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Encyclopedia > Vilnius region
Territory of Central Lithuania (green) created by Second Polish Republic in contravene of internatonal law as compared with other Lithuanian claims[citation needed] on territories of former GDL.
Territory of Central Lithuania (green) created by Second Polish Republic in contravene of internatonal law as compared with other Lithuanian claims[citation needed] on territories of former GDL.

Vilnius Region (Lithuanian: Vilniaus kraštas, Polish: Wileńszczyzna) generally refers to the territory in the present day Lithuania and Belarus that was assigned to Lithuania by the Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of 1920, but was under Polish control from 1920 to 1939. The territory included Vilnius (Polish: Wilno), historical capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Lithuania, after announcing independence from the Russian Empire, claimed Vilnius Region based on historical legacy. Poland claimed the region as it had a sizeable Polish population and argued for its right of self-determination. Intense conflict ensured. Direct military conflicts (Polish-Lithuanian War and Żeligowski's Mutiny) were followed up by fruitless negotiations in the League of Nations and complete lack of any diplomatic relations between Poland and Lithuania until the Poland's ultimatum of March 17, 1938. Poland demanded unconditional establishment of diplomatic relations. After the Soviet invasion of Poland the entire region came under Soviet control. About one fifth of the region, including Vilnius, was given to Lithuania by the Soviet Union on October 10, 1939 in exchange for soviet military bases within the territory of Lithuania. The conflict over Vilnius Region was settled after World War II when both Poland and Lithuania came under the Soviet domination. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Map of the region, with so called Republic of Central Lithuania marked in Green The Republic of Central Lithuania or Middle Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Polish: , Belarusian: ), or simply Central Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Polish: , Belarusian: ), was a puppet state[1] created in 1920 after the staged rebellion of soldiers of the 1st Lithuanian... This article is about the country in Europe. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... The Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of 1920 was signed between Lithuania and Soviet Russia on July 12, 1920. ... Central Lithuania may refer to: Republic of Central Lithuania - the puppet state in the current Lithuanian Vilnius region, created in 1920 by secret order of Józef PiÅ‚sudski. ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Facsimile of the Act of February 16 The Act of Independence of Lithuania (Lithuanian: ) or Act of February 16 was signed by the Council of Lithuania on February 16, 1918, proclaiming the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania, governed by democratic principles, with Vilnius as its capital. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... Combatants Second Polish Republic Lithuania Commanders Adam Nieniewski Silvestras Žukauskas Strength  ? ca. ... Å»eligowskis Mutiny (Polish: or żeligiada) refers to the 1920 mutiny staged by the Polish general Lucjan Å»eligowski, which resulted in the creation of the short-lived state of the Republic of Central Lithuania. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For Nazi Germanys military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Nazi Germanys invasion of Poland (1939). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...

Contents

Territory and terminology

Eastern (brown) and Western (orange) Vilnius Regions in comparison to the current territory of Lithuania
Eastern (brown) and Western (orange) Vilnius Regions in comparison to the current territory of Lithuania

Initially Vilnius Region had no determined territory, but referred to Vilnius and surrounding territory, disputed between Lithuania and Poland from 1918. Later, the western limit of the region was defined as de facto administration line between Poland and Lithuania set up in late 1920. Lithuania refused to recognize this line. The eastern limit was defined by the Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of 1920. The eastern line was never turned into an actual border between states and remained only a political vision. The total territory covered about 32,250 km². De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of 1920 was signed between Lithuania and Soviet Russia on July 12, 1920. ...


Today the eastern limit of the region is the Lithuanian-Belarusian border. This modern border divides the Vilnius Region into two parts: western and eastern. Western Vilnius Region, including Vilnius, is now part of Lithuania. It constitutes about one third of the total Vilnius Region. Lithuania gained about 6,880 km² on October 10, 1939 from the Soviet Union and 2,650 km² (including Druskininkai and Švenčionys) on August 3, 1940 from the Byelorussian SSR. Eastern Vilnius Region is now part of Belarus. No parts of the region are in modern Poland. None of the countries have any further territorial claims. is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Ethnographic region DzÅ«kija County Alytus County Municipality Druskininkai municipality Elderate Number of elderates Coordinates General information Capital of Druskininkai municipality Population (rank) 20000 in 2005 (20th) First mentioned 1596 Granted city rights 1893 Druskininkai ( (help· info), Belarusian: ; Polish: ) is a spa town on Nemunas River in Lithuania, close... Location of Å venčionys within Lithuania Coat of arms of Å venčionys Å venčionys is a town 84 km from Vilnius in Lithuania with a population of 5658 (as of 2005). ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: Belarusian: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Minsk Official language Belarusian, Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 5th in the USSR...


