is a solution of 4-8% acetic acid colored with caramel (usually E150). There is also around 1-3% citric acid present. Non-brewed condiment is more popular in the North of England, and gained popularity with the rise of the Temperance movement[citation needed]. A colourant is something added to something else to induce a change in colour. ... Caramel candy For other uses, see Caramel (disambiguation). ... E numbers are codes for food additives and are usually found on food labels throughout the European Union. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ...


Wine

Wine vinegar is made from red or white wine, and is the most commonly used vinegar in Mediterranean countries and Central Europe. As with wine, there is a considerable range in quality. Better quality wine vinegars are matured in wood for up to two years and exhibit a complex, mellow flavor. Wine vinegar tends to have a less acidity than that of white or cider vinegars. There are more expensive wine vinegars made from individual varieties of wine, such as Champagne, Sherry, or pinot grigio. For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Champagne is often consumed as part of a celebration Champagne is a sparkling wine produced by inducing the in-bottle secondary fermentation of wine to effect carbonation. ... Sherry Vinegar, or more properly Vinagre de Jerez, is a gourmet wine vinegar made from Sherry. ... Pinot Gris (or Tokay Pinot Gris) is a white wine grape of species Vitis vinifera related to Pinot noir which goes by a lot of other names: Pinot Grigio (Italy) Pinot Beurot (Loire Valley, France) Ruländer (Austria and Germany, Romania, sweet) Grauburgunder or Grauer burgunder (Austria and Germany, dry...


Apple cider

Apple cider vinegar, otherwise known simply as cider vinegar, is made from cider or apple must, and is often sold unfiltered, with a brownish-yellow color; it often contains mother of vinegar. It is currently very popular, partly due to its alleged beneficial health and beauty properties (see below). Due to its acidity, apple cider vinegar can be very caustic, even burning the throat. If taken straight (as opposed to usage in cooking), it should be diluted (e.g. with fruit juice) before drinking. Others dilute it with warm water and some add honey.[4] There have been reports of acid chemical burns of the throat in using the pill form.[5] Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... This article is about the fruit. ... For must meaning compulsion, see wikt:must. ... Mother of vinegar is a slime composed of yeast and acetic acid bacteria that develops on fermenting alcoholic liquids, which turns alcohol into acetic acid with the help of oxygen from the air. ...


Fruit

Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines usually without any additional flavouring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, black currant, raspberry, quince, and tomato. Typically, the flavors of the original fruits remain tasteable in the final vinegar. Fruit wines are wine-like beverages made from fruits other than grapes. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name L. The Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) is a species of Ribes berry native to central and northern Europe and northern Asia. ... Cultivated raspberries The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a number of species of the genus Rubus. ... Binomial name Mill. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ...


Most such vinegars are produced in Europe, where there is a growing market for high price vinegars made solely from specific fruits (as opposed to non-fruit vinegars which are infused with fruits or fruit flavors).


Persimmon vinegar is popular in South Korea, where it has been made at least since the Joseon Dynasty, and where it has traditionally been considered a valuable food ingredient, particularly in haute cuisine and royal cuisine[5] Persimmons are grown in abundance in Korea and some commercial production has gained momentum since the late 1990s. Species See text A Persimmon is any of a number of species of trees of the genus Diospyros, and the edible fruit borne by them. ... Joseon redirects here. ... Haute cuisine (literally high cooking in French) or grande cuisine refers to the cooking of the grand restaurants and hotels of the western world. ...


Persimmon vinegar may be made at home by placing washed persimmons into a glass jar, and leaving the jar in a cool, dark place indoors for approximately three months( at temperatures ranging between 1 and 5 degrees Celsius). It may be desirable to add as much sugar as approximately 25% of the persimmons. When it has aged for approximately six months, the persimmon vinegar will have gained a more mature aroma and savory taste.


Another East Asian fruit vinegars is jujube vinegar, which is produced in China.[6] Umeboshi vinegar, a salty, sour liquid that is a by-product of umeboshi (pickled ume) production, is produced in Japan but is technically not a true vinegar. Binomial name (L.) H. Karst. ... Umeboshi Umeboshi (Japanese: 梅干; literally dried ume) are pickled umes. ... Binomial name Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc. ...


