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Encyclopedia > Villa
The Albertian Villa Medici in Fiesole: terraced grounds on a sloping site.
The Albertian Villa Medici in Fiesole: terraced grounds on a sloping site.
For other uses, see Villa (disambiguation)

A villa was originally an upper-class country house, though since its origins in Roman times the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably. After the fall of the Republic, a villa became a small, fortified farming compound, gradually re-evolving through the Middle Ages into luxurious, upper-class country homes. In modern parlance it can refer to a specific type of detached suburban dwelling. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 412 KB)Donata Mazzini File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 412 KB)Donata Mazzini File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Leone Battista Alberti (February 1404 - 25th April 1472), Italian painter, poet, linguist, philosopher, cryptographer, musician, architect, and general Renaissance polymath . ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Villa can refer to: Villa, a house Pancho Villa Pancho Villa, a pseudonym of Francisco Guilledo Aston Villa F.C., a English Football team Aston Villa (band), a French band David Villa, Spanish footballer Javier Villa Marco Villa Category: ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...



Main article Roman villa.

A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper classes. According to Pliny the Elder, there were several kinds of villas, the villa urbana, which was a country seat that could easily be reached from Rome (or another city) for a night or two, and the villa rustica, the farm-house estate, permanently occupied by the servants who had charge generally of the estate, which would centre on the villa itself, perhaps only seasonally occupied. There was the domus, a city house for the middle class, and insulae, lower class apartment buildings. (Read Ecce Romani, Vol.2) There were a concentration of Imperial villas near the Bay of Naples, especially on the Isle of Capri, at Monte Circeo on the coast and at Antium (Anzio). Wealthy Romans escaped the summer heat in the hills round Rome, especially around Tibur (Tivoli) and Frascati (cf Hadrian's Villa). Cicero is said to have possessed no fewer than seven villas, the oldest of which was near Arpinum, which he inherited. Pliny the Younger had three or four, of which the example near Laurentium is the best known from his descriptions. The Roman Empire contained many kinds of villas. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Capri (Italian pronunciation Cápri, usual English pronunciation Caprí) is an Italian island off the Sorrentine Peninsula. ... Circeius Mons (mod. ... // Anzio is a city and resort on the coast of the Lazio region of Italy, about 33 miles south of Rome. ... Tivoli usually refers to: Tivoli, Italy, an ancient Roman (now Italian) town, the first bearer of the name Tivoli Tivoli Systems, Inc. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The villas recreation of Canopus, a resort near Alexandria, as seen from the temple of Serapis Theatrical masks of Tragedy and Comedy in refined mosaic, from the villa (Capitoline Museum, Rome) The Villa of the Emperor Hadrian at Tivoli, Italy, even in ruined condition is one of the most... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in American English or in British English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ...

Like [Bali villas]http://www.kasihbalivacation.com], it means that traditional private luxury houses which is rental purposes and designated with a a special technique's which is called "Asta Kosala Kosali" or Balinese Feng Shui.

Roman writers refer with satisfaction to the self-sufficiency of their villas, where they drank their own wine and pressed their own oil, a symptom of the increasing economic fragmentation of the Roman empire. When complete working villas were donated to the Christian church, they served as the basis for monasteries that survived the disruptions of the Gothic War and the Lombards. An outstanding example of such a villa-turned-monastery was Monte Cassino. Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ostrogoths Franks Visigoths Commanders Belisarius Narses Mundalias Germanus Justinus Liberius Theodoric the Great Witigis Totila The Gothic War, was a war fought in Italy in 535-552. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... The restored Abbey. ...

Numerous Roman villas have been meticulously examined in England. Like their Italian counterparts, they were complete working agrarian societies of fields and vineyards, perhaps even tileworks or quarries, ranged round a high-status power center with its baths and gardens. The grand villa at Woodchester preserved its mosaic floors when the Anglo-Saxon parish church was built (not by chance) upon its site. Burials in the churchyard as late as the 18th century had to be punched through the intact mosaic floors. The even more palatial villa rustica at Fishbourne near Winchester was built uncharacteristically as a large open rectangle with porticos enclosing gardens that was entered through a portico. Towards the end of the 3rd century, Roman towns in Britain ceased to expand: like patricians near the centre of the empire, Roman Britons withdrew from the cities to their villas, which entered on a palatial building phase, a "golden age" of villa life. Villae rusticae are essential in the Empire's economy. The Roman Empire contained many kinds of villas. ... Woodchester is a Gloucestershire village in the Woodchester Valley, a valley in the South Cotswolds in England, running southwards from Stroud along the A46 road to Nailsworth. ... Mosaics at Fishbourne Roman Palace Fishbourne Roman Palace, in the village of Fishbourne in West Sussex, is one of the most important archaeological sites in England. ...