The term Central Lithuania (Polish: Litwa Środkowa) refers to the short-lived puppet state Republic of Central Lithuania, proclaimed by Lucjan Żeligowski after his staged mutiny in the annexed areas. After eighteen months of existence, it was incorporated into Poland on March 24, 1922 thus finalizing Poland's claims over the territory. Map of the region, with so called Republic of Central Lithuania marked in Green The Republic of Central Lithuania or Middle Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Polish: , Belarusian: ), or simply Central Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Polish: , Belarusian: ), was a puppet state[1] created in 1920 after the staged rebellion of soldiers of the 1st Lithuanian... Lucjan Å»eligowski (1865-1947), was a Polish general, veteran of the Great War, Polish-Bolshevik War and the World War II. He is best known as the head of a short-lived Republic of Central Lithuania. ... Å»eligowskis Mutiny (Polish: or żeligiada) refers to the 1920 mutiny staged by the Polish general Lucjan Å»eligowski, which resulted in the creation of the short-lived state of the Republic of Central Lithuania. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Vilnius dispute

A satirical picture from interwar Polish press (around 1925-1935): a caricature of marshal Józef Piłsudski and Lithuania, criticizing Lithuanian unwillingness to compromise over Vilnius region. Marshal Piłsudski offers the meat labeled "agreement" to the dog (with the collar labelled Lithuania); the dog barking "Wilno, wilno, wilno" replies: "Even if you were to give me Wilno, I would bark for Grodno and Białystok, because this is who I am."
A satirical picture from interwar Polish press (around 1925-1935): a caricature of marshal Józef Piłsudski and Lithuania, criticizing Lithuanian unwillingness to compromise over Vilnius region. Marshal Piłsudski offers the meat labeled "agreement" to the dog (with the collar labelled Lithuania); the dog barking "Wilno, wilno, wilno" replies: "Even if you were to give me Wilno, I would bark for Grodno and Białystok, because this is who I am."

In the Middle Ages, Vilnius and its environs had become a nucleus of the early ethnic Lithuanian state, the Duchy of Lithuania, also referred to in Lithuanian historiography as a part of the Lithuania Propria.[1][2] After the Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in late 18th century it was annexed by Imperial Russia. In the effect of World War I it was seized by Germany and given to the civilian administration of the Ober-Ost. With the German defeat in the World War I and the outbreak of hostilities between various factions of the Russian Civil War, the area, while controlled by Poles became disputed by Lithuania and the short-lived Belarusian People's Republic. Pilsudski redirects here. ... Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania (about 15 km and 30 km away respectively). ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina BiaÅ‚ystok Established 14th century City Rights 1692 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Truskolaski Area  - City 102 km² (39. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Duchy of Lithuania (Latin: ; Lithuanian: ) was a state-territorial formation of ethnic Lithuanians, that existed from the 11th century until 1413. ... Map showing changes in the territory of Lithuania from the 13th century to the present day Lithuania proper (Lithuanian: Didžioji Lietuva) is a term used to contrast the main Lithuanian territory with the Lithuania Minor (Lithuanian: Mažoji Lietuva). ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Leopold von Bayern Ober Ost (short for Oberbefehlshabers der gesamten deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten) was a German WWI military administration governing a large part of the German-held areas of the Russian Empire. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... National motto: None Official language Belarusian Capital Minsk, Currently in Exile in Canada National anthem Vajacki marÅ¡ Chairperson of the Rada Ivonka Survilla Independence  - Declared  - Forced into Exile Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 25, 1918 January 5, 1919 The Belarusian Peoples Republic (Belarusian: Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка, eng. ...


