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Encyclopedia > Viktor Frankl
Viktor Emil Frankl

Born
March 26, 1905
Vienna
Died
September 2, 1997
Vienna

Viktor Emil Frankl, M.D., Ph.D., (March 26, 1905 - September 2, 1997) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist as well as a Holocaust survivor. Frankl was the founder of logotherapy and Existential Analysis, the "Third Viennese School" of psychotherapy. His book Man's Search for Meaning (first published in 1946) chronicles his experiences as a concentration camp inmate and describes his psychotherapeutic method of finding meaning in all forms of existence, even the most sordid ones, and thus a reason to continue living. He was one of the key figures in existential therapy. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Victorfrankl. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The Medicinæ Doctor or Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or D.M.) is a doctorate level degree held by medical doctors. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... There are many famous Holocaust survivors who survived the Nazi genocides in Europe and went on to achievements of great fame and notability. ... Developed by neurologist and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl, Logotherapy is considered the third Viennese school of psychotherapy after Freuds psychoanalysis and Adlers individual psychology. ... Existential psychotherapy is partly based on the existential belief that human beings are alone in the world. ... Viennese School may refer to: The (18th century) First Viennese School The (20th century) Second Viennese School Categories: Disambiguation | Stub ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Viktor Frankls 1946 book Mans Search for Meaning chronicles his experiences as a concentration camp inmate and describes his psychotherapeutic method of finding a reason to live. ... See also the related List of German concentration camps Concentration camp in Nazi Germany. ... Psychotherapy is a set of techniques believed to cure or to help solve behavioral and other psychological problems in humans. ... Existential psychotherapy is partly based on the existential belief that human beings are alone in the world. ...

Contents

Life before 1945

Frankl was born in Vienna into a Jewish family of civil servants (Beamtenfamilie). His interest for psychology surfaced early. For the final exam (Matura) in Gymnasium, he wrote a paper on the psychology of philosophical thinking. After graduating from Gymnasium in 1923, he studied medicine at the University of Vienna and later specialized in neurology and psychiatry, concentrating on the topics of depression and suicide. He had personal contact with Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Psychological science redirects here. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... The University of Vienna (German: ) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ...


Doctor, Therapist

In 1924 he became the president of the Sozialistische Mittelschüler Österreich. In this position he offered a special program to counsel students during the time they were to receive their grades (Zeugnis). During his tenure, not a single Viennese student committed suicide. The success of this program grabbed the attention of the likes of Wilhelm Reich who invited him to Berlin. For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


From 1933 to 1937 he headed the so-called Selbstmörderpavillon, or "suicide pavilion", of the General Hospital in Vienna. Here, he treated over 30,000 women prone to suicide. Yet, starting in 1938, he was prohibited from treating Aryan patients due to his Jewish ethnicity. He moved into private practice until starting work in 1940 at the Rothschild Hospital, where he headed its neurological department, and practiced as a brain surgeon. [1]. This hospital, at the time, was the only one in Vienna in which Jews were still admitted. Several times, his medical opinions saved patients from being euthanised via the Nazi euthanasia program. In December 1941 he married Tilly Grosser. Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rothschild Hospital was founded in 1869 by Baron Anselm von Rothschild in Vienna, Austria. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Prisoner, Therapist

In the Autumn of 1942, the 25th of September, he, his wife, and his parents were deported to the concentration camp of Theresienstadt. It is here that his father died in 1943. Though assigned to ordinary labor details until the last few weeks of the war, Frankl (assisted by Dr. Leo Baeck and Regina Jonas among others) tried to cure fellow prisoners from despondency and prevent suicide. He worked in the psychiatric care ward, headed the neurological clinic in block B IV, established and maintained a camp service of psychic hygiene and mental care for sick and those who were weary of life. Frankl at Theresienstadt also gave lectures on topics like Sleep and Its Disturbances, Body and Soul, Medical Care of Soul, Psychology of Mountaineering, Rax and Schneeberg, How I keep my nerves healthy, Existential Problems in Psychotherapy, Social Psychotherapy. On 29/07/43 he organized a closed event of the Scientific Society entitled Life-Exhaustion & Life-Courage in Terezin. The title of his lecture on 25/01/44 was "Of special persons: Experiences of a Neurologist", and his last lecture known about in Terezin on 14/06/44 he had called "Protection of Mental Health". Additionally he described The "mental health service" of Terezin in a "Yearly Report", the first one from October 1942-October 1943. [2] He writes in section Sick People's Care Service Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... See also the related List of German concentration camps Concentration camp in Nazi Germany. ... Location of the concentration camp in the Czech Republic Gate Concentration camp Theresienstadt was a concentration camp set up by the Gestapo in the fortress and garrison city Terezín (German name Theresienstadt), located in what is now the Czech Republic. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Leo Baeck (May 23, 1873 – November 2, 1956) was an 20th century German-Polish-Jewish Rabbi, scholar, and a leader of Progressive Judaism. ... Regina Jonas (August 3, 1902 - September 2, December 12, 1944) was a Berlin-born woman rabbi. ...

