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Encyclopedia > Vilnius
Vilnius
Location Coat of Arms
Location
Ethnographic region Aukštaitija
County Vilnius County
Municipality Vilnius city municipality
Geographic coordinate system 54°41′N, 25°17′E
Number of elderates 20
General Information
Capital of Lithuania
Vilnius County
Vilnius city municipality
Vilnius district municipality
Population About 610,000 in 2006 (1st)
First mentioned 1323
Granted city rights 1387
Flag of the city
Flag of the city

Vilnius (['vilɲus] ; also known by alternative names) is the largest city and the capital of Lithuania, with a population of 553,904 (850,700 together with Vilnius County) as of December 2005.[1] It is the seat of the Vilnius city municipality and of the Vilnius district municipality. It is also the capital of Vilnius County. Map Capital Vilnius Cities Vilnius (542287 people) GrigiÅ¡kÄ—s (11448 people) Mayor ArtÅ«ras Zuokas (Liberal and Center Union) Size 51st place 400,6 km² Population 1st place 553904 people; Population density 7th place 1382,7/km² Telephone code 5 Official website http://www. ... More than one place has the name Vilna. ... Image File history File links LietuvaVilnius. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 560 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (794 × 850 pixel, file size: 511 KB, MIME type: image/png) The Grand Coat of arms of Vilnius File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Lithuania is divided into historical and cultural regions: Aukštaitija (literally Upper Lithuania) comprises present Vilnius county, Utena County, Panevėžys County and the eastern part of Šiauliai County. ... AukÅ¡taitija (litterally Highlands) is the name of one of five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Map of counties and their capitals The territory of Lithuania is divided into 10 counties (Lithuanian: apskritys, singular - apskritis), all named after their capitals. ... Administrative divisions ISO_3166-2 code LT-VL Number of municipalities 8 Number of elderates 107 General information Capital Vilnius Major cities Vilnius (pop. ... Map of municipalities and counties in Lithuania. ... Map Capital Vilnius Cities Vilnius (542287 people) GrigiÅ¡kÄ—s (11448 people) Mayor ArtÅ«ras Zuokas (Liberal and Center Union) Size 51st place 400,6 km² Population 1st place 553904 people; Population density 7th place 1382,7/km² Telephone code 5 Official website http://www. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... SeniÅ«nija (elderate or eldership in English) is the smallest administrative division of Lithuania. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Administrative divisions ISO_3166-2 code LT-VL Number of municipalities 8 Number of elderates 107 General information Capital Vilnius Major cities Vilnius (pop. ... Map Capital Vilnius Cities Vilnius (542287 people) GrigiÅ¡kÄ—s (11448 people) Mayor ArtÅ«ras Zuokas (Liberal and Center Union) Size 51st place 400,6 km² Population 1st place 553904 people; Population density 7th place 1382,7/km² Telephone code 5 Official website http://www. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija / DzÅ«kija County Vilnius County General information Capital Vilnius Major settlements NemenčinÄ— (pop. ... Cities with over 250,000 inhabitants in Lithuania : Vilnius (Capital City) Kaunas Cities with 50,000–250,000 inhabitants in Lithuania : Alytus KlaipÄ—da Panevėžys Å iauliai Towns with 30,000–50,000 inhabitants in Lithuania Jonava KÄ—dainiai MarijampolÄ— Mažeikiai TelÅ¡iai Utena Towns with 20,000–30... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were a set of city laws regulating the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages granted with it by a local ruler. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Vilnius. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... December 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → 31 December 2005 (Saturday) 25-year-old Scottish human rights worker Kate Burton and her parents are freed unharmed in the Gaza Strip by the Palestinian gunmen who kidnapped them two days earlier. ... Map Capital Vilnius Cities Vilnius (542287 people) GrigiÅ¡kÄ—s (11448 people) Mayor ArtÅ«ras Zuokas (Liberal and Center Union) Size 51st place 400,6 km² Population 1st place 553904 people; Population density 7th place 1382,7/km² Telephone code 5 Official website http://www. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija / DzÅ«kija County Vilnius County General information Capital Vilnius Major settlements NemenčinÄ— (pop. ... Administrative divisions ISO_3166-2 code LT-VL Number of municipalities 8 Number of elderates 107 General information Capital Vilnius Major cities Vilnius (pop. ...

Contents

Names

As a multicultural city, Vilnius has also been known by many names in different languages during its history. The city is known in Polish as Wilno, in Latin as Vilna, in Belarusian as Вiльня (Vilnia), in German as Wilna, in Yiddish as וילנאָ (Vilna), and in Latvian as Viļņa. An older Russian name is Вильна/Вильно (Vilna/Vilno), although Вильнюс (Vil'njus) is now more commonly used. The names Wilno and Vilna have also been used in older English and French language publications. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


History

Main article: History of Vilnius
"Legend has it that the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Gediminas, was hunting in the sacred forest near the Valley of Šventaragis. Tired after the successful day's hunt, the Grand Duke settled in nearby for the night. He fell soundly asleep and began to dream. A huge Iron Wolf was standing on top a hill and the sound of hundreds of other wolves inside it filled all of the surrounding fields and woods. Upon awakening, the Duke asked the pagan priest Lizdeika to interpret the meaning of the dream. And the priest told him: "What is destined for the ruler and the State of Lithuania, is thus: the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which will be established by you on this site. This city will be the capital of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, and the glory of their deeds shall echo throughout the world"
The Legend of the Founding of Vilnius [2]

Some historians identify the city with Voruta, a legendary capital of Mindaugas who was crowned in 1253 as King of Lithuania. The city was first mentioned in written sources in 1323, in letters of Grand Duke Gediminas that were sent to German cities and invited Germans and members of the Jewish community to settle in the capital city. In 1387, the city was granted city rights by Jogaila, one of Gediminas' successors. Map of Vilnius in 1576 // Middle ages The earliest settlements in the area of present Vilnius appear to be of mesolithic origin. ... Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. ... Vilnius Castle Complex around 1530 Vilnius Castle in 1740: Upper Castle: 1. ... Voruta may have been a capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania established in the time of king Mindaugas in the 13th century. ... Mindaugas King of Lithuania Mindaugas monument in Vilnius Mindaugas (approximate English transcription [ˈmın. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... King of Lithuania was the title of the ruler of Lithuania. ... August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: in Letters of Gediminas, Vilnius is named as the capital city Pharos of Alexandria Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world... Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania There are 6 surviving transcripts of letters of Gediminas written in 1323-1324 by Grand Duke Gediminas. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were a set of city laws regulating the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages granted with it by a local ruler. ... Jogaila, or Władysław II Jagiełło[1] (ca 1362–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ...


