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Encyclopedia > Vilno
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The Three Crosses monument in Vilnius.
The Three Crosses monument in Vilnius.

Vilnius (Belarusian Вільня, Polish: Image:Ltspkr.png Wilno, Russian Вильнюс, formerly Вильно, German Wilna; see also cities' alternative names) is the capital and largest city of Lithuania, with a population of over 540,000 in 2003. It is the capital of the Vilnius city municipality and of the Vilnius district municipality. It is also the county seat of Vilnius County. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1033x1419, 966 KB) Summary en: Three Crosses on the Bald Hill in Vilnius, Lithuania pl: Trzy Krzyże na Łysej Górze w Wilnie Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1033x1419, 966 KB) Summary en: Three Crosses on the Bald Hill in Vilnius, Lithuania pl: Trzy Krzyże na Łysej Górze w Wilnie Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... Jump to: navigation, search Most cities in Europe have different names in different languages. ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Jump to: navigation, search Melbourne, Australia by night For alternate meanings see city (disambiguation) A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map Capital Vilnius Cities Vilnius (542287 people) GrigiÅ¡kÄ—s (11448 people) Mayor ArtÅ«ras Zuokas (Liberal and Center Union) Size 51st place 400,6 km² Population 1st place 553904 people; Population density 7th place 1382,7/km² Telephone code 5 Official website http://www. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija / DzÅ«kija County Vilnius County General information Capital Vilnius Major settlements NemenčinÄ— (pop. ... Vilnius County is the biggest of the 10 counties of Lithuania, located in the east of the country around the city Vilnius. ...

Contents


Geographic and population

Vilnius is situated in southeastern Lithuania (54°41′ N 25°17′ E) at the confluence of the Vilnia (also known as Vilnelė) and Neris Rivers. This non-central location can be attributed to the changing shape of the nation's borders through the centuries; Vilnius was once not only culturally but also geographically at the center of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Initially it also formed the geographic center of Lithuanian settled areas, while the city's population was multiethnic through most of its history. A confluence is the merger or meeting of two or more objects (or subjects) that seem to inseparably bind their respective forces or attributes into a point of junction. ... The Vilnia (Vilnelė) is a river in Lithuania. ... Neris (The Lithuanian name; within the territory of Belarus it is called Ві́лія (Viliya, Vilia); and the Wilia in Polish language) is a river rising in Belarus, flowing through Vilnius (Lithuania) and becomes a tributary of the Neman (Nemunas) in Kaunas (Lithuania). ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an...


Vilnius lies 312 km from the Baltic Sea and Klaipėda, the chief Lithuanian seaport. Other major Lithuanian cities, such as Kaunas (102 km away), Šiauliai (214 km away) and Panevėžys (135 km away), can be reached quickly and easily. A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... Jump to: navigation, search The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainlands of Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Europe, and the Danish islands. ... The port of KlaipÄ—da handles some 20 million tons of cargo each year KlaipÄ—da (approximate English transcription: [ˈklaı.pÉ›.dÊŒ], simplified Lithuanian transcription: [klaǐpÄ“da]; German: Memel or Memelburg) is a Lithuanian town on Baltic Sea. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... Kaunas (approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s], simplified Lithuanian transcription [kaÅ­nas]; German: Kauen; Polish: Kowno, often anglicized as Kovno; Russian Каунас, formerly Ковно), is the second largest city in Lithuania. ... Å iauliai is the fourth largest city in Lithuania, with a population of 133,883. ... Panevėžys (approximate English transcription [pÊŒ.nÉ›.vÉ›.ˈʒıːs], simplified Lithuanian transcription [panevÄ“Ê’Ä«s]; pol. ...


The current area of Vilnius is 402 km². Buildings cover 20.2% of the city and in the remaining areas, greenery (43.9%) and waters (2.1%) prevail. Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ...


According to the 2001 census by the Vilnius Regional Statistical Office, there were 542,287 inhabitants in Vilnius city municipality, 57.8% of which were Lithuanians, 18.7% Poles, 13.9% Russians, 4.0% Belarusians; the remaining have indicated other nationalities or refused to answer. Jump to: navigation, search 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Map Capital Vilnius Cities Vilnius (542287 people) Grigiškės (11448 people) Mayor Artūras Zuokas (Liberal and Center Union) Size 51st place 400,6 km² Population 1st place 553904 people; Population density 7th place 1382,7/km² Telephone code 5 Official website http://www. ...