After the outbreak of the Polish-Bolshevik War, during the summer offensive of the Red Army, the region got under Soviet control as the part of planned Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. In exchange for military cooperation after Lithuania-Soviet Russia war (1918-1920), the Bolshevist authorities signed a peace treaty[3] with Lithuania on July 12, 1920. According to the Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of 1920, all area disputed between Poland and Lithuania, at the time controlled by the Bolsheviks, was to be transferred to Lithuania. However, the actual control over the area remained in Bolsheviks hands. After the Battle of Warsaw of 1920 it became clear that the advancing Polish Army would soon recapture the area. Seeing that they could not secure it, the Bolshevik authorities started to transfer the area to Lithuanian sovereignty. The advancing Polish Army managed to retake much of the disputed area before the Lithuanians arrived, while the most important part of it with the city of Vilnius was secured by Lithuania. Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian Soviet Federated... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (LBSSR, Litbel; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Baltarusijos TarybinÄ— SocialistinÄ— Respublika; Belarusian: Літоўска-Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка; Russian: Литовско-Белорусская ССР; Polish: Litewsko-BiaÅ‚oruska Republika Rad) was a Soviet controlled republic, that existed within the territories of modern Belarus and eastern Lithuania, for approximately seven months during... Freedom wars (also, War of Independence) refers to the three wars Lithuania had to fight defending its independence from the opposing forces at the end of World War I. Since 1795 Lithuania was part of the Russian Empire. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of 1920 was signed between Lithuania and Soviet Russia on July 12, 1920. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ...


Since the two states were not at war, diplomatic negotiations started. As Lithuanians made a small minority in the disputed area and Poles constituted approximately 58% of its inhabitants[who?] (the rest being mostly Jews and Belarusians, see Ethnic history of the region of Vilnius), the Polish authorities demanded region to be transferred to Poland. Lithuanian government argued that the majority of those who declared Polish nationality were in fact Polonized Lithuanians, that the area historically belonged to Lithuania Propria part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and believed that their historical claim to the city of Vilnius (former capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which at that point was divided near evenly between Poles and Jews, with Lithuanian speaking as constituting a mere fraction - about 2-3% - of the total population [4][5][6]) had precedence over self-determination rights of the mostly Polish speaking population of the region. The negotiations and international mediation led to nowhere and until 1920 the disputed territory remained divided onto Lithuanian and Polish part. Lithuanians are the Baltic ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number a little over 3 million [8]. Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Canada and Russia. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The following is a list of all censuses organised in the city of Vilnius/Vilna/Wilno/Wilna throughout the ages. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Map showing changes in the territory of Lithuania from the 13th century to the present day Lithuania proper (Lithuanian: Didžioji Lietuva) is a term used to contrast the main Lithuanian territory with the Lithuania Minor (Lithuanian: Mažoji Lietuva). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Żamojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ...


Finally, in 1920, after a staged coup in October 9, Polish general Lucjan Żeligowski seized the Lithuanian part of the disputed territory and created there a semi-independent state of Central Lithuania. Although the following year it voted to join Poland and the choice was later accepted by the League of Nations[7], the area granted to Lithuania by the Bolsheviks in 1920 continued to be claimed by Lithuania, with the city of Vilnius being treated as that state's official capital and the temporary capital in Kaunas, and the states officially remained at war. It was not until the Polish ultimatum of 1938, that the two states resolved diplomatic relations. Lucjan Å»eligowski (1865-1947), was a Polish general, veteran of the Great War, Polish-Bolshevik War and the World War II. He is best known as the head of a short-lived Republic of Central Lithuania. ... Central Lithuania may refer to: Republic of Central Lithuania - the puppet state in the current Lithuanian Vilnius region, created in 1920 by secret order of Józef PiÅ‚sudski. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Temporary capital (Lithuanian Laikinoji sostinė) was the official designation of the city of Kaunas in Lithuania during the interwar period. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s...


The Polish government never acknowledged the Russo-Lithuanian convention of July 12, 1920, that granted the latter state territory seized from Poland by the Red Army during the Polish-Bolshevik War, then promised to Lithuania as the Soviet forces were retreating under the Polish advance; particularly as the Soviets had previously renounced claims to that region in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. In turn, the Lithuanian authorities did not acknowledge the Polish-Lithuanian border of 1918-1920 as permanent nor did they ever acknowledged the sovereignty of puppet Republic of Central Lithuania that was soon incorporated into Poland. is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian Soviet Federated... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking...