Between 1503 and 1522 the city was surrounded with walls that had nine city gates and three towers. Vilnius reached the peak of its development under the reign of Sigismund August, who moved his court there in 1544. In the following centuries, Vilnius became a constantly growing and developing city. This growth was due in part to the establishment of Almae Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Jesu by the King Stephen Bathory in 1579. The university soon developed into one of the most important scientific and cultural centres of the region and the most notable scientific centre of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Political, economic, and social activities were in full swing in the town. In 1769, the Rasos Cemetery, one of the oldest surviving cemeteries in the city, was founded. During its rapid development, the city was open to migrants from both abroad and far reaches of territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Each group made its unique contribution to the life of the city, and crafts, trade and science prospered. During the Russo-Polish War (1654-1667), Vilnius was occupied by Russia for several years. The city was pillaged and burned, and its population was massacred. The city's growth lost its momentum for many years, but the population rebounded, and by the beginning of the 19th century city's population reached 20,000 making the city one of the largest in Northern Europe. Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ... The Brama MÅ‚yÅ„ska in Stargard SzczeciÅ„ski one of two water gates in Europe. ... Sigismund II Augustus (Polish: , Lithuanian: ; 1 August 1520 — 7 July 1572) was the only son of Sigismund I the Old, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... The Grand Courtyard of Vilnius University and the Church of St. ... For other persons of the same name, see Báthory. ... Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Rasos Cemetery (Lit. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... The Russo-Polish War of 1654-1667, also called the War for Ukraine, was the last major conflict between Muscovite Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Vilnius Alumni yard
The Vilnius Alumni yard

After the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, Vilnius was annexed by Russia and became the capital of a Vilna Governorate. During the Russian occupation the city walls were destroyed, and by 1805, only the Dawn Gate remained. In 1812, the city was seized by Napoleon on his push towards Moscow. Following the November Uprising in 1831, Vilnius University was closed and Russian repressions halted the further development of the city. During the January Uprising in 1863 heavy fighting occurred within the city, but was brutally pacified by Mikhail Muravyov, nicknamed The Hangman by the population because of the number of executions he organized. After the uprising all civil liberties were withdrawn, and use of the Polish[3] and Lithuanian languages was banned. Ethnic Lithuanians constituted only a small minority of citys population, Poles, Jews and Russians made up a majority of the population of the city.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1881 KB) Summary Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1881 KB) Summary Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Coat of Arms of Vilna Governorate (1845 - 1915) Vilnа Governorate (Russian: , Vilenskaya guberniya) was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire created after Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795 and attached to the Northwestern Krai. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The last remaining gate of the old city wall was turned into a Chapel. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... Coat-of-arms of the November Uprising. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Grand Courtyard of Vilnius University and the Church of St. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The word pacification is most often used as a euphemism for counter-insurgency operations by a dominant military force. ... Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov may refer to the following historical persons of the Imperial Russia. ...

St. Anne's Church and the church of the Bernardine Monastery in Vilnius
St. Anne's Church and the church of the Bernardine Monastery in Vilnius

During World War I, Vilnius — as with the rest of Lithuania — was occupied by the German Empire from 1915 until 1918. The Act of the Restoration of Independence of Lithuania was proclaimed in the city on February 16, 1918. After the withdrawal of German forces, Lithuanian forces were made to retreat by the advancing Russian occupation forces. Vilnius changed hands many times: for a while it was controlled by Polish self-defence units, who didn't want the city to be occupied by Russian-Bolshevik forces. Then the Polish Army regained control, then Soviet forces again. Shortly after its defeat in the Battle of Warsaw (1920), the retreating Red Army ceded the city back to Lithuania by signing a peace treaty on July 12, 1920. Poland also recognized Vilnius and the Vilnius region as a part of Lithuania with the Treaty of Suwalki signed on October 7, 1920.[1] However, on October 9 of the same year, the Polish Army under General Lucjan Żeligowski broke the treaty and seized Vilnius after a staged coup. The city and its surroundings were proclaimed the separate puppet state of Central Lithuania. On February 20, 1922, the whole area was annexed to Poland, with Vilnius as the capital of the Wilno Voivodship (Wilno being the name of Vilnius in Polish). The predominant languages of the city were still Polish and, to the lesser extent, Yiddish. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1985 KB) Summary en: Saint Anns church and Bernardine Monastery, Vilnius, Lithuania pl: KoÅ›ciół Åšw. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1985 KB) Summary en: Saint Anns church and Bernardine Monastery, Vilnius, Lithuania pl: KoÅ›ciół Åšw. ... Façade of Saint Annes Saint Annes church at night Rectangular elements St. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lucjan Å»eligowski (1865-1947), was a Polish general, veteran of the Great War, Polish-Bolshevik War and the World War II. He is best known as the head of a short-lived Republic of Central Lithuania. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Map of the region, with Central Lithuania marked in Green Central Lithuania (Polish: Litwa Åšrodkowa, Lithuanian: Vidurio Lietuva or VidurinÄ— Lietuva, Belarusian: Сярэдняя Літва / Siaredniaja Litva) was a semi-independent state, created in 1920 by allegedly rebellious soldiers of the so called Lithuanian-Belarusian division of the Polish Army. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Wilno Voivodship The Wilno Voivodship (Polish: , Lithuanian: ) (or Vilnius Voivodship) was the the capital Voivodship of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later the capital Voidvodship of Lithuania’s part in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Yiddish (Yid. ...