Vilnius County includes the Vilnius city municipality, Vilnius district municipality, Šalčininkai district municipality, Širvintos district municipality, Švenčionys district municipality, Trakai district municipality, Ukmergė district municipality and Elektrėnai municipality, totalling up to 9,650 km². Vilnius County is the biggest of the 10 counties of Lithuania, located in the east of the country around the city Vilnius. ... Map Capital Vilnius Cities Vilnius (542287 people) GrigiÅ¡kÄ—s (11448 people) Mayor ArtÅ«ras Zuokas (Liberal and Center Union) Size 51st place 400,6 km² Population 1st place 553904 people; Population density 7th place 1382,7/km² Telephone code 5 Official website http://www. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija / DzÅ«kija County Vilnius County General information Capital Vilnius Major settlements NemenčinÄ— (pop. ... Location Ethnographic region DzÅ«kija County Vilnius County General information Capital Å alčininkai Major settlements Å alčininkai (pop. ... Å irvintos district municipality (Å irvintų rajono savivaldybÄ—) is a municipality in Lithuania, it is in territory of Vilniaus Apskritis and its capital is Å irvintos. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija / DzÅ«kija County Vilnius County General information Capital Å venčionys Major settlements Å venčionÄ—liai (pop. ... Location Ethnographic region DzÅ«kija County Vilnius County General information Capital Trakai Major settlements Lentvaris (pop. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County General information Capital UkmergÄ— Major settlements UkmergÄ— (pop. ... Location Ethnographic region DzÅ«kija County Vilnius County General information Capital ElektrÄ—nai Major settlements ElektrÄ—nai (pop. ...


History

Main article: History of Vilnius Map of Vilnius in 1576 // Middle ages The earliest settlements in the area of present Vilnius appear to be of mesolithic origin. ...

Cathedral in Vilnius, seen in 1912.
Cathedral in Vilnius, seen in 1912.

Initially a Baltic settlement, it was also inhabitated by Slavs and, from at least the 11th century, by Jews. Some historians identify the city with Voruta, a forgotten capital of King Mindaugas. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x703, 90 KB) Cathedral in Vilna Taken by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii in 1912 File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x703, 90 KB) Cathedral in Vilna Taken by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii in 1912 File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius ... 1912 was a leap year starting on Monday. ... The Baltic Sea The Balts or Baltic peoples (Latvian: balti, Lithuanian: baltai), defined as speakers of one of the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, are descended from a group of Indo-European tribes who settled the area between lower Vistula and upper Dvina and Dneper. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Voruta may have been a capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania established in the time of king Mindaugas in the 13th century. ... Modern portrait of Mindaugas Mindaugas (approximate English transcription [ˈmın. ...


The city is first mentioned in written sources in 1323. The original center of Vilnius was then a wooden fort built on a hilltop by Gediminas, Duke of Lithuania. Vilnius was granted municipal rights by the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II of Poland (in Lithuanian, Jogaila; in Polish, Władysław Jagiełło) in 1387. The town's population was initially Lithuanian, but soon grew to include craftsmen and merchants of other nationalities. Events Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: Vilnius becomes capital August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Pharos of Alexandira Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world) is destroyed by a series of earthquakes... Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. ... Wladislaus II on Jan Matejkos painting Jagello redirects here. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... Craftsman is an artisan who practices a handicraft or trade; a style of architecture and furniture arising from the Arts and Crafts movement; a military rank within the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, equivalent to a private; and ... Merchants function as professional traders, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves. ...

St. Ann's Church and the church of the Bernardine Monastery in Vilnius.
St. Ann's Church and the church of the Bernardine Monastery in Vilnius.

Between 1503 and 1522 the city was surrounded with walls that had nine gates and three towers. Vilnius reached the peak of its development under the reign of Sigismund II of Poland (Lithuanian: Žygimantas Augustas, Polish: Zygmunt II August), who moved his court there in 1544. In the following centuries, Vilnius became a constantly growing and developing city. This growth was due in part to the establishment of Vilnius University by Stephan I of Poland (Lithuanian: Steponas Batoras, Polish: Stefan Batory) in 1579. The university soon developed into one of the most important scientific and cultural centres of the region and the most notable scientific centre of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Political, economic and social life was in full swing in the town. In 1769, the Rasos Cemetery was founded; today (known by the Lithuanian name Rasų kapinės) it is one of the oldest surviving cemeteries in the world. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1985 KB) Summary en: Saint Anns church and Bernardine Monastery, Vilnius, Lithuania pl: KoÅ›ciół Åšw. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1985 KB) Summary en: Saint Anns church and Bernardine Monastery, Vilnius, Lithuania pl: KoÅ›ciół Åšw. ... Events January 20 - Seville in Castile is awarded exclusive right to trade with the New World. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ... The Amsterdamse Poort, the only remaining city gate of Haarlem, the Netherlands, was built in 1355. ... Reign From April 1, 1548 until July 6, 1572 Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Zygmunt I Stary Bona Sforza Consorts Elżbieta Habsburzanka Barbara RadziwiÅ‚Å‚ Katarzyna Austriaczka Barbara Giżycka Children with Barbara Giżycka Barbara Date of Birth... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... Jump to: navigation, search Vilnius University (Lithuanian Vilniaus Universitetas, Polish Uniwersytet WileÅ„ski, formerly Stefan Batory University) is the oldest university in Eastern Europe and the biggest university in Lithuania. ... Reign From December 9, 1575 until December 12, 1586 Elected On December 9, 1575 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On May 1, 1576 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Noble Family Bathory Parents Stephen Bathory Catherine Telegdi Consorts Anna Jagiellonka Children none Date of Birth September... Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Rasos Cemetery (Lit. ...