Balsamic

Main article: Balsamic vinegar

Balsamic vinegar is an aromatic, aged type of vinegar traditionally manufactured in Modena, Italy, from the concentrated juice, or must, of white grapes (typically of the Trebbiano variety). It is very dark brown in color and its flavor is rich, sweet, and complex, with the finest grades being the end product of years of aging in a successive number of casks made of various types of wood (including oak, mulberry, chestnut, cherry, juniper, ash, and acacia). Originally an artisanal product available only to the Italian upper classes, balsamic vinegar became widely known and available around the world in the late 20th century. True balsamic is aged between 3 - 12 years. One can sometimes even find balsamics that have been aged for up to 100 years, though they are very expensive.[7][8] The commercial balsamic sold in supermarkets is typically made with red wine vinegar or concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar which is laced with caramel and sugar. However it is produced, balsamic needs to be made from a grape product. This articles section called Manufacture does not cite its references or sources. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... For must meaning compulsion, see wikt:must. ... Trebbiano is a white grape used to make white wine, and the most common white grape variety in Italy, accounting for around a third of all Italys white wine. ...


Balsamic has a high acid level, but the sweetness covers the tart flavor, making it very mellow. It can be made into Balsamic vinaigrette by adding oil and some seasonings. For other uses, see Vinaigrette (disambiguation). ...


Rice

Main article: Rice vinegar

Rice vinegar is most popular in the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. It is available in white (actually light yellow), red, and black variants. The Japanese prefer a light and more delicate rice vinegar for the preparation of sushi rice and salad dressings. Red rice vinegar is traditionally colored with red yeast rice, although some Chinese brands use artificial food coloring instead.[9] Black rice vinegar (made with black glutinous rice) is most popular in China, although it is also produced in Japan (see East Asian black, below).[9] It may be used as a substitute for balsamic vinegar, although its dark color and the fact that it is aged may be the only similarity between the two products. Rice vinegar is a vinegar made from fermented rice or rice wine in China and Japan. ... This article is about Japanese cuisine. ... Dried grain red yeast rice Red yeast rice (Chinese: 紅麴米, 红曲米; pinyin: hóng; lit. ... Food coloring spreading on a thin water film. ... Glutinous rice ( or Oryza glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice, waxy rice, botan rice, mochi rice, and pearl rice) is a type of short-grained Asian rice that is especially sticky when cooked. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ...


Some varieties of rice vinegar, such as seasoned rice vinegar, are sweetened or otherwise seasoned with spices or other added flavorings. Seasoned rice vinegar or awasezu (合わせ酢) is a condiment made of sake, sugar and salt. ...


Palm

Palm vinegar, known as sukang paombong in the Philippines, has a full body and delicate tingling sour taste verging on a kind of sweetness that makes it highly desired for dipping and for cooking. This vinegar, which is cloudy and white in color, comes from the sap of young fruits of the nipa (attap palm), which is collected at the break of day. Binomial name Nypa fruticans Wurmb Nypa fruticans , known as the Attap Palm (Singapore), Nipa Palm (Philippines), and Mangrove Palm or Nipah palm (Malaysia), is the only palm considered a mangrove. ...


Coconut

Coconut vinegar (sometimes labeled as "coco vinegar"),photo made from fermented coconut water, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine (particularly in the Philippines, a major producer of the product, where it is called suka ng niyog), as well as in some cuisines of India. A cloudy white liquid, it has a particularly sharp, acidic taste with a slightly yeasty note. For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ...


Cane

Cane vinegar, made from sugar cane juice, is most popular in the Ilocos Region of the northern Philippines (where it is called sukang Iloko), although it is also produced in France and the United States. It ranges from dark yellow to golden brown in color and has a mellow flavor, similar in some respects to rice vinegar, though with a somewhat "fresher" taste. Contrary to expectation, it is not sweeter than other vinegars, containing no residual sugar. In the Philippines, it is often labeled as sukang maasim, meaning "sour vinegar," which is a redundant phrase simply because vinegar itself is already sour. Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... The Ilocos Region or Region I (Ilokano: Rehion ti Ilokos, Pagasinan: Rihiyon na Sagor na Baybay na Luzon or Rihiyon na Ilokos) of the Philippines is located in the northwestern part of Luzon. ...