The loss of Vilnius might have nonetheless safeguarded the very existence of the Lithuanian state in the interwar period. Despite an alliance with Soviets (Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of 1920) and the war with Poland, Lithuania was very close to being invaded by the Soviets in summer 1920 and having been forcibly converted into a socialist republic. It was only the Polish victory against the Soviets in the Polish-Soviet War (and the fact that the Poles did not object to some form of Lithuanian independence) that derailed the Soviet plans and gave Lithuania an experience of interwar independence.[8] The Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of 1920 was signed between Lithuania and Soviet Russia on July 12, 1920. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000...


In 1939 Soviets gave proposal to Lithuania to give 1/5th of Vilnius region, including city of Vilnius itself, to Lithuania in exchange for stationing Red Army troops in Lithuania. Lithuanians at first didn't want to accept this, but later Russians said that troops would enter Lithuania, anyway, so Lithuania accepted the deal. 1/5th of Vilnius region was ceded, despite of the fact that Soviet Union always recognised whole Vilnius region as part of Lithuania previously. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


Ethnography

The areas of Lithuania with Polish majority as of 2006
The areas of Lithuania with Polish majority as of 2006

According to the 1916 census organised there by the German authorities Lithuanians constituted 18.5% of the population. The post-war Polish censae of 1921 and 1931, found 5% of Lithuanians living in the area, with several almost purely-Lithuanian enclaves located to the south-west of Vilnius (Polish: Wilno) and to the north of Švenčionys (Polish: Święciany). The majority of the population was composed of Poles (roughly 60%) according the latter three censae. The results of Polish censae were questioned by some Lithuanian historians[citation needed] and the Lithuanian government claimed that the majority of local Poles were in fact Polonised Lithuanians. In the 1920s, League of Nations twice attempted to organise plebiscite, although both sides were not eager to participate. After staged mutinity by Lucjan Żeligowski Poles took control over the area, and organised elections, which was boycotted by most Lithuanians, but also many Jews and Belarusians [9] because of strong Polish military control. Today, the Po prostu (badly learned Polish[citation needed]) dialect is the native language for Poles in Šalčininkai district and in some territories of Vilnius district, its speakers consider themselves to be Poles and believe po prostu language to be purely Polish [10]. The population, including those of "the locals" (Tutejshy) who live in the other part of Vilnius region that was occupied by Soviet Union and passed on to Belarus, has extremely strong Polish identity and sometimes is angered when Lithuanians suggest that they are descendants of mostly ethnic Lithuanians who did not learn Polish well enough. However, some of the locals admit their Lithuanian background. The following is a list of all censæ organised in the city of Wilno/Wilna/Vilna/Vilnius throughout the ages. ... Image File history File links Poles_in_lithuania. ... Image File history File links Poles_in_lithuania. ... The following is a list of all censæ organised in the city of Wilno/Wilna/Vilna/Vilnius throughout the ages. ... Location of Å venčionys within Lithuania Coat of arms of Å venčionys Å venčionys is a town 84 km from Vilnius in Lithuania with a population of 5658 (as of 2005). ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Lucjan Å»eligowski (1865-1947), was a Polish general, veteran of the Great War, Polish-Bolshevik War and the World War II. He is best known as the head of a short-lived Republic of Central Lithuania. ... Election in Central Lithuania (sometimes reffered to as Vilnius/Vilna/Wilno plebiscite) planned for January 9, 1921 but postponed and carried in January 8, 1922 was the election in Polish-dominated Republic of Central Lithuania that was unrecognized by the Lithuanian government. ... Location Ethnographic region DzÅ«kija County Vilnius County General information Capital Å alčininkai Major settlements Å alčininkai (pop. ... Location Ethnographic region [[AukÅ¡taitija / DzÅ«kija]] County Vilnius County General information Capital Vilnius Major settlements NemenčinÄ— (pop. ...


See also

Disputed territories of Baltic States are those territories of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, which were in the mentioned countries in the interwar period, but with the Soviet occupation after WW2, they werent attached to Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian Soviet socialist republics, being attached instead to Russian SFSR, Byelorussian SSR... Map of Vilnius in 1576 // Middle ages The earliest settlements in the area of present Vilnius appear to be of mesolithic origin. ... Suvalkai region (Lithuanian Suvalkų kraštas) is the Lithuanian name of the region of the city of Suwałki in north-eastern Poland. ... Poles constitute 31,223 or about ~80% of the population in Šalčininkai district municipality. ...