Rapidly developing, the city was open to migrants from both East and West. Communities of Poles, Lithuanians, Belarusians, Jews, Russians, Germans, Karaims, Ruthenians and others established themselves in the city. Each group made its contribution to the life of the city: at that time crafts, trade and science were prospering. In 1655 Vilnius was captured by Russian forces, pillaged and burned, and the population was massacred. The city's growth lost its momentum for many years, yet the number of inhabitants quickly recovered and by the beginning of the 19th century the city was the third largest city in Eastern Europe. Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ...


After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, Vilnius was annexed by Russia and became the capital of a guberniya. Russian occupation policy resulted in destruction of the city walls and after the 17991805 period, only the Dawn Gate (Aušros Vartai in Lithuanian or Ostra Brama in Polish, also known as Medininkų Vartai) remained. In 1812, the city was seized by Napoleon on his push towards Moscow. After the failure of the campaign, the Grande Armée retreated to the area where thousands of French soldiers died and were buried in the trenches they had built months earlier. After the November Uprising in 1831 the Vilnius University was closed and repressions halted the further development of the city. During the January Uprising in 1863 heavy city fights occurred, but were brutally pacified by Mikhail Muravyov (nick-named The Hanger by the city residents because of a great number of executions he organized). After the failure of the uprising all liberties were halted and the Lithuanian, Polish, and Belarusian languages were banned due to the russification policy. The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Guberniya (also gubernia, guberniia, and gubernya) (Russian: губе́рния) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as province or Governorate General. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The last remaining gate of the old city wall was turned into a Chapel. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search Napoleon I of France, by Jacques-Louis David. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA:   listen?) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ... La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ... A ditch with water can be used for drainage and irrigation. ... The November Uprising (1830-1831) was an armed rebellion against Russias rule in Poland. ... 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search Vilnius University (Lithuanian Vilniaus Universitetas, Polish Uniwersytet WileÅ„ski, formerly Stefan Batory University) is the oldest university in Eastern Europe and the biggest university in Lithuania. ... The night of January 22, 1863, was the beginning of the new uprising against Russian rule in Poland. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov may refer to the following historical persons of the Imperial Russia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Russification is adoption of the Russian language or some other real or supposed Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ...


20th century

Orthodox Church of the Holy Mother of God, with Gediminas' tower in background.
Orthodox Church of the Holy Mother of God, with Gediminas' tower in background.

During World War I Vilnius was occupied by Germany from 1915 until 1918. The Act of the Restoration of Independence of Lithuania was proclaimed in the city on February 16, 1918. After withdrawal of German forces for a short time Vilnius was controlled by Polish self-defence units recruited from the local Polish population; but very soon the city was taken by Bolshevik forces advancing from the east and proclaimed the capital of the short-lived Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. On April 19, 1919, the city was seized by the Polish Army but on July 14 it was again taken by Soviet forces. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2015 KB) en:The Orthodox church of Holy Mother of God, Vilnius, Lithuania. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2015 KB) en:The Orthodox church of Holy Mother of God, Vilnius, Lithuania. ... Jump to: navigation, search World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns, and poison gas. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... V. Mickevicius- Kapsukas Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (LBSSR, Litbel) existed within the territories of modern Belarus and Lithuania for a brief period during 1919, before the area was annexed to Poland. ... Jump to: navigation, search April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Jump to: navigation, search July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ...


Shortly after the defeat in the Battle of Warsaw (1920), the withdrawing Red Army handed the city over to the newly reborn Lithuania. On July 12, 1920 a peace treaty was signed between Lithuania and Bolshevist Russia, that recognized Vilnius as the capital of the independent Republic of Lithuania. Jump to: navigation, search The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad Wisłą) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... Jump to: navigation, search July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ...


