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Encyclopedia > Viking Age
This article is part of the
Scandinavia series
Geography
The Viking Age
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History of Scandinavia

Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Vikingshipmini. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... The Scandinavian Mountains, in Swedish Skanderna, Fjällen (the Fells) or Kölen, and in Norwegian Kjølen, with the two latter meaning the Keel, are a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... The Scandinavian Peninsula is in northeastern Europe, consisting principally of the mainland territories of Norway and Sweden. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... The Kalmar Union flag. ... Denmark–Norway is the historiographical name for a former political entity, union, consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including the Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. ... The traditional lands of Sweden. ... Sweden and Norway 1888 The Union between Sweden and Norway refers to the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Convention of Moss, on August 14, and the Norwegian constitutional revision of November 4. ... The history of Scandinavia is the common history of the Scandinavian countries— Denmark, Norway Sweden and Finland. ... Scandinavism and Nordism are political ideas that supports cooperation between the Scandinavian and/or Nordic countries. ... The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other. ... A Scandinavian defense union that would include Sweden, Norway and Denmark was planned between the three countries after World War II. Denmark and Norway had been occupied by Germany between 1940 and 1945, while Sweden, having escaped the horrors of occupation it had, still felt the effects of the war. ... The Royal League is an annual Scandinavian football tournament, starting after the end of the regular domestic seasons of Norway and Sweden. ... Scandinavian Airlines System or SAS is a multi-national airline for Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and the leading carrier in the Scandinavian countries, based in Stockholm, Sweden and owned by SAS AB. It is a founding member of the Star Alliance. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Vikingshipmini. ... The history of Scandinavia is the common history of the Scandinavian countries— Denmark, Norway Sweden and Finland. ... The Nordic Stone Age refers to the Stone Age of Scandinavia. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... The Kalmar Union flag. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other. ... A Scandinavian defense union that would include Sweden, Norway and Denmark was planned between the three countries after World War II. Denmark and Norway had been occupied by Germany between 1940 and 1945, while Sweden, having escaped the horrors of occupation it had, still felt the effects of the war. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ...

Contents

Introduction

The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. While their brutality should not be disregarded, their influence on European development should not be, either. Amongst other things, they created an early democracy in Iceland, settled Greenland, and discovered North America. They also started the first towns in Ireland, and founded the dynasty that still rules England (see Dukes of Normandy); Vikings also ruled Russia (see Rus'). North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of...


Historical considerations

In England the Viking Age began dramatically on June 8, 793 when Norsemen destroyed the Abbey church on Lindisfarne, a centre of learning famous across the continent. Monks were killed in the abbey itself, thrown into the sea to drown or carried away as slaves along with the church treasures. Three Viking ships had beached in Portland bay 4 years earlier but the incursion may have been a trading expedition that went wrong rather than a piratical raid. Lindisfarne was different. The devastation of Northumbria's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal Courts of Europe. Never before has such an atrocity been seen, declared the Northumbrian Scholar, Alcuin of York. More than any other single event, the attack on Lindisfarne demonized the perception of the Vikings for the next twelve centuries. Not until 1890's did scholars outside Scandinavia begin seriously to reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing the artistry, the technological skills and the seamanship.[4] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Vikings sack the monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Flaccus Albinus Alcuin (about 735 - May 19, 804) was a monk from York, England. ...


Until Victoria's reign in Britain, Vikings were portrayed as violent and bloodthirsty. The chronicles of medieval England had always portrayed them as rapacious 'wolves among sheep'. During the nineteenth century public perceptions changed. In 1920 a winged-helmeted Viking was introduced as a radiator cap figure on a new Rover car. That marked the cultural rehabilitation of the Vikings in Britain. “Queen Victoria” redirects here. ... // Rover was a British automobile manufacturer and later a marque based at the former Austin Longbridge plant in Birmingham. ...


The first challenges to the many anti-Viking images in Britain emerged in the 17th century. Pioneering scholarly editions of the Viking Age began to reach a small readership in Britain. Archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past. Linguistic enthusiasts started to work on identifying Viking-Age origins for rural idioms and proverbs. The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas. [5] The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ...


In Scandinavia Thomas Bartholin and Ole Worm, the 17th-century Danish scholars and Olaf Rudbeck in Sweden were the first to set the standard for using runic inscriptions and Islandic Sagas as historical sources. During the Age of Enlightenment and Nordic Renaissance historical scholarship in Scandinavia became more rational and pragmatic in the works of a Danish historian Ludvig Holberg and Swedish Olof von Dalin. The latter half of the 18th century the Islandic sagas were still used as important historical sources but the Viking Age was not regarded as a golden age but rather as a barbaric and uncivilized period in the history of the Nordic countries. Until recently the history of the Viking Age was largely based on Icelandic sagas, the history of the Danes written by Saxo Grammaticus, the Russian Primary Chronicle and the The War of the Irish with the Foreigners. Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources; historians nowadays rely more on archeology and numismatics, disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period. [6] Thomas Bartholin (October 20, 1616 - December 4, 1680) was a Danish doctor, mathematician and theologist. ... Ole Worm Ole Worm (May 13, 1588 – August 31, 1654), (pronounced Olay Vorm) who often went by the Latinized form of his name Olaus Wormius, was a Danish physician and antiquary. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Olof von Dalin (1708-1763), the Swedish poet, was born on 29 August 1708 in the parish of Vinberg in Halland, where his father was the minister. ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... The Primary Chronicle (Old-Slavonic: Повсть времяньныхъ лтъ; Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let; Ukrainian: Повість времмених літ, Povist vremennykh lit; often translated into English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the Ancient Rus from around 850 to 1110 originally compiled in Kiev about 1113. ... The War of the Irish with the Foreigners (Irish: Cogad Gaedel re Gallaib) is a two-part medieval Irish chronicle that claims to record the depredations of the Vikings in Ireland and the Irish king Brian Borus great war against them. ...