Raisin

Vinegar made from raisins is used in cuisines of the Middle East, and is produced in Turkey. It is cloudy and medium brown in color, with a mild flavor.[10][11] Raisins Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Date

Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East.[12] Binomial name L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ...


Beer

Vinegar made from beer is produced in Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Although its flavor depends on the particular type of beer from which it is made, it is often described as having a malty taste. That produced in Bavaria is a light golden color, with a very sharp and not overly complex flavor.[13] For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...


Honey

Vinegar made from honey is rare, though commercially available honey vinegars are produced in Italyphoto and France. For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ...


Chinese black

Chinese black vinegar is an aged product made from rice, wheat, millet, or sorghum, or a combination thereof. It has an inky black color and a complex, malty flavor.[14] There is no fixed recipe and thus some Chinese black vinegars may contain added sugar, spices, or caramel color. The most popular variety, Chinkiang vinegar, originated in the city of Zhenjiang, in the eastern coastal province of Jiangsu, China,[15] and is also produced in Tianjin and Hong Kong. Rice vinegar is a vinegar made from fermented rice or rice wine in China and Japan. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Zhenjiang (Simplified Chinese: 镇江; Traditional Chinese: 鎮江; pinyin: Zhènjiāng; Wade-Giles: Chen-chiang) is a prefecture-level city in the southwestern Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ...   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ...


Shanxi mature vinegar (also called "overmature vinegar"), called Shanxi lao chencu (山西老陈醋) in Chinese,photo is produced primarily in Qingxu County, near the provincial capital of Taiyuan, in the northern Chinese province of Shanxi. The Shanxi Vinegar Culture Museum, a museum dedicated to the history of Chinese vinegar, has been built there.[6][7] Location within China Taiyuan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tàiyuán; Wade-Giles: Tai-yüan) is a prefecture-level city in China, capital of the Shanxi province. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


A somewhat lighter form of black vinegar, made from rice, is also produced in Japan, where it is called kurozu. Since 2004 it has been marketed as a healthful drink; its manufacturers claim that it contains high concentrations of amino acids.[16][17][18] This article is about the class of chemicals. ...

Cantonese red vinegar
Cantonese red vinegar

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Yue cuisine Chinese: Cantonese (Yue) cuisine originates from Guangdong Province in Southern China, or more precisely, the area around Guangzhou (Canton). ...

Job's tears

In Japan, an aged vinegar is made from Job's tears grain.[8] Binomial name Coix lacryma-jobi L. Synonyms Coix agrestis Lour. ...


Vincotto

Vincotto (literally "cooked wine") is a dark, sweet vinegar produced artisanally in the Apulia region of southeastern Italy. It is made by cooking and reducing the must of Negroamaro and Black Malvasia grapes, then aging in an oak cask for four years. While the taste of vincotto echoes fine balsamic vinegar, vincotto is less woody and its flavor suggests nuances of prunes and spices.[19] This article is bad because of the Italian region. ... Negroamaro is a red grape variety native to southern Italy. ... Malvasia (also known as Malvazia) is a group of wine grape varieties grown historically in the Mediterranean and the island of Madeira, but now grown in many of the winemaking regions of the world. ...


Flavored vinegars

Popular fruit-flavored vinegars include those infused with whole raspberries, blueberries, or figs (or else from flavorings derived from these fruits). Some of the more exotic fruit-flavored vinegars include blood orange and pear. Cultivated raspberries The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a number of species of the genus Rubus. ... For other uses, see Blueberry (disambiguation). ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... The blood orange is a variety of orange (Citrus sinensis) with crimson, blood-colored flesh. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Herb vinegars are flavored with herbs, most commonly Mediterranean herbs such as thyme or oregano. Such vinegars can be prepared at home by adding sprigs of fresh or dried herbs to store-bought vinegar; generally a light-colored, mild tasting vinegar such as that made from white wine is used for this purpose. For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. Oregano or Pot Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) is a species of Origanum, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. ...