On October 9, 1920 the Lithuanian-Belarusian Division of the Polish Army under General Lucjan Żeligowski seized the city after a staged mutiny. The city and its surroundings were proclaimed a separate state of Central Lithuania (Litwa Środkowa) and, after free parliamentary elections, in a result of the decision of the Central Lithuanian Parliament, on February 20, 1922 the whole area was made a part of Poland, with Vilnius as the capital of the Wilno Voivodship. Lithuanian authorities in Kaunas declined to accept the Polish authority over Vilnius; diplomatic relations between Lithuania and Poland were broken until 1938. Jump to: navigation, search October 9 is the 282nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (283rd in Leap years). ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Lucjan Å»eligowski (1865-1947), was a Polish general, veteran of the Great War, Polish-Bolshevik War and the World War II. He is best known as the head of a short-lived Republic of Central Lithuania. ... Mutiny is the crime of conspiring to disobey orders that the mutineer is legally obliged to obey, for example by crew members of a ship. ... Map of the region, with Central Lithuania marked in Green Central Lithuania (Polish Republika Litwy Åšrodkowej, Lithuanian VidurinÄ— Lietuva, Belarusian Рэспубліка Сярэдняе Літвы) was a semi-independent state, created in 1920 by allegedly rebellious soldiers of the Lithuanian-Belarusian division of the Polish Army. ... An aerial view of Parliament of India at New Delhi. ... Jump to: navigation, search February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Wilno Voivodship // Wilno Voivodship (1922-1939) Wilno Voivodship (Polish Województwo wileÅ„skie) was one of the Voivodships in the 1922-1939 period. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In the meantime, for yet another time in its history the city enjoyed a period of fast development. Vilnius University was reopened under the name Stefan Batory University and the city's infrastructure was improved significantly. By 1931, the city had 195,000 inhabitants, which made it the fifth largest city in Poland. However, some Lithuanians dispute this picture of economic growth and point out that the standard of living in Vilnius at this time was considerably lower compared to other parts of contemporary Lithuania. Reign From December 9, 1575 until December 12, 1586 Elected On December 9, 1575 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On May 1, 1576 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Noble Family Bathory Parents Stephen Bathory Catherine Telegdi Consorts Anna Jagiellonka Children none Date of Birth September... Jump to: navigation, search 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Following the secret protocol attached to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, dividing Eastern Europe into a Soviet and a German spheres, a Soviet invasion of Eastern Poland was staged by the Red Army. The city was seized on September 19, 1939. Initial Soviet plans were to make the city the capital of the Byelorussian SSR, but later decided to use the fact that Lithuanians claimed the city too and cede it to Lithuania in exchange for moving troops into territories of Lithuania (officially, this was to be called an agreement of friendship; such actions also were planned to help Lithuanian Communists gain more support). Lithuania, to the surprise of the Soviets, however, was not keen on accepting such a deal, as Soviet troops would be a threat to Lithuanian independence; then Soviets presented the deal as an ultimatum, by saying that the Red Army would enter Lithuania anyway, even if it refused the deal. After this, the deal was signed, although Lithuanians managed to bargain that less troops would enter Lithuania than Soviets had initially planned. On October 10, 1939 the city and its surrounding areas (about one fifth of Lithuanian claimed lands (Vilnius region)) were transferred to Lithuania in exchange for Soviet military bases established in various parts of that country. The Lithuanian authorities entered Vilnius shortly afterwards and the capital of Lithuania started to be gradually transferred there from Kaunas (allegedly however, this process was slowed down by Lithuanians due to unwillingness to have the capital very near to Soviet military bases). The process was not yet finished when in June of 1940 Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union and a new loyal Communist government installed (using both the troops stationed in Lithuania according to the agreement mentioned, and additional troops moved to the border of Lithuania). Vilnius was made the capital of the newly created Lithuanian SSR. Approximately 35,000–40,000 of the city inhabitants were arrested by the NKVD and sent to gulags at that time. Molotov (lower left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin (far right) The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Ribbentrop-Molotov pact or Nazi-Soviet pact and formally known as the Treaty of Nonaggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was in theory a... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... State motto: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Belarusian: Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... Jump to: navigation, search October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A military base is an isolated facility, settlement, or installation that shelters military equipment and personnel. ... Kaunas (approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s], simplified Lithuanian transcription [kaÅ­nas]; German: Kauen; Polish: Kowno, often anglicized as Kovno; Russian Каунас, formerly Ковно), is the second largest city in Lithuania. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... State motto: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s (Workers of all countries, unite) Official language Constitutionally, all languages were equal. ... Black Ravens by Boris Vladimirski, a depiction of the cars used by NKVD agents. ... Jump to: navigation, search Gulag (Russian: ГУЛАГ listen [â–¶]) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей и колонии, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or...