Two kinds of villa plan in Roman Britain may be characteristic of Roman villas in general. The more usual plan extended wings of rooms all opening onto a linking portico, which might be extended at right angles, even to enclose a courtyard. The other kind featured an aisled central hall like a basilica, suggesting the villa owner's magisterial role. The villa buildings were often independent structures linked by their enclosed courtyards. Timber-framed construction, carefully fitted with mortices and tenons and dowelled together, set on stone footings, were the rule, replaced by stone buildings for the important ceremonial rooms. Traces of window glass have been found as well as ironwork window grilles. St. ...


As the Roman Empire collapsed in the fourth and fifth centuries, the villas were more and more isolated and came to be protected by walls. Though in England the villas were abandoned, looted, and burned by Anglo-Saxon invaders in the fifth century, other areas had large working villas donated by aristocrats and territorial magnates to individual monks that often became the nucleus of famous monasteries. In this way, the villa system of late Antiquity was preserved into the early Medieval period. Saint Benedict established his influential monastery of Monte Cassino in the ruins of a villa at Subiaco that had belonged to Nero; there are fuller details at the entry for Benedict. Around 590, Saint Eligius was born in a highly-placed Gallo-Roman family at the 'villa' of Chaptelat near Limoges, in Aquitaine (now France). The abbey at Stavelot was founded ca 650 on the domain of a former villa near Liège and the abbey of Vézelay had a similar founding. As late as 698, Willibrord established an abbey at a Roman villa of Echternach, in Luxemburg near Trier, which was presented to him by Irmina, daughter of Dagobert II, king of the Franks. Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Frankish ruler Charlemagne was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in 800 in Rome. ... The restored Abbey. ... Subiaco is a city in the Province of Rome, in Lazio, Italy, twenty-five miles from Tivoli alongside the river Aniene. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Stavelot is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Vézelay is a commune in the Yonne département in the Bourgogne région of France. ... District Grevenmacher Canton Echternach LAU 2 LU00006005 Geography Area Area rank 20. ...


In post-Roman times a villa referred to a self-sufficient, usually fortified Italian or Gallo-Roman farmstead. It was economically as self-sufficient as a village and its inhabitants, who might be legally tied to it as serfs were villeins. The Merovingian Franks inherited the concept, but the later French term was basti or bastide. This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... A villein is, in the feudal system, a member of the class of serfs tied to the land, distinguished from those in actual slavery, but restricted by law from exercising the rights of a free man. ...

Villa (or its cognates) is part of many Spanish placenames, like Vila Real and Villadiego: a villa is a town with a charter (fuero) of lesser importance than a ciudad ("city"). When it is associated with a personal name, villa was probably used in the original sense of a country estate rather than a chartered town. Later evolution has made the Hispanic distinction between villas and ciudades a purely honorific one. Madrid is the Villa y Corte, the villa considered to be separate from the formerly mobile royal court, but the much smaller Ciudad Real was declared ciudad by the Spanish crown. Vila-real (also known as Villarreal): city in the province of Castellon, Valencian Community region, Spain. ... Country Autonomous community Province Burgos Municipality Villadiego Area  - City 328 km²  (126. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Fuero (Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and concept. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ... Ciudad Real (Spanish for: Royal City) is a city in Castile-La Mancha, Spain. ...