Orthodox Cathedral of the Theotokos, with Gediminas Tower in background
Orthodox Cathedral of the Theotokos, with Gediminas Tower in background

In the meantime, for yet another time in its history, the city enjoyed a period of fast development. Vilnius University was reopened under the name Stefan Batory University and the city's infrastructure was improved significantly. By 1931, the city had 195,000 inhabitants, making it the fifth largest city in Poland with vibrant industries, such as Elektrit, a factory of the popular radio receivers. Some Lithuanians, however, dispute this picture of economic growth and point out that the standard of living in Vilnius at that time was considerably lower compared to that in other parts of contemporary Lithuania. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2015 KB) en:The Orthodox church of Holy Mother of God, Vilnius, Lithuania. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2015 KB) en:The Orthodox church of Holy Mother of God, Vilnius, Lithuania. ... Cathedral of the Theotokos, with the Gediminas Tower visible in the distance. ... Vilnius University (Lithuanian Vilniaus Universitetas, Polish Uniwersytet Wileński, formerly Stefan Batory University) is the oldest and biggest university in Lithuania. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elektrit Radiotechnical Society (Polish Towarzystwo radiotechniczne „Elektrit”) was the biggest private-run company in Wilno before World War II. With over 1100 workers, the society produced approximately 50 thousand radio receivers yearly. ...

Following the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, on September 19, 1939, Vilnius was seized and annexed by the Soviet Union. There were plans to include the city and the region as a part of the Belarusian SSR, but eventually it was decided that Vilnius might be used as a way to exert significant influence on Lithuania.[citation needed] On October 10, 1939, after a Soviet ultimatum, the Lithuanian government accepted the presence of Soviet military bases in various parts of the country in exchange for restoring the city to Lithuania. On October 28, 1939 the Red Army withdrew from the city to its suburbs (to Nowa Wilejka) and Vilnius has been taken over by the Lithuanian Army. A ceremonious defile took place on October 29, 1939 through the city center. Though the process of transferring the capital from Kaunas to Vilnius started soon after, the whole of Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union in June of 1940, before the transfer was completed. A new Communist government was installed, with Vilnius as the capital of the newly created Lithuanian SSR. Up to 40,000 of the city's inhabitants were arrested by the NKVD and sent to gulags in the far eastern areas of the Soviet Union. The Soviets devastated city industries moving the whole Elektrit radio factory with a part of its labor force to Minsk at Belarus where it was renamed to Vyacheslav Molotov Radio Factory, after Stalin's Minister of Foreign Affairs. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1780 KB) Summary Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Images of castles Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1780 KB) Summary Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Images of castles Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Gediminas Tower - Vilnius, Lithuania Remains of Vilnius Upper Castle Gediminas Tower is the only remaining functional part of the Upper Castle in Vilnius, Lithuania. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... language None. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An ultimatum (Latin: ) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. ... A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by and/or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: Lithuanian: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Vilnius Official language None. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ... Elektrit Radiotechnical Society (Polish Towarzystwo radiotechniczne „Elektrit”) was the biggest private-run company in Wilno before World War II. With over 1100 workers, the society produced approximately 50 thousand radio receivers yearly. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ...

Cathedral in Vilnius, seen in 1912
Cathedral in Vilnius, seen in 1912

In June 1941, the city was seized by Germany. Two ghettos were set up in the old town center for the large Jewish population - the smaller one of which was "liquidated" by October. The larger ghetto lasted until 1943, though its population was regularly decimated in what were known as "Aktionen". A failed ghetto uprising on September 1, 1943 organized by the Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje (the United Partisan Organization, the first Jewish partisan unit in Nazi-occupied Europe), was followed by the final destruction of the ghetto. About 95% of the 265,000-strong Jewish population of Lithuania was murdered by the German units and their local collaborators, many of them in Paneriai, about 10 km west of the old town centre. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x703, 90 KB) Cathedral in Vilna Taken by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii in 1912 File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x703, 90 KB) Cathedral in Vilna Taken by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii in 1912 File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius ... Cathedral of Vilnius Vilnius Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Vilnius Old Town: Ausros Vartu street The Old Town of Vilnius (Lithuanian: Senamiestis), one of the largest surviving medieval old towns in Eastern Europe, has an area of 3. ... Ghetto uprisings were armed revolts by Jews and other groups incarcerated in Nazi ghettos during World War II against the plans to deport the inhabitants to concentration and death camps. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje was an organization that took part in the Ghetto Battles in World War II. ... Paneriai (Polish: , German: ) is a suburb of Vilnius, situated about 10 kilometres away from the city centre. ...


In July 1944 Vilnius was retaken by the Soviet Army and the Home Army (see Wilno Uprising). The NKVD arrested the Polish soldiers. Vilnius was incorporated into the Soviet Union as the capital of the Lithuanian SSR shortly thereafter. Immediately after World War II, large numbers of Poles were expelled from Soviet-occupied Lithuania to Poland. Coupled with the migration of the Lithuanians into Vilnius, this development resulted in a change in the city's demographic fabric. For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... The Wilno Uprising (also known as Operation Ostra Brama) was the armed struggle started by the Polish Home Army against the Nazi occupiers of Wilno (now Vilnius), during World War II. It started on July 7, 1944 as a part of a plan of all-national uprising codenamed Operation Tempest... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... State motto: Lithuanian: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Vilnius Official language None. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

The new Vilnius City Center
The new Vilnius City Center

On March 11, 1990, the Supreme Council of the Lithuanian SSR announced its independence from the Soviet Union and restored the independent Republic of Lithuania. The Soviets responded on January 9, 1991, by sending in troops. On January 13 during the Soviet Army attack on the State Radio and Television Building and the Vilnius TV Tower, fourteen civilians were killed and more than 700 were seriously injured. The Soviet Union finally recognized Lithuanian independence in August 1991. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 604 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2124 × 2107 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 604 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2124 × 2107 pixel, file size: 1. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January Events (Lithuanian: Sausio įvykiai) is a series of events that occurred on January 11-13, 1991 in Vilnius, Lithuania. ... The Vilnius TV Tower (Lithuanian: Vilniaus televizijos bokštas) is a 326. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Since then, Vilnius has rapidly transformed in an attempt to erase its Soviet past and the town has emerged as a modern European city. Many of its older buildings have been renovated, and a business and commercial area is being developed into the New City Center, expected to become the city's main administrative and business district on the north side of Neris river. This area includes modern residential and retail space, with the municipality building and a 129-metre (423') Europa Tower as its most prominent building. While a number of modern business and retail centers have been built during recent years, many other projects are waiting to be implemented. Neris ( (help· info), Belarusian: ) is a river arising in Belarus, flowing through Vilnius (Lithuania) and becoming a tributary of the Neman River (Nemunas) at Kaunas (Lithuania). ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... Vilnius skyline dominated by Europa Tower (center). ...


