FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Villa Romana del Casale
Villa Romana del Casale*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party Flag of Italy Italy
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii
Reference 832
Region Europe and North America
Inscription History
Inscription 1997  (21st Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Villa Romana del Casale is located about 5km outside the town of Piazza Armerina. It is the richest, largest and most complex collection of late Roman mosaics in the world. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Piazza Armerina is an Italian comune in the province of Enna of the autonomous island region of Sicily. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Plan
Plan
Famous "bikini girls" mosaic showing women exercising
Famous "bikini girls" mosaic showing women exercising
"bikini girl" mosaic

The Villa was constructed on the remains of an older villa in the first quarter of the fourth century A.D., probably as the center of a huge latifundium covering the entire surrounding area. How long the villa kept this role is not known, maybe for less that 150 years, but the complex remained inhabited and a village grew around it, named Platia, derived from palatium. It was damaged, maybe destroyed during the domination of the Vandals and the Visigoths, but the buildings remained in use, at least in part, during the Byzantine and Arab period. The site was finally abandoned for good when a landslide covered the villa in the 12th century CE, and remaining inhabitants moved to the current location of Piazza Armerina. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 561 pixel Image in higher resolution (1182 × 829 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Villa Romana del Casale Other versions Author Bernhard J. Scheuvens aka Bjs Date November 2006 Permission own drawing Software Generated with AutoCad Lt97... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 561 pixel Image in higher resolution (1182 × 829 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Villa Romana del Casale Other versions Author Bernhard J. Scheuvens aka Bjs Date November 2006 Permission own drawing Software Generated with AutoCad Lt97... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 4744 KB) Summary Famous bikini girls mosaic (found by archeological excavation of the ancient Roman villa near Piazza Armerina in Sicily), showing women exercising, running, or receiving the palm of victory and crown (for winning an athletic competition). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 4744 KB) Summary Famous bikini girls mosaic (found by archeological excavation of the ancient Roman villa near Piazza Armerina in Sicily), showing women exercising, running, or receiving the palm of victory and crown (for winning an athletic competition). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 473 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1262 × 1600 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 473 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1262 × 1600 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Albertian Villa Medici in Fiesole: terraced grounds on a sloping site. ... The latifundia [Latin lātifundium: lātus, spacious + fundus, farm, estate] of Roman history were great landed estates, specialising in agriculture destined for export: grain, olive oil or wine. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Piazza Armerina is an Italian comune in the province of Enna of the autonomous island region of Sicily. ...


The existence of the villa was almost entirely forgotten (some of the tallest parts have always been above ground) and the area used for cultivation. Pieces of mosaics and some columns were found early in the 19th century, and some excavations were carried out later in that century, but the first serious excavations were performed by Paolo Orsi in 1929, and later by Giuseppe Cultrera in 1935-39. The latest major excavations were in the period 1950-60 by Gino Vinicio Gentili after which the current cover was build. A few very localized excavations have been performed in the 1970s by Andrea Carandini.


In late antiquity most of the Sicilian hinterland was partitioned into huge agricultural estates called "latifundia" (sing. "latifundium"). The size of the villa and the amount and quality of its artwork indicate that it was the center of such a latifundium, whose owner was probably a member of senatorial class if not of the imperial family itself, i.e., the absolute upper class of the Roman Empire. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ...


The villa evidently served several purposes. It contained some rooms that were clearly residential, others that certainly had official purposes, and a number of rooms of as yet unknown intended use, though they were definitely not built for commercial or production reasons. The villa would probably have been the permanent or semi-permanent residence of the owner; it would have been where the owner, in his role as patron, received his local clients; and it would have functioned as the administrative center of the latifundium.


Currently, only the manorial portions of the complex have been excavated. The ancillary structures - housing for the slaves, workshops, stables, etc. have not yet been located.