Red vinegar is of Cantonese origin and is made from rice wine, sugar and herbs including ginger, cloves, and other spices. Yue cuisine Chinese: Cantonese (Yue) cuisine originates from Guangdong Province in Southern China, or more precisely, the area around Guangzhou (Canton). ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ...


Spiced vinegar, from the Philippines (labeled as spiced sukang maasim), is flavored with chili peppers, onions, and garlic.[20][21]


Kombucha

Kombucha vinegar is made from kombucha, a symbiotic[citation needed] culture of yeast and bacteria. The bacteria produce a complex array of nutrients and populate the vinegar with symbiotic bacteria which some claim promote a heathy digestive tract, though no scientific studies have shown this to date. Kombucha vinegar is primarily used to make a vinaigrette and flavored by adding strawberries, blackberries, mint, or blueberries at the beginning of fermentation. This section contains a list of trivia items. ... Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... The word vinaigrette (from the French language) can refer to: An emulsion of vinegar (or sometimes lemon juice) and vegetable oil, often flavored with herbs, spices, and other ingredients. ...


Cabbage

Cabbage vinegar has been produced in some Slavic countries, and still produced in eastern Slovakia. A red bell pepper slice is traditionally inserted in the bottle. During winter holidays, the potato vinegar is served warm in shot glasses and traditionally accompanied by the toast "strc prst skrz krk" -- if the speaker mispronounces the phrase, they are obligated to drink more.


Culinary uses

Vinegar is commonly used in food preparation, particularly in pickling processes, vinaigrettes, and other salad dressings. It is an ingredient in sauces such as mustard, ketchup, and mayonnaise. Vinegar is an essential component of chutneys. It is often used as a condiment. Marinades often contain vinegar. For other uses, see Pickle. ... The word vinaigrette (from the French language) can refer to: An emulsion of vinegar (or sometimes lemon juice) and vegetable oil, often flavored with herbs, spices, and other ingredients. ... Salad Platter Cold Meat Salad Decorated green salad Salad is a mixture of foods, usually including vegetables or fruits, often with a dressing or sauce, occasionally nuts or croutons and sometimes with the addition of meat, fish, pasta or cheese. ... Mustard on bread. ... This article is about the condiment. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see Mayonaise (song). ... This article is about the condiment. ... Salt, sugar and pepper are the most essential condiments in Western cuisine. ... Marination, also known as marinading, is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking. ...

  • Condiment for fish and chips - Britons commonly use malt vinegar (or non-brewed condiment) on chips; it may be used in other territories where British-style fish and chips are served.
  • Flavouring for potato chips - In the case of American-style chips or crisps, many manufacturers of pre-packaged potato chips/crisps feature a variety flavored with vinegar and salt.
  • Vinegar pie - is a North American dessert made with a vinegar to one's taste.[22]
  • Pickling - any vinegar can be used to pickle foods.
  • Cider vinegar and sauces - cider vinegar is not usually suitable for use in delicate sauces.
  • Substitute for lemon juice - cider vinegar can usually be substituted for lemon juice in recipes and obtain a pleasing effect.
  • Saucing roast lamb - pouring cider vinegar over the meat when roasting lamb, especially when combined with honey or when sliced onions have been added to the roasting pan, produces a tasty sauce.
  • Sweetened vinegar (see Flavored vinegars above) is used in the dish of Pork Knuckles and Ginger Stew which is made among Chinese people of Cantonese backgrounds to celebrate the arrival of a new child.[23]
  • Sushi rice - Japanese use rice vinegar as an essential ingredient for sushi rice.
  • Red vinegar - Sometimes used in Chinese soups

Fish and chips in modern packaging Fish and chips or fish n chips, a popular take-away food with British origins, consists of deep-fried fish in batter or breadcrumbs with deep-fried potatoes. ... Languages Cornish, Dgèrnésiais, English, French, Irish, Jèrriais, Manx, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Llanito Religions Anglican, Presbyterianism, Roman Catholicism - Related ethnic groups British-Americans, Anglo-Celtic Australian, Anglo-African, Belongers, English Canadians, Channel Islanders, Cornish, English, Anglo-Irish, Ulster-Scots, Irish, Manx, New Zealand European, Scottish, Welsh British... CHiPs is an American television series produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios that aired on NBC from September 15, 1977 to July 17, 1983. ... Saratoga chips Potato chips (British English or Hiberno-English: crisps) are slim slices of potatoes deep fried or baked until crisp. ... Not to be confused with Desert. ... For other uses, see Pickle. ... This article is about Japanese cuisine. ...