In 2009 Vilnius, capital of Lithuania, will be the capital of European Culture. Among the initiatives promoted by Lithuania for this event, the historical centre of the city has been restored and its main monuments have been renewed.[5]


Geography and climate

Central Vilnius in winter.
Central Vilnius in winter.
Europa Tower- the tallest skyscraper in the Baltic States.
Europa Tower- the tallest skyscraper in the Baltic States.

Vilnius is situated in southeastern Lithuania (54°41′N, 25°17′E) at the confluence of the Vilnia and Neris Rivers. It is believed that Vilnius, like many other cities, was named after a crossing river, Vilnia. Vilnius main place by the winter. ... Vilnius main place by the winter. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x902, 236 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Skyscraper Europa Tower ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x902, 236 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Skyscraper Europa Tower ... Vilnius skyline dominated by Europa Tower (center). ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... Confluence of Rhine and Mosel at Koblenz In geography, a confluence describes the point where two rivers meet and become one, usually when a tributary joins a more major river. ... Vilnia (also VilnelÄ—, Belarusian: , Polish: ) is a river in Lithuania. ... Neris ( (help· info), Belarusian: ) is a river arising in Belarus, flowing through Vilnius (Lithuania) and becoming a tributary of the Neman River (Nemunas) at Kaunas (Lithuania). ...


Lying close to Vilnius is a site some claim to be the Geographical Centre of Europe. Geographical Centre of Europe, monument in Lithuania There is an ongoing debate as to where the Geographical Centre of Europe really is. ...


Vilnius' non-central location can be attributed to the changing shape of the nation's borders through the centuries; Vilnius was once not only culturally but also geographically at the center of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Żamojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ...


Vilnius lies 312 kilometres (194 mi) from the Baltic Sea and Klaipėda, the chief Lithuanian seaport. Vilnius is connected by highways to other major Lithuanian cities, such as Kaunas (102 km/63 mi away), Šiauliai (214 km/133 mi away) and Panevėžys (135 km/84 mi away). “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (Kulm) KlaipÄ—da ( (help... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s... Location Ethnographic region Samogitia County Å iauliai County Municipality Å iauliai city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 2 Coordinates General information Capital of Å iauliai County Å iauliai city municipality Å iauliai district municipality Population (rank) 129,075 in 2005 (4th) First mentioned 1236 Granted city rights 1589 Å iauliai ( (help· info), approximate English transcription: , is... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Panevėžys County Municipality Panevėžys city municipality Coordinates General Information Capital of Panevėžys County Panevėžys city municipality Panevėžys district municipality Panevėžys rural elderate Population 115,604 in 2005 (5th) First mentioned 1503 Granted city rights 1837 Panevėžys ( (help...


The current area of Vilnius is 402 square kilometres (155 sq mi). Buildings cover 20.2% of the city and in the remaining areas, greenery (43.9%) and waters (2.1%) prevail. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


The climate of Vilnius is transitional between continental and maritime. The average annual temperature is +6.1°C (43°F); in January the average temperature is −4.9°C (23°F), in July it is +17.0°C (62.6°F). The average precipitation is about 661 millimetres (26.0 in) per year. Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Summers can be hot, with temperatures above thirty degrees Celsius throughout the day. Nightlife in Vilnius is in full swing at this time of year, and outdoor bars and cafés become very popular during the daytime.


Winters can be very cold, with temperatures rarely reaching above freezing - temperatures below negative 25 degrees Celsius (-13°F) are not unheard-of in January and February. Vilnius's rivers freeze over in particularly cold winters, and the lakes surrounding the city are almost always permanently frozen during this time of year. A popular pastime is ice-fishing, whereby fishermen drill holes in the ice and fish with baited hooks.

Weather averages for Vilnius, Lithuania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) -3.5 (25.7) -1.7 (28.9) 3.3 (37.9) 10.7 (51.3) 18.2 (64.8) 21.1 (70) 22.1 (71.8) 21.6 (70.9) 16.4 (61.5) 10.2 (50.4) 3.5 (38.3) -0.5 (31.1) 10.1 (50.2)
Average low °C (°F) -8.7 (16.3) -7.6 (18.3) -3.8 (25.2) 1.6 (34.9) 7.5 (45.5) 10.8 (51.4) 12.3 (54.1) 11.5 (52.7) 7.7 (45.9) 3.4 (38.1) -0.9 (30.4) -5.2 (22.6) 3.4 (36.4)
Precipitation mm (inch) 41 (1.61) 38 (1.49) 39 (1.53) 46 (1.81) 62 (2.44) 77 (3.03) 78 (3.07) 72 (2.83) 65 (2.56) 53 (2.09) 57 (2.24) 55 (2.17) 683 (26.9)
Source: The World Meteorological Organization[6] Nov 2006

Demographics

According to the 2001 census by the Vilnius Regional Statistical Office, there were 542,287 inhabitants in the Vilnius city municipality, of which 57.8% were Lithuanians, 18.7% Poles, 14% Russians, 4.0% Belarusians, 1.3% Ukrainians and 0.5% Jews; the remainder indicated other nationalities or refused to answer. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Map Capital Vilnius Cities Vilnius (542287 people) Grigiškės (11448 people) Mayor Artūras Zuokas (Liberal and Center Union) Size 51st place 400,6 km² Population 1st place 553904 people; Population density 7th place 1382,7/km² Telephone code 5 Official website http://www. ...