In June 1941, the city was seized by Germany. In the old town, two ghettos were set up for the large Jewish population, the smaller one of which was "liquidated" (which meant the population was murdered) already in October 1941. The second ghetto lasted until 1943, though its population was regularly decimated in so called Aktionen. A failed Jewish ghetto uprising on September 1, 1943 was followed by the final destruction of the ghetto. About 95% of the local Jewish population was murdered. Many of them were among 100,000 victims of the mass executions in Paneriai, about 10 km west of the old town centre. Most of the remaining 30,000 victims of the massacre were Poles: POWs, intelligentsia and members of the Home Army. Jump to: navigation, search 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vilnius Old Town: Ausros Vartu street The Old Town of Vilnius (Lithuanian: Senamiestis), one of the largest surviving medieval old towns in Eastern Europe, has an area of 3. ... Jump to: navigation, search A ghetto is an area where people from a specific ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Ghetto Uprising refers to an armed struggle by people incarcerated in German Ghettos during World War II against the plans to resettle all the inhabitants to concentration and death camps. ... Jump to: navigation, search September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Jump to: navigation, search A ghetto is an area where people from a specific ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... Paneriai (Polish Ponary) is a suburb of Vilnius, some 10 kilometres away from the city centre. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The intelligentsia (from Latin: intelligentia) is a social class of intellectuals and social groups close to them (e. ... The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the dominant resistance movement in German-occupied Poland, which was active in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ...

Aušros Vartai Street.
Aušros Vartai Street.

In July 1944 the Polish Home Army and then the Red Army seized Vilnius, which was shortly afterwards incorporated into the Soviet Union and made the capital of the newly created Lithuanian SSR. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1916 KB) Summary en: Ausros Vartu street, Vilnius, Lithuania pl: Ulica Ostrobramska w Wilnie Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius Vilnius Old Town ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1916 KB) Summary en: Ausros Vartu street, Vilnius, Lithuania pl: Ulica Ostrobramska w Wilnie Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius Vilnius Old Town ... Jump to: navigation, search 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the dominant resistance movement in German-occupied Poland, which was active in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Visų šalių proletarai, vienykitės (Workers of all countries, unite) Official language Constitutionally, all languages were equal. ...


Immediately after World War II, the Soviet government decided to expel the Polish population from Lithuania and Belarus. This decision was implemented during the so-called repatriation, organized by the Soviet and Polish Communist governments and which most severely influenced the population of Vilnius. These events, coupled with the migration of the Lithuanian rural population and Russians from other Soviet republics during the post-war years resulted in a complete change of the city's culture and tradition. They also had a critical influence on the change of the demographic situation of Vilnius. Only after 1960 did the growth of other cities in Lithuania and decrease in rural population caused a rapid population upsurge in the city. Jump to: navigation, search World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, invariably on the basis of ethnicity or religion. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is a term used to describe the process of return of refugees or soldiers to their homes, most notably following a war. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...

The New City Center
The New City Center

On March 11, 1990 the Supreme Council of the Lithuanian SSR announced its independence from the Soviet Union and restored the independent Republic of Lithuania, which had been annexed by the Soviets back in 1940. The Soviets responded on January 9, 1991, by sending in troops, and on January 13 during the Soviet Army attack on the State Radio and Television Building and the Vilnius TV tower fourteen people were killed and more than 700 were seriously injured. Eventually, the Soviet Union recognized Lithuanian independence in August 1991. Jump to: navigation, search ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x800, 779 KB) Summary Photo of New City Center in Vilnius taken from Vilniaus Gatve Photographer: Maikel Gijsbers Date taken: 28th august 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius ... Jump to: navigation, search ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x800, 779 KB) Summary Photo of New City Center in Vilnius taken from Vilniaus Gatve Photographer: Maikel Gijsbers Date taken: 28th august 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius ... 11 March is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Since then, Vilnius has been rapidly transforming from a Soviet into a European city. Many old buildings are renovated and on the north side of the Neris river the New City Center is build. This New City Center has as most prominent building the Eropa Tower with a height of 150 metre.


Coat of arms of Vilnius city

Large version of coat-of-arms of city of Vilnius.
Large version of coat-of-arms of city of Vilnius.
Main article: Vilnius Coat of Arms

The Vilnius coat of arms depicts St. Christopher (Kristupas) wading through water with the Infant Jesus on his shoulders. It was granted to the city in the seventh year of its existence (1330). Image File history File links Vilnius city municipality coat of arms. ... Image File history File links Vilnius city municipality coat of arms. ... Vilnius coat of arms is the coat of arms of the city of Vilnius, Lithuania. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... This article is about the Christian saint known as Christopher. ... The Child Jesus is a religious archetypical symbol of the infant Jesus, that recurs throughout history starting from the 3rd and 4th century with religious figurines and icons of the infant Jesus, usually with His mother, the Virgin Mary, and His father Joseph. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ...