Medicinal uses

Many remedies and treatments have been ascribed to vinegar over millennia in many different cultures. However, few have been verifiable using controlled medical trials and several that are effective to some extent have significant risks and side effects.


Cholesterol

A scientific study published in 2006 concluded that a test group of rats fed with acetic acid (the main component of vinegar) had "significantly lower values for serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerols", among other health benefits.[24] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Blood glucose control and diabetic management

Small amounts of vinegar (approx. 20 mls or two tablespoons of domestic vinegar) added to food, or taken along with a meal, have been shown by a number of medical trials to reduce the glycemic index of carbohydrate food for people with and without diabetes.[25][26][27] This has also been expressed as lower glycemic index ratings in the region of 30%.[28][29] Glycemic index (also glycaemic index, GI) is a ranking system for carbohydrates based on their effect on blood glucose levels. ...


Diet control

Multiple trials indicate that taking vinegar with food increases satiety (the feeling of fullness) and so reduces the amount of food consumed.[30][31] It has been proposed that a single application of vinegar can lead to reduced food intake.[32] One study suggested that overweight patients would likely be reluctant to use sufficient vinegar on a daily basis: "The findings of this group suggest that compliance with ingesting a high-dose vinegar beverage is challenging, even when it is derived from a fruit vinegar, and that weight/fat loss remains to be confirmed.[33]


Treatment for jellyfish stings

Applying vinegar to jellyfish stings deactivates the nematocysts. However, placing the affected areas into hot-water is a more effective treatment because the venom is deactivated by heat. The latter requires immersion in 45 degrees Celsius (113 F) water for at least four minutes for the pain to be reduced to less than that of vinegar.[34] However, vinegar should not be applied to portuguese man o' war stings, since their venom is different and vinegar can actually cause the nematocysts from their venom to discharge, making the pain worse.[35] The hot water immersion or cold ice pack treatments have been shown to be the best for treatment of portuguese man o' war stings.[36] Bold text For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... Cnidocytes are prey-capture and defensive cells found on animals of the phylum Cnidaria. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Portuguese Man O War (Physalia physalis), also known as the bluebubble, bluebottle or the man-of-war, is commonly thought of as a jellyfish but is actually a siphonophore—a colony of specialized polyps and medusoids. ... Cnidocytes are prey-capture and defensive cells found on animals of the phylum Cnidaria. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Portuguese Man O War (Physalia physalis), also known as the bluebubble, bluebottle or the man-of-war, is commonly thought of as a jellyfish but is actually a siphonophore—a colony of specialized polyps and medusoids. ...


Traditional and anecdotal treatments

  • In February 2003, an outbreak in China's Guangdong province of an atypical pneumonia caused massive demand and soaring prices for vinegar, isatis root, and other medicines believed to be useful in killing the infectious agent.[37] Caution is advised as apple cider vinegar can be dangerous to the eyes as acid will inflame sensitive tissue around the eyes. If the vinegar contains mother of vinegar the slime bacteria of the mother can cause Ophthalmia neonatorum.[citation needed]
  • Many believe that vinegar is also a cure to mild to moderate sunburn when soaked on the area with a towel or in a bath.[citation needed]
  • Vinegar is also claimed to be a solution to dandruff, in that the acid in the vinegar kills the fungus Malassezia furfur (formerly known as Pityrosporum ovale) and restores the chemical balance of the skin.[citation needed]
  • Vinegar is claimed to be a natural remedy for yeast infections, when diluted with water and used as a douche.[38]
  • Vinegar may reduce the itch of mosquito bites, applied full strength by means of a cotton ball for a minute or so.