Tourism

View over the Cathedral roof
View over the Cathedral roof

Vilnius is a cosmopolitan city with diverse architecture. There are more than 40 churches in Vilnius. Restaurants, hotels and museums have sprouted since Lithuania declared independence, and young Vilnius residents are building the city's reputation for being the most hospitable in the world, as evidenced by an active participation in the Hospitality Club. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1660 KB) Summary Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vilnius Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1660 KB) Summary Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vilnius Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... The multicultural national representation of the countries of origin at the student union of San Francisco City College. ... This article is about building architecture. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... For other uses, see Restaurant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ... The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... An unofficial Hospitality Club logo represents two people with arms over each others shoulders in friendship and waving for you to join them in the shape of the letters HC. It was designed in 2004 by Canadian Glenn Gobuyan in a style reminiscent of cave paintings to illustrate that...

Aušros Vartai Street. The icon of The Virgin Mary, Mother of Mercy is venerated in a chapel at the medieval gate at the top of this street.
Aušros Vartai Street. The icon of The Virgin Mary, Mother of Mercy is venerated in a chapel at the medieval gate at the top of this street.

Like most medieval towns, Vilnius was developed around its Town Hall. The main artery, Pilies Street, links the governor's palace and the Town Hall. Other streets meander through the palaces of feudal lords and landlords, churches, shops and craftsmen's workrooms. Narrow, curved streets and intimate courtyards developed in the radial layout of medieval Vilnius. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1916 KB) Summary en: Ausros Vartu street, Vilnius, Lithuania pl: Ulica Ostrobramska w Wilnie Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius Vilnius Old Town ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1916 KB) Summary en: Ausros Vartu street, Vilnius, Lithuania pl: Ulica Ostrobramska w Wilnie Author: Wojsyl, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius Vilnius Old Town ... Chapel devoted to Our Lady of Ostra Brama in the St. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Vilnius Town Hall Town Hall is a square in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. ... Pilies Street (literally, Castle Street; Lith. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... A court or courtyard is an enclosed area, often a space enclosed by a building that is open to the sky. ...


The Old Town, the historical centre of Vilnius, is one of the largest in Europe (3.6 km²). The most valuable historic and cultural sites are concentrated here. The buildings in the old town — there are nearly 1,500 — were built over several centuries, creating a splendid blend of many different architectural styles. Although Vilnius is known as a Baroque city, there are examples of Gothic (e.g. St Anne's Church), Renaissance, and other styles. The main sights of the city are Gediminas Castle and Cathedral Square, symbols of the capital. Their combination is also a gateway to the historic centre of the capital. Owing to its uniqueness, the Old Town of Vilnius was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994. In 1995, the first bronze cast of Frank Zappa in the world was installed near the center of Vilnius with the permission of the government. Vilnius Old Town: Ausros Vartu street The Old Town of Vilnius (Lithuanian: Senamiestis), one of the largest surviving medieval old towns in Eastern Europe, has an area of 3. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Interior of San Zanipolo, Venice, photo Giovanni dallOrto. ... Façade of Saint Annes Saint Annes church at night Rectangular elements St. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Gediminas Castle - a castle in Vilnius, capital of Lithuania. ... Cathedral Square is often the name of the square located in front of the main cathedral of a city. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... “Sculptor” redirects here. ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ...


Economy

Vilnius Financial Center

Vilnius is the major economic centre of Lithuania and one of the largest financial centres of the Baltic states. Even though it is home to only 15% of Lithuania's population, it generates approximately 35% of Lithuania's GDP [2]. Based on these indicators, its estimated GDP per capita, based on purchasing power parity, in 2005 is approximately $33,100, above the European Union average. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 328 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 369 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographed by Mantas Indrašius. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 328 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 369 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographed by Mantas Indrašius. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ...


Vilnius contributed over 4.6 billion litas to the national budget in 2004. That makes about 37% of the budget. Kaunas, the second largest city, contributed only 1.5 billion. Vilnius received a return of 360 million litas in the budget, which is only 7.7% of its contribution. This disparity caused some conflicts with the central government because of Vilnius' demand for a greater share of the funds it generated. The litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai or litų) is the official currency of Lithuania. ...


Religion

For ecclesiastical history, see Archdiocese of Vilnius
St. Nicholas, the oldest surviving church in Lithuania, built before 1387
St. Nicholas, the oldest surviving church in Lithuania, built before 1387

Vilnius is as multireligious as it is multicultural. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 1. ... St. ...


Vilnius is the Roman Catholic center of the country, with the main church institutions and Archdiocesan Cathedral located here. There are quite a number of active and open churches in the city, along with small enclosed monasteries and religion schools. Church architecture spans Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclassical styles, with important examples of each found in the Old Town. Vilnius is considered one of the main centers of the Polish Baroque movement in ecclesiastical architecture. Additionally, Eastern Rite Catholicism has been in Vilnius since the Union of Brest. The famous Basilian Gate is part of an Eastern Rite monastery. Interior of Cologne Cathedral Interior of San Zanipolo, Venice, photo Giovanni dallOrto. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... The neoclassical movement that produced Neoclassical architecture began in the mid-18th century, both as a reaction against the Rococo style of anti-tectonic naturalistic ornament, and an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. ... Vilnius Old Town: Ausros Vartu street The Old Town of Vilnius (Lithuanian: Senamiestis), one of the largest surviving medieval old towns in Eastern Europe, has an area of 3. ... Polish baroque flourished from the late 16th century to the middle of the 18th century and as with the baroque style elsewhere in Europe, was designed to show off splendor of the art. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Union of Brest (Belarusian: Берасьце́йская ву́нія) refers to the 1595-1596 decision of the (Ruthenian) Church of Rus, the Metropolia of Kiev-Halych and all Rus, to break relations with the Patriarch of Constantinople and place themselves under the (patriarch) Pope of Rome, in order to avoid the domination of the newly...


Also, Vilnius has been home to an Eastern Orthodox Christian presence since the thirteenth century. A famous Russian Orthodox monastery, named for the Holy Spirit, is located near the Gate of Dawn. St. Paraskeva's Orthodox Church in the Old Town is the site of the baptism of Hannibal, the great-grandfather of Pushkin, by Tsar Peter the Great in 1705. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... Anthony (Kukley), John (Milhey), and Eustathius (Eustathios, Eustace, Nizilon) are saints and martyrs (d. ... The gate seen from the old town side Gate of Dawn (Lithuanian: , Polish: , Belarusian: ) was built between 1503 and 1522 as a part of defensive fortifications for the city of Vilnius, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. ... Major-General Abram Petrovich Gannibal, also Hannibal or Ganibal, (1696 – 14 May[1]1781) was an African slave who was brought to Russia by Peter the Great and became major-general, military engineer and governor of Reval. ... Major-General Abram Petrovich Gannibal, also Hannibal or Ganibal, (1696 – 14 May[1]1781) was an African slave who was brought to Russia by Peter the Great and became major-general, military engineer and governor of Reval. ... Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ...