In pagan times (until the end of the 14th century), the Vilnius coat of arms featured Titan Alkis, hero of ancient Lithuanian tales, carrying his wife Janteryte across the river on his shoulders. Jump to: navigation, search This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right}. It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


Origin of the name "Vilnius"

It is believed that Vilnius, like many other cities, was named after the river on whose banks it lies: the Vilnia. The Vilnia (Vilnelė) is a river in Lithuania. ...


Tourism information

Vilnius is a cosmopolitan city with diverse architecture. There are more than 40 churches in Vilnius to see. Restaurants, hotels and museums have sprouted since Lithuania declared independence, and young Vilnius residents are providing the city a reputation for being the most hospitable in the world as evidenced by the large membership of the Hospitality Club. The term cosmopolitan refers to an individual who retains cultural roots in his or her country of origin, yet has adopted a wide taste for other cultures, and so lives both a local and global life. ... // Scope and intentions According to the very earliest surviving work on the subject, Vitruvius De Architectura, good buildings should have Beauty (Venustas), Firmness (Firmitas) and Utility (Utilitas); architecture can be said to be a balance and coordination among these three elements, with none overpowering the others. ... A church building is a building used in Christian worship. ... Toms Diner, a restaurant in New York made familiar by Suzanne Vega and the television sitcom Seinfeld A restaurant is an establishment that serves prepared food and beverages to be consumed on the premises. ... Jump to: navigation, search A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging, usually on a short-term basis and especially for tourists. ... A museum is typically a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Hospitality Club is an international, Internet-based hospitality service of approximately 84,000 members. ...


Like most medieval towns, Vilnius has developed around its Town Hall. The main artery, Pilies Street, links the governor's palace and the Town Hall. Other streets meander through the palaces of feudal lords and landlords, churches, shops and craftsmen's workrooms. Narrow, curved streets and small cosy courtyards developed in the radial layout of the medieval Vilnius. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Town hall is a square in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. ... Pilies Street (literally, Castle Street; Lith. ... Jump to: navigation, search Defining feudalism is difficult because there is no generally accepted agreement on what it means. ... A court or courtyard is an enclosed area, often a space enclosed by a building that is open to the sky. ...


The Old Town, historical centre of Vilnius, is one of the largest in Europe (3.6 km²). The most valuable historic and cultural sites are concentrated here. The buildings in the old town — there are nearly 1,500 — were built over several centuries, creating a splendid blend of many different architectural styles. Although Vilnius is often called a baroque city, here you will find some buildings of gothic, renaissance and other styles. The main sights of the city are the Gediminas Castle and the Cathedral Square, symbols of the capital. Their combination is also a gateway to the historic centre of the capital. Because of its uniqueness, the Old Town of Vilnius was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994. In 1995, the only known cast of Frank Zappa was installed in the center of Vilnius with the permission of the government. Zappa was immortalized by Konstantinas Bogdanas, a renowned Lithuanian sculptor who had previously cast busts of Vladimir Lenin. Vilnius Old Town: Ausros Vartu street The Old Town of Vilnius (Lithuanian: Senamiestis), one of the largest surviving medieval old towns in Eastern Europe, has an area of 3. ... World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint In arts, the Baroque (or baroque) is both a period and the style that dominated it. ... Jump to: navigation, search See also Gothic art. ... Jump to: navigation, search By region Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance French Renaissance German Renaissance English Renaissance The Renaissance, also known as Il Rinascimento (in Italian), was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... Gediminas Castle - a castle in Vilnius, capital of Lithuania. ... Cathedral Square is often the name of the square located in front of the main cathedral of a city. ... Jump to: navigation, search UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image:Greekgod. ... Jump to: navigation, search Frank Zappa Frank Vincent Zappa (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American guitarist, composer, singer and satirist. ... Jump to: navigation, search Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин listen ( ♫)), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of Leninism, which he described as an...