In 14th and 15th century Italy, a 'villa' once more connoted a country house, sometimes the family seat of power like Villa Caprarola, more often designed for seasonal pleasure, usually located within easy distance of a city. The first examples of Renaissance villa dates back to the age of Lorenzo de' Medici, and they are mostly located in the Italian region of Tuscany (the "Medici villas") such as the Villa di Poggio a Caiano by Giuliano da Sangallo (begun in 1470) or the Villa Medici in Fiesole (since 1450), probably the first villa created under the instructions of Leon Battista Alberti, who theorized in his De re aedificatoria the features of the new idea of villa. The gardens are from that period considered as a fundamental link between the residential building and the country outside. From Tuscany the idea of villa was spread again through Italy and Europe. The Villa Farnese at Caprarola is sometimes incorrectly known as the Villa Caprarola. ... A portrait of Lorenzo de Medici by Girolamo Macchietti. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Portrait by Piero di Cosimo, c. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... Leone Battista Alberti (February 1404 - 25th April 1472), Italian painter, poet, linguist, philosopher, cryptographer, musician, architect, and general Renaissance polymath . ... De re aedificatoria: On the Art of Building in Ten Books, is a classic architectural treatise written by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Rome had more than its share of villas with easy reach of the small sixteenth-century city: the progenitor, the first villa suburbana built since Antiquity, was the Belvedere or palazzetto, designed by Antonio Pollaiuolo and built on the slope above the Vatican Palace. The Villa Madama, the design of which, attributed to Raphael and carried out by Giulio Romano in 1520, was one of the most influential private houses ever built; elements derived from Villa Madama appeared in villas through the 19th century. Villa Albani was built near the Porta Salaria. Other are the Villa Borghese; the Villa Doria Pamphili (1650); the Villa Giulia of Pope Julius III (1550), designed by Vignola. The Roman Empire contained many kinds of villas. ... Belvedere (occasionally Belvidere) is an architectural term adopted from the Italian (literally fair view), which refers to any architectural structure sited to take advantage of such a view. ... Apollo and Daphne by Antonio Pollaiuolo Antonio di Jacopo Pollaiuolo (c. ... The Palace of the Vatican, also called the Papal Palace or the Apostolic Palace, is the official residence of the Pope in the Vatican City. ... Even uncompleted, the Villa Madama, in Rome, Italy, with its loggia and segmental columned garden court and its casino with an open center, was one of the most famous and imitated villas and terraced gardens of the High Renaissance. ... Fire in the Borgo, Vatican fresco Giulio Romano (ca 1499? – November 1, 1546) was an Italian painter, architect, and decorator. ... Alessandro Albani (Urbino October 15, 1692–Rome December 11, 1779), of the distinguished family of Urbino that was descended from refugees from Albania when it fell to the Ottoman Turks in the 15th century, was a collector and patron of the arts, who built Villa Albani, 1760, to house his... Villa Borghese: the 19th century Temple of Aesculapius built purely as a landscape feature, influenced by the lake at Stourhead, Wiltshire, England. ... Villa Doria Pamphili, on the Gianicolo, the Roman Janiculum, is the largest (180 hectares) public landscaped park of Rome, bought in 1965–1971 by the City of Rome from the Doria-Pamphilj family—the family favor the orthography of the long i. ... Sarcofago degli Sposi : the sarcophagus of the married couple The Villa Giulia is a magnificent villa built by Pope Julius II on the edge of the city of Rome, 1550–1555. ... Pope Julius III (September 10, 1487 – March 23, 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was Pope from February 22, 1550 to 1555. ... The five orders, engraving from Vignolas Regole delle cinque ordini darchitettura set the standards Giacomo (or Jacopo) Barozzi da Vignola (Vignola, near Modena, October 1, 1507 - July 7, 1573) was one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism, also known as Vignola. ...

However, many among the most beautiful Roman villas, like Villa Ludovisi and Villa Montalto, were destroyed during the late nineteenth century in the wake of the real estate bubble that took place in Rome after the seat of government of a united Italy was established at Rome. The Villa Ludovisi was one of the most beautiful villas of the papal Rome. ... The Economist magazine cover (16 June 2005) for the article After the fall: Soaring house prices have given a huge boost to the world economy. ...

The cool hills of Frascati gained the Villa Aldobrandini (1592); the Villa Falconieri and the Villa Mondragone. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Villa Falconieri This Villa, originally called Villa Rufina, because was initially built by Monsignor Alessandro Rufini, afterwards it was enlarged thanks to Pope Paolo III Farnese, dates back to 1546. ... Villa Mondragone is one of Villas in the Frascati territory. ...