Many Old Believers, who split from the Russian Orthodox Church in 1667, settled in Lithuania in their flight from oppression. Today a Supreme Council of the Old Believers is based in Vilnius. In the context of Russian Orthodox church history, the Old Believers (Russian: ) separated after 1666 - 1667 from the hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church as a protest against church reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon. ...


A number of Protestant and other Christian groups are represented in Vilnius, most notably the Lutheran Evangelicals and the Baptists. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is...

The Choral Synagogue of Vilnius, the only synagogue in the city to survive the Holocaust.
The Choral Synagogue of Vilnius, the only synagogue in the city to survive the Holocaust.

Once widely known as Yerushalayim De Lita (translated as "Jerusalem of Lithuania"), Vilnius once was comparable only to Jerusalem, Israel, as a world center for the study of the Torah, and for its large Jewish population. That is why one part of Vilnius was named Jeruzalė. At the end of the 19th century, the number of synagogues in Vilnius exceeded one hundred.[7] A major scholar of Judaism and Kabbalah centered in Vilnius was the famous Rabbi Eliyahu Kremer, also known as the Vilna Gaon. His students have significant influence among Orthodox Jews in Israel and around the globe. This Jewish life in Vilnius was destroyed during the Holocaust of the Second World War. There is a memorial stone dedicated to victims of Nazi genocide located in the center of former Jewish Ghetto - now Mėsinių Street. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of God, traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The Vilna Ghetto or Vilnius Ghetto was the one of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in the city of Vilnius during the Holocaust in World War II. During roughly 2 years of its existence, starvation, disease, street executions, maltreatment and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps reduced...


The Karaim are a Jewish sect who migrated to Lithuania from the Crimea to serve as a military elite unit in the thirteenth century. Although their numbers are very small, the Karaim are experiencing a renaissance in Vilnius since Lithuanian independence, and have restored their kenesa (synagogue). Karaim, from the Hebrew word קראים, meaning readers, refers in the literal sense generally to practitioners of the Karaite sect of Judaism. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ...


Islam came to Lithuania in the 14th century from Crimea and Kazan, through the Tatars. Some Tatars of Lithuania have maintained their ethnic identity as well as their religion. Currently, about 3,000 Tatar Muslims live in Lithuania. The Lukiškės mosque of the Lithuanian Tatars was a prominent 19th century feature of suburban Vilnius, but was destroyed during the Soviet era. In Lithuania, unlike many other northern and western European countries, Islam came long ago. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... This article is about the people. ... LukiÅ¡kÄ—s suburb, 1860 LukiÅ¡kÄ—s Square (Lithuanian: ) (also Łukiszki, Lukiski, Lukishki) is the largest square in Vilnius, Lithuania, located in the Naujamiestis elderate. ...


The pre-Christian pagan religion of Lithuania, centered around the forces of nature as personified by deities such as Perkūnas (the Thunder God), is experiencing some increased interest, especially among people seeking to identify with Lithuania's ancient cultural and spiritual heritage. Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... Lithuanian PerkÅ«nas, Latvian PÄ“rkons, Prussian Percuns was the common Baltic god of thunder, one of the most important deities in the Baltic pantheon. ...


Transport

Solaris Trollino 15AC trolleybus in Vilnius
Solaris Trollino 15AC trolleybus in Vilnius

Vilnius is the starting point of the Vilnius-Kaunas-Klaipėda motorway that runs across Lithuania and connects the three major cities. The Vilnius-Panevėžys motorway is a branch of Via-Baltica. Though the river Neris may be navigable, no regular water routes exist. Vilnius International Airport serves most Lithuanian international flights to many major European destinations. The Vilnius railway station is an important hub as well. Image File history File links Vilnius_solaris. ... Image File history File links Vilnius_solaris. ... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (Kulm) KlaipÄ—da ( (help... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Panevėžys County Municipality Panevėžys city municipality Coordinates General Information Capital of Panevėžys County Panevėžys city municipality Panevėžys district municipality Panevėžys rural elderate Population 115,604 in 2005 (5th) First mentioned 1503 Granted city rights 1837 Panevėžys ( (help... European route E67, also known as the Via Baltica, is a highway running from Prague in the Czech Republic to Helsinki in Finland by way of Poland, Kaunas (Lithuania), Riga (Latvia), and Tallinn (Estonia). ... Neris ( (help· info), Belarusian: ) is a river arising in Belarus, flowing through Vilnius (Lithuania) and becoming a tributary of the Neman River (Nemunas) at Kaunas (Lithuania). ... Vilnius International Airport (IATA: VNO, ICAO: EYVI) (Lithuanian: Tarptautinis Vilniaus Oro Uostas) is the largest civil airport in Lithuania. ...


Vilnius has a well-developed public transportation system. There are over 60 bus and 19 trolleybus routes, the trolleybus network is one of the biggest in Europe. Over 250 buses and 260 trolleybuses transport about 500,000 passengers every workday. Students, elderly, and the disabled receive large discounts (up to 80%) on the tickets. A single ride ticket costs up to 1.40 litas (0,41 EUR) while monthly tickets cost 50-60 litas (14,50-17,40 EUR). The first regular bus routes were established in 1926, and the first trolleybus was launched in 1956. Bangkok Skytrain. ... A Polish Solaris trolleybus in Landskrona, Sweden. ... The litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai or litų) is the official currency of Lithuania. ...