Famous Vilnians

  • Michał Andriolli (1836–1893), painter
  • Teodor Bujnicki (1907–1944), poet
  • Jan Karol Chodkiewicz (15601621), politician and hetman
  • Icchak Cukierman (19151981), one of the leaders of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
  • Elijah ben Solomon Gaon mi Vilna (17201797), Jewish scholar and Kabbalist
  • Antoni Gorecki (1787–1861), writer
  • Jascha Heifetz (1901-1987), violinist
  • Stanisław Jasiukiewicz (1921–1973), actor
  • Mieczysław Karłowicz (1876–1909), composer
  • Kazimierz Kontrym (1776–1836), writer and politician
  • Czesław Miłosz (19112004), poet, Nobel prize in Literature
  • Maurycy Orgelbrand (1826–1904) and Samuel Orgelbrand (1810–1868)
  • Bohdan Paczyński (1940–), astronomer
  • Jerzy Passendorfer (1923–2003), film director
  • Artūras Paulauskas (b. 1953), speaker of the Lithuanian Seimas
  • Emilia Plater (1806–1831), revolutionary and hero
  • Kazimierz Plater (1915–2004), chess master
  • Ada Rusowicz (1944–1991), singer
  • Bolesław Bohusz-Siestrzeńcewicz (1869–1940), general
  • Piotr Skarga (1536–1612), theologist, writer and the first rector of the Wilno Academy
  • Irena Sławińska (1913–2004), historian and theatrologist
  • Jędrzej Śniadecki (1768–1838), chemician, biologist and philosopher
  • Józef Świętorzecki (1876–1936), general
  • Władysław Syrokomla (1823–1862), poet, writer and translator
  • Zygmunt Vogel (1764–1826), painter
  • Antoni Wiwulski (1877–1919), sculptor and architect
  • Tomasz Zan (1796–1855), Polish poet

Noble Family Chodkiewicz Coat of Arms Chodkiewicz Parents Jan Hieronim Chodkiewicz Krystyna Zborowska Consorts Zofia Mielecka Anna Alojza Ostrogska Children with Zofia Mielecka Hieronim Chodkiewicz Anna Scholastyka Chodkiewicz Date of Birth 1560 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death September 24, 1621 Place of Death Chocim Castle, Poland Jan Karol Chodkiewicz... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berhick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... Hetman (from Czech: hejtman, German: Hauptmann, Old Slavonic vatamman, Turkish: Ataman) was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Icchak Cukierman (also known by the internationalised spelling Yitzhak Zuckerman; 1915 - 1981), who used the alias Antek, was one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the commander of a small Jewish troop fighting in the Warsaw Uprising during World War II. Cukierman was born in Vilna to... Jump to: navigation, search 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search SS men burning houses The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, sometimes called the Warsaw Uprising 1943, was a Jewish insurrection in Polands Warsaw Ghetto against Nazi Germany during World War II. The main resistance lasted from April 19, 1943 to May 16 that year and was finally... Elijah ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon Elijah (Eliyahu) ben Solomon Kremer (born April 23, 1720, Vilna, Lithuania; died there October 9, 1797). ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The tree of life Kabbalah (קבלה Reception, Standard Hebrew Qabbala, Tiberian Hebrew Qabbālāh; also written variously as Cabala, Cabalah, Cabbala, Cabbalah, Kabala, Kabalah, Kabbala, Qabala, Qabalah) is a religious philosophical system claiming an insight into divine nature. ... Antoni Gorecki (1787-1861) was a Polish poet and writer, author of satires and short stories for children. ... Jascha Heifetz 1740 Guarneri del Gesu, the ex. ... MieczysÅ‚aw KarÅ‚owicz (December 11, 1876 - February 8, 1909) was a Polish composer, born in the Polish province of Vilna. ... CzesÅ‚aw MiÅ‚osz in September 1999 CzesÅ‚aw MiÅ‚osz (pronounced [ʧεsÈ—av miȗɔʃ]; June 30, 1911–August 14, 2004) was a Polish poet and essayist. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1911 was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Edward Appletons medal Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ... Bohdan PaczyÅ„ski (born 8 February 1940) is a Polish astronomer, a leading scientist in theory of the evolution of stars. ... Jerzy Passendorfer (born April 8, 1923 in Wilno, died February 20, 2003 in Skolimów, near Warsaw, Poland) - is a Polish film director. ... ArtÅ«ras Paulauskas ArtÅ«ras Paulauskas (born August 23, 1953) is a Lithuanian politician. ... Seimas is the Lithuanian parliament. ... Emilia Plater in a skirmish at Szawle, during the November Uprising of 1830-1831. ... Skargas Sermon, by Jan Matejko, 1862, oil on canvas, 224 x 397 cm. ... JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki (1768 - 1838) was a Polish writer, physician, chemist and biologist. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Syrokomla was a pseudonym of Ludwik WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Kondratowicz (1823-1862), a Polish poet, writer and translator. ... Antoni Wiwulski (1877-1919) was a Polish architect and sculptor. ... Tomasz Zan, in a drawing by R.Å»ukowski (1825—1855) Tomasz Zan (December 21, 1796 - July 19, 1855), Polish poet. ...

Economy

Vilnius is the major economic centre of Lithuania and one of the largest financial centres of the Baltic states. Even though it only contains 15% of Lithuania's population, it generates approximately 35% of GDP [1]. Based on these indicators, its estimated GDP per capita, based on purchasing power parity, in 2005 is approximately $33,100, above the European Union average. Jump to: navigation, search In economics, purchasing power parity (PPP) is a method used to calculate an alternative exchange rate between the currencies of two countries. ...