For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For the manga by Tsukasa Hôjô, see Rash. ... Otitis media (also known as glue ear) is an inflammation of the middle ear, usually associated with a buildup of fluid. ... A traditional healer in Côte dIvoire Folk medicine refers collectively to procedures traditionally used for treatment of illness and injury, aid to childbirth, and maintenance of wellness. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... SARS redirects here. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Isatis is a genus of plants in the Brassicaceae family. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Ophthalmia neonatorum is a form of conjunctivitis contracted by newborns during delivery. ... For the album by Ivor Cutler, see Dandruff (album). ... Malassezia furfur (formerly known as Pityrosporum ovale) is one species of a group of related fungi (yeasts) naturally found on the skin surfaces of many animals and humans, and primarily known as the most common cause of dandruff. ... Candidiasis, commonly called yeast infection or thrush, is a fungal infection of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is probably the most common. ...

Veterinary treatment

Vinegar along with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is used in the livestock industry to kill bacteria and viruses before refrigeration storage. A chemical mixture of peracetic acid is formed when acetic acid is mixed with hydrogen peroxide. It is being used in some Asian countries by aerosol sprays for control of pneumonia. A mixture of five-percent acetic acid and three-percent hydrogen peroxide is commonly used.[citation needed] R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , ,, , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Properties: CAS no 79-21-0 Synonyms peroxy acetic acid, acetylhydroperoxide, PAA Physical data Melting point: 0. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


Apple cider vinegar can be used to prevent some problems in the digestive systems of dogs, such as E. Coli. The vinegar is acidic until it enters the dog's body, and it lines its intestines. E. coli cannot attach to an alkaline vinegar-coated intestine.[citation needed]


Use as detergent

White vinegar is often used and quite effective as a natural household cleaning agent. With some such purposes dilution with water is recommended for reduced risk of damaging certain surfaces. It is especially useful for cleaning mineral deposits such as calcium from water evaporation on glass, around tub and faucet fixtures, inside a coffee maker, water coolers, tile floors, or other smooth surfaces. It is best to let the area soak in vinegar for while to dissolve heavy deposits. Heating (below boiling point) vinegar also increases its effectiveness as in the case of cleaning inside a teapot. Care should be taken to not allow contact with eyes (if such contact occurs, the eyes should be flushed immediately and persistently with warm water) or skin (the affected skin area should be washed thoroughly after use). See Household chemicals. The coffee maker is a small kitchen appliance used to make drip brew-style coffee without having to boil water. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Agricultural and horticultural uses

As a herbicide

Vinegar can be used as a herbicide as shown by scientific trials reported by the US Dept of Agriculture in 2002.[39] Vinegar made from natural products classified as organic and so there is interest in it being used on farms/orchards/gardens certified as organic. The trials showed that a number of common weeds could be effectively controlled using vinegar with 5% to 20% acetic acid. The lower concentration is less effective. A crop of corn can be sprayed with vinegar at 20% strength without causing harm to that crop and so it can be used to help keep a corn crop clear of weeds. An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... Mixed organic bean sprouts Organic certification is a certification process for producers of organic food and other organic agricultural products. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the maize plant. ...


Acetic acid is not absorbed into root systems and so vinegar will kill top growth but perennial plants will reshoot.[40] Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ...


Commercial vinegar available to consumers for household use does not exceed 5% and solutions above 10% need careful handling since they are corrosive and damaging to skin. Stronger solutions (i.e. greater than 5%) that are labeled for use as herbicides are available from some retailers.[41]


Miscellaneous

  • When a bottle of vinegar is opened, mother of vinegar may develop. It is considered harmless and can be removed by filtering.
  • When vinegar is added to sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), it produces a volatile mixture of carbonic acid rapidly decomposing into water and carbon dioxide bubbles, making the reaction "fizz". It is exemplified as the typical acid-base reaction in school science experiments. The salt that is formed is sodium acetate.
  • Vinegar is a very effective way to remove rust from metals.
  • Vinegar neutralizes lye, a strong base.
  • Some countries, Canada as an example, prohibit the selling of vinegar over a certain percentage acidity.[42]
  • According to the Prophet Muhammed, vinegar is one of the best condiments (Ref. Sahih Muslim Book 023, Number 5091).
  • Lord Byron would consume vast quantities of white vinegar in an attempt to keep his complexion pale.[citation needed]
  • Posca, a Roman legionaries' basic drink was vinegar mixed with water and optional honey.[48]