A sample Vilnius Transport nominal monthly ticket
A sample Vilnius Transport nominal monthly ticket

The public transportation system is dominated by the brand new low-floor Volvo and Mercedes-Benz buses as well as Solaris trolleybuses. The new Solaris vehicles (built in Poland) are 15m long three-axle vehicles, and their extreme length is commented on by a cartoon on the front of a long dachshund dog (called "Zemagrindis" in Lithuanian and so labelled. There are also plenty of the traditional Skoda vehicles built in Czech Republic still in service, and many of these have been extensively refurbished internally. All is a result of major improvements that started in 2003 when the first brand-new Mercedes-Benz buses were bought. In 2004, a contract was signed with Volvo Buses to buy 90 brand-new 7700 buses over the next 3 years. Along with the official public transportation, there are also a number of private bus companies. They charge about the same as the municipal buses and sometimes follow the same routes. There are also a number of different routes, for example from various neighborhoods to the Gariūnai market. In addition there are about 400 share taxis that are usually faster but less comfortable and more expensive (3litas - 0.87 EUR) than regular buses. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (944x656, 124 KB) Summary A scan of a Vilnius Transport nominal monthly ticket by Poul818. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (944x656, 124 KB) Summary A scan of a Vilnius Transport nominal monthly ticket by Poul818. ... Volvo Buses is a subsidiary and a business area of Volvo which became an independent division in 1968. ... A SBS Transit Mercedes Benz O405 in Singapore. ... Solaris Urbino 12 Solaris Bus & Coach is a bus, coach and trolleybus manufacturer based in Bolechowo, a PoznaÅ„, Poland uptown. ... Volvo Buses is a subsidiary and a business area of Volvo which became an independent division in 1968. ... A share taxi is a mode of transport that falls between private transport and conventional bus transport, with a fixed route, but the convenience of stopping anywhere to pick or drop passengers, etc. ... The litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai or litų) is the official currency of Lithuania. ...


Services out into the country are more traditional of Eastern Europe nowadays, often using secondhand coaches bought from Western Europe (many are from France) which are still operated with their formers owners paint scheme and names written on the side. Most smaller towns outside Vilnius have a large but spartan bus station dating back to Soviet times, but which nowadays is no longer the busy hub it used to be. Virtually no vehicles remain on the road in Lithuania from Soviet times (apart from the Skoda trolleybuses), but a few such diesel buses operating through from Belarus can be seen in Vilnius.


There are plans to build a light rail system, construction due to begin in 2008. The first line should be opened in 2009, followed by the construction of the second line. Light rail will connect the residential districts with city centre, bus and train stations and Vilnius International Airport. This article is about light rail systems in general. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Vilnius International Airport (IATA: VNO, ICAO: EYVI) (Lithuanian: Tarptautinis Vilniaus Oro Uostas) is the largest civil airport in Lithuania. ...

Sister cities

Vilnius has 14 sister cities. In addition, agreements on cooperation have been signed with 16 other cities. Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Akhisar (pronounced: ah-kee-sahr; or Tepe Mezarligi) is a district and a town center of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... View of Aalborg railroad station from J.F. Kennedys Square, 2004 Aalborg (help· info) is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in North Jutland County on the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Duisburg is a German city and port in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The cathedral Mariendom at night. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Joensuu City Hall Joensuu is a city in eastern Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Location of Madison in Dane County, Wisconsin Coordinates: , Municipality City Incorporated 1848 Government  - Mayor Dave Cieslewicz Area  - City 219. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ...   (Austro-Bavarian: SÃ¥izburg) is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Region City seat Xinyi District (信義區) Government  - Mayor Hau Lung-bin (KMT)1 E9 Area  - City 271. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ...

Subdivisions

Map of Vilnius elderates. Numbers on the map correspond with numbers in the list
Map of Vilnius elderates. Numbers on the map correspond with numbers in the list

The city of Vilnius is made up of 21 elderates that are based on neighbourhoods: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1134x1134, 264 KB) Other versions Blank map is here: Image:Vilniaus visi. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1134x1134, 264 KB) Other versions Blank map is here: Image:Vilniaus visi. ... Seniūnija (elderate or eldership in English) is the smallest administrative division of Lithuania. ...

  1. Verkiai — includes Baltupiai, Jeruzalė, Santariškės, Balsiai, Visoriai
  2. Antakalnis — includes Valakupiai, Turniškės, Dvarčionys
  3. Pašilaičiai — includes Tarandė
  4. Fabijoniškės — includes Bajorai
  5. Pilaitė
  6. Justiniškės
  7. Viršuliškės
  8. Šeškinė
  9. Šnipiškės
  10. Žirmūnai — includes Šiaurės miestelis
  11. Karoliniškės
  12. Žvėrynas
  13. Grigiškės — a separate town included in the Vilnius city municipality
  14. Lazdynai
  15. Vilkpėdė — includes Vingis park
  16. Naujamiestis — includes bus and train stations
  17. Senamiestis (Old Town) — includes Užupis
  18. Naujoji Vilnia — includes Pavilnys, Pūčkoriai
  19. Paneriai — includes Trakų Vokė, Gariūnai
  20. Naujininkai — includes Kirtimai, Salininkai, Vilnius International Airport
  21. Rasos — includes Belmontas, Markučiai