Climate

Central Vilnius in winter
Central Vilnius in winter

The climate of Vilnius is transitional between continental and maritime. The average annual temperature is +6.1°C, in January being −4.9°C and +17.0°C in July. The average precipitation is about 661 mm per year. Vilnius main place by the winter. ... Vilnius main place by the winter. ... A continental climate is the climate typical of the middle-latitude interiors of the large continents of the Northern Hemisphere in the zone of westerly winds; similar climates exist along the east coasts (but not the west coasts) of the same continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other... An oceanic climate is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the worlds continents, and in southeastern Australia; similar climates are also found at high elevations within the tropics. ...


Summers can be hot, with temperatures above thirty degrees celsius throughout the day. Night life in Vilnius is in full swing at this time of year, and pavement bars and cafés are extremely popular during the daytime.


Winters can be very cold, with temperatures rarely reaching above freezing - temperatures below minus 25 degrees celsius are not unheard of in January and February. Vilnius' rivers freeze over on particularly cold winters, and the lakes surrounding the city are almost always permanently frozen at this time of year. A popular pastime is ice-fishing, whereby fishermen drill holes in the ice and fish with baited hooks, usually drinking quantities of alcohol to keep themselves warm.


Transport

Vilnius is the starting point of the Vilnius-Kaunas-Klaipėda and the Vilnius-Panevėžys highways. Though the river Neris may be navigable, no regular water routes exist. Vilnius International Airport serves most Lithuanian international flights to many major European destinations. Vilnius railway station is an important hub as well. The port of KlaipÄ—da handles some 20 million tons of cargo each year KlaipÄ—da (approximate English transcription: [ˈklaı.pÉ›.dÊŒ], simplified Lithuanian transcription: [klaǐpÄ“da]; German: Memel or Memelburg) is a Lithuanian town on Baltic Sea. ... Panevėžys (approximate English transcription [pÊŒ.nÉ›.vÉ›.ˈʒıːs], simplified Lithuanian transcription [panevÄ“Ê’Ä«s]; pol. ... Mitchell Freeway in Perth, Western Australia For other uses, see Highway (disambiguation). ... Neris (The Lithuanian name; within the territory of Belarus it is called Ві́лія (Viliya, Vilia); and the Wilia in Polish language) is a river rising in Belarus, flowing through Vilnius (Lithuania) and becomes a tributary of the Neman (Nemunas) in Kaunas (Lithuania). ... Vilnius International Airport (IATA Airport Code: VNO) in Lithuania, is that countrys largest aviation facility. ...


There is a trolleybus network for main public transport routes. An urban rail system is planned for the future. More information can be found at the Vilnius Transport website. An articulated trolleybus in Arnhem A trolleybus (also known as electric bus, trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is a bus powered by two overhead electric wires, from which the bus draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... Skytrain Bangkok. ...


Trivia

Vilnius is one of the locations featured in the video game Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon (photographs comparing the game's locations with their real-life counterparts can be found here). However, although some of the architecture is relatively well-represented, it has to be said that most of the map is fictional and it does not feel like a particularly accurate representation of the city of Vilnius. Tom Clancys Ghost Recon (also known as simply Ghost Recon) is a video game in the tactical shooter genre, inspired by the work of Tom Clancy. ...


Lying very close to Vilnius is a site some claim to be the Geographical Centre of Europe. Geographical Centre of Europe, monument in Lithuania There is an ongoing debate as to where the Geographical Centre of Europe really is. ...


Districts

The City of Vilnius is made up of a large number of districts, including:

  • Fabijoniškės
  • Santariškės
  • Jeruzalė
  • Valakupiai
  • Baltupiai
  • Pašilaičiai
  • Zujūnai
  • Justiniškės
  • Viršuliškės
  • Šeškinė
  • Šnipiškės
  • Antakalnis
  • Žirmūnai
  • Pilaitė
  • Žvėrynas
  • Senamiestis (Old Town)
  • Centras (City Centre)
  • Naujamiestis
  • Karoliniškės
  • Lazdynai
  • Naujininkai
  • Kirtimai

Vilnius Old Town: Ausros Vartu street The Old Town of Vilnius (Lithuanian: Senamiestis), one of the largest surviving medieval old towns in Eastern Europe, has an area of 3. ...

External links

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:
  • Vilnius' website - the best guide in the city
  • Uherope - Travel Tips to Vilnius and more
  • Vilnius in Old Photographs - archive of photographs at Vilnius University
  • Law University of Lithuania in Vilnius
  • Vilnius in your pocket

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...



 
 

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