Preventive and hospital care. Based on the advice of a Terezin veteran psychiatrist and neurologist, a center for "psychic hygiene" or "mental health" was established under the auspices of the Social Care Dept. It was hoped that it would began functioning as early as spring 1942, but it only became reality in the beginning of November as the "Sick People's Care Service"<...>

Since it was forbidden to actively intervene in a suicide attempt, such activity had to be both preventative and clandestine [3] . Then, in 1944, the 19th of October, he was transported to Auschwitz, where his mother died, and some days later [4] to Türkheim, a concentration camp not far from Dachau where he arrived the 25th of October 1944. [5] Meanwhile, his wife had been transferred to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where she died. Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of O&#347;wi&#281;cim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of O&#347;wi&#281;cim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... Türkheim is a town in the district of Unterallgäu in Bavaria, Germany. ... The main entrance just after the liberation Memorial at the camp, 1997. ... dont you know this is bad info This article is about the Nazi concentration camp. ...


On April 27, 1945, Frankl was liberated. Among his immediate relatives, the only survivor was his sister, who had escaped by emigrating to Australia. April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


It was due to his and others' suffering in these camps that he came to his hallmark conclusion that even in the most absurd, painful and dehumanized situation, life has potential meaning and that therefore even suffering is meaningful. This conclusion served as a strong basis for Frankl's logotherapy. Another important conclusion of Frankl was: Developed by neurologist and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl, Logotherapy is considered the third Viennese school of psychotherapy after Freuds psychoanalysis and Adlers individual psychology. ...

If a prisoner felt that he could no longer endure the realities of camp life, he found a way out in his mental life - an invaluable opportunity to dwell in the spiritual domain, the one that the SS were unable to destroy. Spiritual life strengthened the prisoner, helped him adapt, and thereby improved his chances of survival.

Man's Search for Meaning, p. 123


Rabbi Leo Baeck has been a survivor and Rabbi Regina Jonas has been murdered at Auschwitz. Leo Baeck (May 23, 1873 – November 2, 1956) was an 20th century German-Polish-Jewish Rabbi, scholar, and a leader of Progressive Judaism. ... Regina Jonas (August 3, 1902 - September 2, December 12, 1944) was a Berlin-born woman rabbi. ...


Life after 1945

Liberated after three years of life in concentration camps, he returned to Vienna. During 1945 he wrote his world-famous book titled ...trotzdem ja zum Leben sagen (Ein Psychologe erlebt das Konzentrationslager) (literally: "...saying yes to life regardless; A Psychologist Experiences the Concentration Camp)", known in English by the title Man's Search for Meaning. In this book, he described the life of an ordinary concentration camp inmate from the objective perspective of a psychiatrist. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Viktor Frankls 1946 book Mans Search for Meaning chronicles his experiences as a concentration camp inmate and describes his psychotherapeutic method of finding a reason to live. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1946 he was appointed to run the Vienna Poliklinik of Neurology. He remained there until 1971. In 1947 he married his second wife Eleonore Katharina Schwindt. She gave birth to one daughter, Gabriele. In 1955 he was awarded a professorship of neurology and psychiatry at the University of Vienna, and as visiting professor, he resided at Harvard University. Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... The University of Vienna (German: ) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ...


In the post-war years, Frankl published more than 32 books (many were translated into 10 to 20 languages) and is most notable as the founder of logotherapy. (Logos, λόγος, is Greek for word, reason, principle; therapy, Θεραπεύω, means I heal.) He lectured and taught seminars all over the world and received 29 honorary doctorate degrees. Developed by neurologist and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl, Logotherapy is considered the third Viennese school of psychotherapy after Freuds psychoanalysis and Adlers individual psychology. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ...


Frankl died September 2nd, 1997 in Vienna. is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


Miscellaneous

  • Frankl often said that even within the narrow boundaries of the concentration camps he found only two races of men to exist: decent and non-decent ones. These were to be found in all classes, ethnicities, and groups.
  • Frankl once recommended that the Statue of Liberty on the East coast of the US be complemented by a Statue of Responsibility on the West coast, and there are plans to construct such a statue by 2010.
  • In Theresienstadt concentration camp, he worked as a general practitioner in a clinic until his skill in psychiatry was noticed, when he was asked to establish a special unit to help newcomers to the camp overcome shock and grief. He later set up a suicide watch unit, and all intimations of suicide were reported to him. To maintain his own feeling of being worthy of his sufferings in the dismal conditions, he would frequently march outside and deliver a lecture to an imaginary audience about "Psychotherapeutic Experiences in a Concentration Camp", believing that by fully experiencing the suffering objectively, he would thereby end it.
  • Frankl is thought to have coined the term Sunday Neurosis referring to a form of depression resulting from an awareness in some people of the emptiness of their lives once the working week is over. [6]