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Mother of vinegar is a slime composed of yeast and acetic acid bacteria that develops on fermenting alcoholic liquids, which turns alcohol into acetic acid with the help of oxygen from the air. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... Sodium acetate, (also rarely, sodium ethanoate) is the sodium salt of acetic acid. ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... Flash point Non-flammable. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, á¹£aḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Detox, short for detoxification, in general is the removal of toxic substances from the body. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja,[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... This page is a about a character from the television series Rome, produced as a joint project of HBO and the BBC. You may wish to refer to the index of the shows Characters and Cast as well. ...

References

  1. ^ FDA: Sec. 525.825 Vinegar, Definitions - Adulteration with Vinegar Eels (CPG 7109.22)
  2. ^ FDA: Sec. 525.825 Vinegar, Definitions - Adulteration with Vinegar Eels (CPG 7109.22)
  3. ^ White Vinegar.
  4. ^ Apple Cider Vinegar and Honey.
  5. ^ Hill, L., et al (2005). "Esophageal Injury by Apple Cider Vinegar Tablets and Subsequent Evaluation of Products". Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 105 (Issue 7): 1141-1144. 
  6. ^ Tianjiaohong.com
  7. ^ fortnumandmason.com
  8. ^ Farawayfoods.com
  9. ^ a b Yamatohk main
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ Vintagefood.com
  12. ^ Machramco
  13. ^ Germandeli
  14. ^ patchun.com
  15. ^ Newsasianweek
  16. ^ Export Saraya
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ Web-Japan.org
  19. ^ Recipe Website
  20. ^ Yoaxia.de
  21. ^ Orientalsuper-mart
  22. ^ Vinegar Pie
  23. ^ New babies
  24. ^ Fushimi, Takashi 1, et al (May 2006). "Dietary acetic acid reduces serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.". British Journal of Nutrition 95 (5): 916-924. 
  25. ^ Liljeberg H, Bjorck I. Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;64:886-893
  26. ^ Leeman M, Ostman E, Bjorck I. Vinegar dressing and cold storage of potatoes lowers postprandial glycemic and insulinaemic responses in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:1266-1271
  27. ^ Johnston CS, Kim CM, Buller AJ. Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:281-282
  28. ^ Sugiyama M, Tang AC, Wakaki Y, Koyama W. Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:743-752
  29. ^ Ostman EM, Liljeberg Elmstahl HG, Bjorck IM. Inconsistency between glycemic and insulinemic responses to regular and fermented milk products. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:96-100
  30. ^ Ostman E, Granfeldt Y, Persson L, Bjorck I. Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59,983-988
  31. ^ [High-glycemic index foods, hunger, and obesity: is there a connection?Roberts SB. High-glycemic index foods, hunger, and obesity Is there a connection? Nutr Rev. 2000;58:163-169]
  32. ^ Carb and weight control through acetic acid?
  33. ^ [3]
  34. ^ A randomized paired comparison trial of cutaneous treatments for acute jellyfish (Carybdea alata) stings
  35. ^ Diving article on Portugese Man 'o Wars and their sting treatment
  36. ^ Scientific study on the effectiveness of hot water immersion versus ice packs for the treatment of Physalia sp. (bluebottle or Portuguese Man-of-War) stings.
  37. ^ "Guangdong Brings Atypical Pneumonia under Control, People's Daily Online, dated 13 February 2003, retrieved 11 February 2007
    • The therapeutic use of vinegar is recorded in the second verse of the nursery rhyme “Jack and Jill”: “Went to bed and bound his head / With vinegar and brown paper.” As with some nursery rhymes, there is truth in the story. The vinegar used would likely have been cider vinegar.
    • Apple cider vinegar is a much more useful astringent than ice and will reduce inflammation, bruising and swelling in approximately a third of the time that ice will take. Application is directly onto the skin with a flannel, and left on for an hour or so.[citation needed]
    • Apple cider vinegar is often touted (esp. with its recent commericalization) as a medical aid in a range of diseases. In 1958, Dr. D. C. Jarvis made the remedy popular with a book that sold 500,000 copies.
    • There are claims that cider vinegar can be used as a beauty aid. One such claim is as a remedy for acne conditions (diluted 50:50 with water and used as a toner).<ref>[http://www.care2.com/channels/solutions/self/267 Beautiful Skin Tip: Apple Cider Vinegar]</li>
    <li id="_note-34">'''[[#_ref-34|^]]''' [http://www.ehow.com/how_2200_treat-yeast-infection.html How to Treat a Yeast Infection Naturally]</li> <li id="_note-35">'''[[#_ref-35|^]]''' [http://ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2002/020515.htm Spray Weeds With Vinegar?]</li> <li id="_note-36">'''[[#_ref-36|^]]''' [http://www.cahe.nmsu.edu/CES/yard/2004/041004.html Vinegar as herbicide]</li> <li id="_note-37">'''[[#_ref-37|^]]''' [http://www.hort.purdue.edu/ext/vinegar.html Conquer Weeds with Vinegar?]</li> <li id="_note-38">'''[[#_ref-38|^]]''' [http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/showdoc/cr/C.R.C.-c.870/bo-ga:l_B-gb:l_19//en#anchorbo-ga:l_B-gb:l_19 Canada Food and Drug Regulations - Division 19 Vinegar]</li> <li id="_note-39">'''[[#_ref-39|^]]''' [http://www.druglibrary.org/SCHAFFER/MISC/mariju1.htm Schaffer Library of Drug Policy]</li> <li id="_note-40">'''[[#_ref-40|^]]''' [http://www.erowid.org/psychoactives/testing/testing_info9.shtml Fooling the Bladder Cops]</li> <li id="_note-41">'''[[#_ref-41|^]]''' [http://www.newdirectionsprogram.com/drugtesting.html Drug Testing Your Child]</li> <li id="_note-42">'''[[#_ref-42|^]]''' [http://www.faqfarm.com/Q/Can_you_get_marijuana_out_of_your_system_with_vinegar Can you get marijuana out of your system with vinegar?]</li> <li id="_note-43">'''[[#_ref-43|^]]''' [http://www.cidervinegar.org Cider Vinegar Treatments?]</li> <li id="_note-44">'''[[#_ref-44|^]]''' [http://www.ospreypublishing.com/content2.php/cid=315 Roman food and drink]</li></ol></ref>