Holy Trinity Church in Verkiai elderate, overlooking Neris River Verkiai (Polish: ) is a name of an elderate in Vilnius, Lithuania and also the name of a settlement, historically situated north of Vilnius but today a part of Vilnius city municipality and a capital of Verkiai elderate. ... St Peter and St Pauls Church against Antakalnis hills Antakalnis elderate in Vilnius Antakalnis is an elderate in the Vilnius city municipality. ... FabijoniÅ¡kÄ—s, located in the northern part of Vilnius, is one of the newest districts of Vilnius municipality, built in the late 1980s to early 1990s. ... View of JustiniÅ¡kÄ—s JustiniÅ¡kÄ—s, located in western edge of Vilnius, is one of the newest districts in the capital of Lithuania. ... Å eÅ¡kinÄ— is a fairly new suburb located in the north of Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. ... Å nipiÅ¡kÄ—s - Vilnius downtown Å nipiÅ¡kÄ—s (Polish: , Yiddish, Schnipishok) is an inner suburb of Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. ... ŽirmÅ«nai is an elderate in Vilnius, Lithuania, encompassing a microdistrict built in the 1960s. ... KaroliniÅ¡kÄ—s is a microdistrict and elderate of Vilnius, Lithuania. ... ŽvÄ—rynas (from word žvÄ—rys meaning beasts) is one of the older neighborhoods in Vilnius, Lithuania. ... Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius municipality Elderate ElektrÄ—nai elderate Coordinates Capital of GrigiÅ¡kÄ—s elderate Population 11,566 in 2005 (34th)} First mentioned  ???? Granted city rights 1958 GrigiÅ¡kÄ—s ( (help· info) is a town in the Vilnius city municipality, Lithuania. ... Map Capital Vilnius Cities Vilnius (542287 people) GrigiÅ¡kÄ—s (11448 people) Mayor ArtÅ«ras Zuokas (Liberal and Center Union) Size 51st place 400,6 km² Population 1st place 553904 people; Population density 7th place 1382,7/km² Telephone code 5 Official website http://www. ... Vilnius Old Town: Ausros Vartu street The Old Town of Vilnius (Lithuanian: Senamiestis), one of the largest surviving medieval old towns in Eastern Europe, has an area of 3. ... Užupis is a district of Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania located just east of the Old Town. ... Naujoji Vilnia in autumn Naujoji Vilnia highlighted on Vilnius map Naujoji Vilnia (Polish: ) is a neighborhood in eastern Vilnius, Lithuania situated along the banks of the Vilnia River. ... Paneriai (Polish: , German: ) is a suburb of Vilnius, situated about 10 kilometres away from the city centre. ... Old Believers cemetery and chapel Naujininkai is one of the Vilnius neighbourhoods hat is situated in the south-west of the city and lays between airport and the railway station. ... Vilnius International Airport (IATA: VNO, ICAO: EYVI) (Lithuanian: Tarptautinis Vilniaus Oro Uostas) is the largest civil airport in Lithuania. ...

Trivia

  • Vilnius is one of the locations featured in the video game Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon (photographs comparing the game's locations with their real-life counterparts can be found here). However, although some of the architecture is relatively well-represented, it has to be said that most of the map is fictional and it does not feel like a particularly accurate representation of the city of Vilnius.
  • The rural town of Wilno, Ontario, Canada was named after the Polish name for Vilnius in the 1860s. The village of Vilna, Alberta was also named for Vilnius.
  • Vilnius is the birthplace of the fictional character Marko Ramius in Tom Clancy's novel The Hunt for Red October. Fictional character Jack Ryan calls Ramius "The Vilnius Schoolmaster" because Ramius trained nearly all the Russian submarine commanders.
  • The short-lived TV series The New Adventures of Robin Hood was filmed in Vilnius.
  • Vilnius was featured in the Flemish show Matroesjka's on a women traficant (played by Peter Van Den Begin) selecting girls for their dancing skills with the intention of making them work in prostitution in an Antwerp strip club/brothel. The name of the show was chosen after the Matryoshka dolls originating from Russia. Due to the great success of the show it broadcasted in various other countries and Amnesty International introduced parts of the show at schools in eastern Europe to warn girls for these malpractices.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... For the series, see Ghost Recon. ... The village of Wilno, Ontario in Renfrew County, Ontario, is the oldest Polish settlement in Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... -1... Harper Collins 1993 paperback edition The Hunt for Red October, Tom Clancys first novel, was published in 1984. ... Thomas Leo Clancy Jr. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... The New Adventures of Robin Hood was a 1997-1999 live action TV series on Turner Network Television. ...

See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cathedral and its bell tower The Cathedral Square in Vilnius is the main square of the citys downtown, right in front of the neo-classical Vilnius Cathedral. ... Coat of arms of Vilnius is the coat of arms of the city of Vilnius, Lithuania. ... Gediminas Castle - a castle in Vilnius, capital of Lithuania. ... Elektrit Radiotechnical Society (Polish Towarzystwo radiotechniczne „Elektrit”) was the biggest private-run company in Wilno before World War II. With over 1100 workers, the society produced approximately 50 thousand radio receivers yearly. ... Kaziuko mugÄ— (English: , Polish: ) - is a biggest annual Lithuanian folk crafts fair dating back to the beginning of the 17th century, then held at the two main market places of Vilnius, Lithuania, as well as in the city streets. ... Pilies Street (literally, Castle Street; Lith. ... Cathedral of Vilnius Vilnius Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania. ... The Grand Courtyard of Vilnius University and the Church of St. ... The following is a List of notable people from the city of Vilnius/Vilna/Wilno. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... The Vilna Ghetto or Vilnius Ghetto was the one of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in the city of Vilnius during the Holocaust in World War II. During roughly 2 years of its existence, starvation, disease, street executions, maltreatment and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps reduced... The Wilno Uprising (also known as Operation Ostra Brama) was the armed struggle started by the Polish Home Army against the Nazi occupiers of Wilno (now Vilnius), during World War II. It started on July 7, 1944 as a part of a plan of all-national uprising codenamed Operation Tempest...

Footnotes and references

  1. ^ Number of population by county, city (town) and municipality |Statistics Lithuania © Department of Statistics to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania (Statistics Lithuania). Accessed May 2, 2006.
  2. ^ (English) Vilnius legend
  3. ^ Egidijus Aleksandravičius, Antanas Kulakauskas; Carų valdžioje: Lietuva XIX amžiuje ("Lithuania under the reign of Czars in 19th century"); Baltos lankos, Vilnius 1996. Polish translation: Pod władzą carów: Litwa w XIX wieku, Universitas, Kraków 2003, page 90, ISBN 83-7052-543-1
  4. ^ "A 1909 official count of the city found 205,250 inhabitants, of whom 1,2 percent were Lithuanian, 20,7 percent Russian, 37,8 percent Polish, and 36,8 percent Jewish. - Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations. Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus 1569-1999. Yale University Press 2003, p. 306.
  5. ^ O. Niglio, Restauri in Lituania. Vilnius Capitale della Cultura Europea 2009,PDF (810 KiB) in "Web Journal on Cultural Patrimony", 1, 2006
  6. ^ (English) Weather Information for Vilnius. Retrieved on Dec 12, 2006.
  7. ^ The Great Synagogue of Vilnius The Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum

May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Timothy Snyder is an American historian from Yale University specializing in history of modern nationalism and history of East Europe. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

External links

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