For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... The dictionary definition for responsibility is the ability to respond! However the deeper significance of responsibility in life is not the trivia which you sometimes get with job descriptions - roles and responsibilities, it is that captures an individual or individuals who choose to take 100% responsibility for their lives. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Bibliography

  • Man's Search for Meaning. An Introduction to Logotherapy, Boston: Beacon, ISBN 0-8070-1426-5; and Random House / Rider, London 2004, ISBN 1-84413-239-0; also: Washington Square Press; ISBN 0-671-02337-3 (Softcover, December 1997)
  • On the Theory and Therapy of Mental Disorders. An Introduction to Logotherapy and Existential Analysis, Translated by James M. DuBois. Brunner-Routledge, London-New York 2004. ISBN 0-415-95029-5
  • Psychotherapy and Existentialism. Selected Papers on Logotherapy, New York: Simon & Schuster
  • The Will to Meaning. Foundations and Applications of Logotherapy, New York: New American Library, ISBN 0-452-01034-9
  • Man's Search for Ultimate Meaning. (A revised and extended edition of The Unconscious God; with a Foreword by Swanee Hunt). Perseus Book Publishing, New York, 1997; ISBN 0-306-45620-6. Paperback edition: Perseus Book Group; New York, July 2000; ISBN 0-7382-0354-8.
  • "Dr. Viktor E. Frankl of Vienna, Psychiatrist of the Search for Meaning, Dies at 92," New York Times September 4, 1997

Viktor Frankls 1946 book Mans Search for Meaning chronicles his experiences as a concentration camp inmate and describes his psychotherapeutic method of finding a reason to live. ...

References

  1. ^ WAS NICHT IN SEINEN BÜCHERN STEHT or VIENNA'S 'IDEAL' EHRENBÜRGERSCHAFT by Timothy Pytell
  2. ^ Elena Makarova, Sergei Makarov, Victor Kuperman: University Over the Abyss, The story behind 520 lecturers and 2,430 lectures in KZ Theresienstadt 1942-1944, Second edition, Verba Publishers Ltd., Jerusalem 2004, ISBN 965-424-049-1
  3. ^ "The Nazis sought to prevent Jewish suicides. Wherever Jews tried to kill themselves - in their homes, in hospitals, on the deportation trains, in the concentration camps - the Nazi authorities would invariably intervene in order to save the Jews' lives, wait for them to recover, and then send them to their prescribed deaths."66 [1] quotation from Kwiet, K.: "Suicide in the Jewish Community," in Leo Baeck Yearbook, vol. 38. 1993.
  4. ^ Abstract: Viktor Frankl gained international recognition based upon his heroic survival of Auschwitz and his subsequent claim to have founded the third Viennese school of psychotherapy - logotherapy. This article revises this traditional view of Frankl by examining how logotherapy was actually developed under the auspices of the nazi-sponsored Goering Institute in the 1930s. In addition, his survival of Auschwitz is problematized by the questionable medical experimentation he performed in 1940-42 on Jews who had committed suicide in order to avoid deportation, and his limited (three-day) experience in Auschwitz. This new contextualization explains the mass appeal of Viktor Frankl as both a peculiar case of the Austrian burial of the 'ambiguous past' and the longing amongst Americans for an uplifting version of the Holocaust
  5. ^ quotation: "...the prisoner's log of the Dachau sub-camp Kaufering III records Frankl's arrival on October 25, 1944. Indeed, Frankl himself told the American evangelist Robert Schuller, in an interview published in Schuller's magazine Possibilities (March-April 1991): "I was in Auschwitz only three or four days ... I was sent to a barrack and we were all transported to a camp in Bavaria."
  6. ^ [2]

See also

This is a list of Austrian scientists. ... The following list is a selection of famous Austrians. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... Developed by neurologist and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl, Logotherapy is considered the third Viennese school of psychotherapy after Freuds psychoanalysis and Adlers individual psychology. ... Robert Harold Schuller (born September 16, 1926) is an American televangelist known around the world through his weekly broadcast The Hour of Power. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Viktor Frankl (268 words)
Viktor E. Frankl, M.D. Ph.D. March 26, 1905 - September 2, 1997) was a Vienna-born neurologist and psychiatrist.
Frankl was the founder of logotherapy[?] and Existential Analysis[?], the "Third Viennese School" of psychotherapy.
Frankl survived the Holocaust, but nearly all his family was murdered.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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