The Villa d'Este near Tivoli is famous for the water play in its terraced gardens. The Villa Medici was on the edge of Rome, on the Pincian Hill, when it was built in 1540. Park of the Villa dEste, Carl Blechen, 1830 The gardens at the Villa dEste The Villa dEste is a masterpiece of Italian architecture and garden design. ... Tivoli, the classical Tibur, is an ancient Italian town in Lazio, about 30 km from Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river, where it issues from the Sabine hills. ... See also subsistence gardening, the art and craft of growing plants, considered as a circumscribed form of individual agriculture. ... The Villa Medici is a villa in Rome, founded by Ferdinando I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, housing the French Academy in Rome. ... The Pincian Hill (Italian: Pincio, from Latin Mons Pincius) is a hill in the vicinity of Rome. ...

List of famous villas

Palladio's usage

Main article Palladian Villas.

In the later 16th century the villas designed by Andrea Palladio around Vicenza and along the Brenta Canal in Venetian territories, remained influential for over four hundred years. Palladio often unified all the farm buildings into the architecture of his extended villas (as at Villa Emo). City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto is a cluster of works by Andrea Palladio and his disciples which were inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1994 and expanded two years later. ... Andrea Palladio (November 30, 1508 – August 19, 1580), was an Italian architect, widely considered the most influential person in the history of Western architecture. ... Vicenza is a city in northern Italy, is the capital of the eponymous province in the Veneto region, at the northern base of the Monte Berico, straddling the Bacchiglione. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Villa Emo is an Italian villa built in the Veneto near the village of Fanzolo di Vedelago by Andrea Palladio in 1559 for the Emo family of Venice. ...

Later usage

Heritage villas, late 19th century, Auckland, New Zealand.
Heritage villas, late 19th century, Auckland, New Zealand.

In the early 18th century the English took up the term. Thanks to the revival of interest in Palladio and Inigo Jones, soon neo-palladian villas dotted the valley of the River Thames. In many ways Thomas Jefferson's Monticello is a villa. The Marble Hill House in England was conceived originally as "villas" in the 18th-century sense. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 365 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1340 × 2200 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 365 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1340 × 2200 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... Inigo Jones, by Sir Anthony van Dyck Inigo Jones (July 15, 1573–June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant English architect. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Monticello, located near Charlottesville, Virginia, was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence, the third President of the United States, and founder of the University of Virginia. ... Marble Hill House is a Palladian villa on the River Thames in Twickenham, southwest London. ...

In the nineteenth century, villa was extended to describe any suburban house that was free-standing in a landscaped plot of ground, as opposed to a 'terrace' of joined houses. By the time 'semi-detached villas' were being erected at the turn of the twentieth century, the term collapsed under its extension and overuse. The suburban "villa" became a "bungalow" after World War I in post-colonial Britain, and by extension the term is used for suburban bungalows in both Australia and New Zealand, especially those dating from the period of rapid suburban development between 1920 and 1950. The villa concept lives on in southern Europe and in Latin America, where villas are associated with upper-class social position and lifestyle. Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A row of bungalows in Virginia A bungalow (Gujarati: , Hindi: ) is a type of single-story house. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Modern architecture also produced some important examples of buildings called "villas": Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ...

Fallingwater is now a museum, open to the public. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ... The Villa Savoye is considered by many to be the seminal work of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier. ... Poissy is a commune of the Yvelines département in France, located 20km from Paris, with a population (1999) of 36,000. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... The Villa Tugendhat is a masterpiece of the German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. ... Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region South Moravia Founded 1146 Area  - city 230. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ...

See also

  Results from FactBites:
Villa Capra, or Villa Rotunda - Andrea Palladio - Great Buildings Online (524 words)
The villa is asymmetrically sited in the topography, and each loggia, although identical in design, relates to the landscape it enfronts differently through variations of wide steps, retaining walls and embankments.
This axis is flanked by a service building and continues visually to a chapel at the edge of the town, thus connecting villa and town.
Villa Capra, or Villa Rotunda at Archiplanet —
Around this time Villa also became something of a folk hero in the U.S, and Hollywood filmmakers as well as U.S. newspaper photographers flocked to Northern Mexico to record his battle exploits--many of which were staged for the benefit of the cameras.
Villa financed his army by stealing from the endless cattle herds in northern Mexico and selling beeves north of the border, where he found plenty of U.S. merchants willing to sell him guns and ammunition.
Today Villa is remembered with pride by most Mexicans for having led the most important military campaigns of the constitutionalist revolution, in which his troops were victorious as far south as Zacatecas and Mexico City, east as far as Tampico, and west as far as Casas Grandes.
  More results at FactBites »



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