William Wallace Denslows illustrations for Jack and Jill, from a 1901 edition of Mother Goose Jack & Jill in the act of tumbling down, according to Denslow Jack and Jill is a classic nursery rhyme of Western culture. ... A bottle of tannic acid, an astringent Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of blood serum or mucous secretions. ...

See also

Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Verjuice (verjus in French) is a very acidic juice made by pressing unripe grapes. ...

External links

  • The Vinegar Institute
  • Pesticides Database - Acetic Acid
  • Medscape - Vinegar: Medicinal Uses and Antiglycemic Effect
  • Vinegar Connoisseurs International
  • Vinegar.org
  • Weird Facts - 50 Uses for Vinegar
  • 10 Health Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar
  • Nutritional Composition of Cider Vinegar
  • Cleaning-Green.Net Household cleaner recipes using vinegar
  • [9]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vinegar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1988 words)
Vinegar is a dilute form of acetic acid, ranging typically from three to five percent by volume for table vinegar and higher concentrations for pickling.
Vinegars that are not actually made from fruit, but which are flavored with fruit or fruit flavors, are not true vinegars, but are instead classified as flavored vinegars.
Vinegar made from raisins is used in cuisines of the Middle East, and is produced in Turkey.
Balsamic vinegar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (449 words)
Balsamic vinegar (Italian: aceto balsamico) is a traditional flavoured vinegar commonly used in Italian cuisine.
The finest and most traditional balsamic vinegar is very labor-intensive to produce; while it ages and gradually evaporates, the liquid is transferred to successively smaller casks made of different woods, absorbing the flavor characteristics of each wood and becoming more concentrated with each transfer.
Balsamic vinegar is very highly appreciated and valued by chefs and gourmet food lovers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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