References

  1. ^ Smetona, Antanas. "Lithuania Propria" (in Lithuanian). Darbai ir dienos 3(12): 191-234. 
  2. ^ (Lithuanian) Viduramžių Lietuva Viduramžių Lietuvos provincijos. Retrieved on 2007.04.11
  3. ^ Čepėnas, Pranas. naujųjų laikų Lietuvos istorija (in Lithuanian). Chicago: DR. Griniaus fondas. 
  4. ^ (Polish) Piotr Łossowski, Konflikt polsko-litewski 1918-1920 (The Polish-Lithuanian Conflict, 1918–1920), Warsaw, Książka i Wiedza, 1995, ISBN 8305127699, pp. 11.
  5. ^ (Russian) Demoscope.
  6. ^ (Polish) Michał Eustachy Brensztejn (1919). Spisy ludności m. Wilna za okupacji niemieckiej od. 1 listopada 1915 r.. Biblioteka Delegacji Rad Polskich Litwy i Białej Rusi, Warsaw. 
  7. ^ (Polish) Krajewski Zenon, Geneza i dzieje wewnętrzne Litwy Środkowej (1920-1922), Lublin 1996; ISBN 8390632101
  8. ^ Alfred Erich Senn, The Formation of the Lithuanian Foreign Office, 1918-1921, Slavic Review, Vol. 21, No. 3. (Sep., 1962), pp. 500-507.: "A Bolshevik victory over the Poles would have certainly meant a move by the Lithuanian communists, backed by the Red Army, to overthrow the Lithuanian nationalist government... Kaunas, in effect, paid for its independence with the loss of Vilna."
    Alfred Erich Senn, Lietuvos valstybes... p. 163: "If the Poles didn't stop the Soviet attack, Lithuania would fell to the Soviets... Polish victory costs the Lithuanians the city of Wilno, but saved Lithuania itself."
    Antanas Ruksa, Kovos del Lietuvos nepriklausomybes, t.3, p.417: "In summer 1920 Russia was working on a communist revolution in Lithuania... From this disaster Lithuania was saved by the miracle at Vistula."
    Jonas Rudokas, Józef Piłsudski - wróg niepodległości Litwy czy jej wybawca? (Polish translation of a Lithuanian article) "Veidas", 25 08 2005: [Piłsudski] "defended both Poland and Lithuanian from Soviet domination"
  9. ^ Kiaupa, Zigmantas (2004). The History of Lithuania. Vilnius: Baltos lankos. ISBN 9955584874. 
  10. ^ (Lithuanian) Lietuvos rytai; straipsnių rinkinys The east of Lithuania; the collection of articles; V. Čekmonas, L. Grumadaitė "Kalbų paplitimas Rytų Lietuvoje" ("The distribution of languages in eastern Lithuania")

Antanas Smetona Antanas Smetona (August 10, 1874 - January 9, 1944) was probably the most important Lithuanian political figure during the period between World War I and World War II. He was the first president of Lithuania from April 4, 1919 to June 19, 1920. ... Pranas ÄŒepÄ—nas (b. ... Piotr Łossowski (1925 - present) is a Polish historian and professor. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 13 to August 25, 1920 Place near Warsaw, Poland Result Decisive Polish victory The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad Wisłą) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War (also known as... Zigmantas Kiaupa (born June 29, 1942 in Pakiaunis village near Ignalina) - Lithuanian historian, archivist, professor. ...

External links

  • Repatriation and Resettlement of Ethnic Poles Maps of Ethnic Groups
  • Lithuanian-Belarusian language boundary in the 4th decade of the 19th century
  • Lithuanian-Belarusian language boundary in the beginning of the 20th century

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Vilnius region - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (832 words)
Vilnius region (Lithuanian Vilniaus kraštas) refers to a part of historical Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that was disputed between Poland and Lithuania between Polish-Bolshevik War and World War II.
As the latter state, crated as part of German plan of Mitteleuropa, did not manage to establish a strong authority, the administration over most of the region was granted to newly-reborn state of Poland.
The term Vilnius region is used almost exclusively in Lithuanian historiography to describe the territory seized from Poland by the Red Army during the Polish-Bolshevik War and then promised to Lithuania.
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