The villa was a single-story building, centered on the peristyle, around which almost all the main public and private rooms were organized. Entrance to the peristyle is via the atrium from the West, with the thermal baths to the Northwest; service rooms and probably guest rooms to the North; private apartments and a huge basilica to the East; and rooms of unknown purpose to the South. Somewhat detached, almost as an afterthought, is the separate area to the South. containing the elliptical peristyle, service rooms, and a huge triclinium. In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ... In Roman Era dwellings (particularly those of the wealthy), triclinia were standard issue. ...


The Latifundium and the Villa

Thermal baths heating system
Thermal baths heating system

The overall plan of the villa was dictated by several factors: older constructions on the site, the slight slope on which it is built, and the passage of the sun and the prevailing winds. The higher ground to the east is occupied by the Great Basilica, the private apartments, and the Corridor of the Great Hunt, the middle ground by the Peristyle, guest rooms, the entrance area, the Elliptical Peristyle, and the triclinium, while the lower ground to the west is dedicated to the thermal baths. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... St. ... In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ...


The whole complex is somewhat unusual, as it is organized along three major axes. The primary axis is the (slightly bent) line that passes from the atrium, tablinum, peristyle and the great basilica (coinciding with the path visitors would follow), while the thermal baths and the elliptical peristyle with the triclinium are centered on separate axes. In spite of the different orientations of the various parts of the villa they all form a single structure, built simultaneously. There is no indication that the villa was constructed in several stages. In Roman Era dwellings (particularly those of the wealthy), triclinia were standard issue. ...


Little is known about the earlier villa, but it appears to have been just a large country residence, probably built around the beginning of the second century. ( 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors ( 96– 180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ...


Bibliography

  • Petra C. Baum-vom Felde, Die geometrischen Mosaiken der Villa bei Piazza Armerina, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-8300-0940-2
  • Brigit Carnabuci: Sizilien – Kunstreiseführer, DuMont Buchverlag, Köln 1998, ISBN 3-7701-4385-X.
  • Luciano Catullo and Gail Mitchell 2000. The Ancient Roman Villa of Casale at Piazza Armerina: Past and Present
  • R. J. A. Wilson: Piazza Armerina, Granada Verlag: London 1983, ISBN 0-246-11396-0.
  • A. Carandini - A. Ricci - M. de Vos, Filosofiana, The villa of Piazza Armerina. The image of a Roman aristocrat at the time of Constantine, Palermo 1982.
  • S. Settis, "Per l'interpretazione di Piazza Armerina", in Mélanges de l'Ecole Française de Rome. Antiquité 87, 1975, 2, pp. 873-994.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Villa Romana del Casale
  • (Italian) official web site
  • (English) official web site


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Coordinates: 37°21′53″N, 14°20′05″E Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman villa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1254 words)
Other villas in the hinterland of Rome are interepreted in light of the agrarian treatises written by the elder Cato, Columella and Varro, both of whom sought to define the suitable lifestyle of conservative Romans, at least in idealistic terms.
A villa might be quite palatial, such as the imperial villas built on seaside slopes around the Bay of Naples such as at Baiae; others were preserved at Stabiae and Herculaneum by the ashfall from Vesuvius in 79 A.D., which also preserved the Villa of the Papyri and its libraries.
Villa Romana del Casale in Piazza Armerina, Sicily, Italy.
Benvenuti nel portale dell'Azienda Provinciale Turismo Enna (471 words)
The villa, rising on an area of more then 3500 square metres, was probably the hunting residence of the Emperor Massimiliano, named Herculeos Victor; or the residence of an important roman patrician, maybe Valerio Proculo Populonio.
The polygonal courtyard that is the entrance to the Villa act as a Hinge between the zones in which it is subdivided.
The Villa is easy to reach through the motorway Palermo-Catania, leaving the motorway at the Enna or Mulinello Junction and continuing towards the city of Piazza Armerina; it is even possible to use the railway links Palermo-Catania.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m