Historical background

The Vikings that travelled to western and eastern Europe were essentially from Denmark, Norway and Sweden. They also settled Iceland, Greenland and (briefly) North America. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


It is believed that Denmark was largely settled by Germanic people from present-day Sweden in the fifth and sixth centuries. Their language became the mother-tongue of present-day Scandinavian languages. By 800, a strong central authority appears to have been established in Jutland and the Danes were beginning to look beyond their own territory for land, trade and plunder. The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire...


Norway had been settled over many centuries by Germanic peoples from Denmark and Sweden who had established farming and fishing communities around its coasts and lakes. The mountainous terrain and the fjords formed strong natural boundaries and the communities remained independent of each other, unlike the situation in Denmark which is lowland. By 800, it is known that some 30 petty kingdoms existed in Norway.


The sea was the easiest way of communication between the Norwegian kingdoms and the outside world. It was in the eighth century that ships of war began to be built and sent on raiding expeditions to initiate the Viking Age, but the northern sea rovers were traders, colonizers and explorers as well as plunderers.


Prior to 1000, details of Swedish events are obscure. It is known that there were two tribes in the country during Roman times: the Suiones (Swedes) in the north Svealand; and the Gothones (Goths), in the south (hence called Gothia).


Etymology of "Viking", see Viking (Etymology) For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ...


Probable causes of Viking expansion

Viking society was based on agriculture and trade with other peoples and placed great emphasis on the concept of honour both in combat (for example, it was unfair and wrong to attack an enemy already in a fight with another) and in the criminal justice system. For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ...


It is unknown what triggered the Vikings' expansion and conquests, although it coincided with the Medieval Warm Period (800 – 1300) and stopped with the start of the Little Ice Age (about 1250 – 1850). The lack of pack-ice would have allowed Scandinavians to go "a-Viking" or "raiding". Vikings traded with the Muslim world, and large quantities of Arabic coins have been found in Scandinavia. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum theorizes that there was a time of unusually warm climate in the North Atlantic region, lasting from about the tenth century to about the fourteenth century. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


With the means of travel (longships and open water), their desire for goods led Scandinavian traders to explore and develop extensive trading partnerships in the territories they explored. It has been suggested that the Scandinavians suffered from unequal trade practices imposed by Christian advocates and that this eventually led to the breakdown in trade relations and raiding. British merchants who declared openly that they were Christian, and would not trade with heathens and infidels (Muslims and the Norse) would get preferred status for availability and pricing of goods through a Christian network of traders. A two-tiered system of pricing existed with both declared and undeclared merchants trading secretly with banned parties. Viking raiding expeditions were separate from and coexisted with regular trading expeditions. A people with the tradition of raiding their neighbours when their honour had been impugned might easily fall to raiding foreign peoples who impugned their honour.


Historians also suggest that the Scandinavian population was too large for the peninsula, and there were not enough crops to feed everyone. This led to a hunt for more land to feed the ever growing Viking population. Particularly for the settlement and conquest period that followed the early raids, the internal strife in Scandinavia resulted in the progressive centralisation of power into fewer hands. This meant that lower classes who wanted not to be oppressed by greedy kings went in search of their own lands. Thus, Iceland became Europe's first modern republic, with an annual assembly of elected officials called the Althing. Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Alþing, commonly Anglicized as Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing of Iceland. ...


Historic overview

The beginning of the Viking Age in the British Isles is commonly given as 793, when it is recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Northmen raided the important island monastery of Lindisfarne. This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... Events Vikings sack the monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ...

"AD. 793. This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying across the firmament. These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island (Lindisfarne), by rapine and slaughter." -Anglo Saxon Chronicle.

In 794, according to the Annals of Ulster, there was a serious attack on Lindisfarne's mother-house of Iona which was followed in 795 by raids upon the northern coast of Ireland. From bases there, they were able to attack Iona again in 802, cause great slaughter amongst the Céli Dé Brethren, and burn the Abbey to the ground. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of (mainly) secondary source documents narrating the history of the Anglo-Saxons and their settlement in Britain. ... Events Kyoto becomes the Japanese capital. ... The Annals of Ulster are a chronicle of medieval Ireland. ... Iona is a small island, in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland. ... Events Leo III becomes pope Earliest recorded Viking raid on Ireland. ... Events 31 October - Irene deposed as Emperoress of Byzantium and replaced by Nicephorus I. She is banished to Lesbos. ... The Culdees formed an ancient monastic order with settlements in Ireland and Scotland. ...


The end of the Viking Age is traditionally marked in England by the failed invasion attempted by Haraldr Harðráði, who was defeated by the Saxon king Harold Godwinson in 1066; in Ireland, the capture of Dublin by Strongbow and his Hiberno-Norman forces in 1171; and 1263 in Scotland by the defeat of King Hákon Hákonarson at the Battle of Largs by troops loyal to Alexander III. Godwinson himself was subsequently defeated within a month by another Viking descendant, William, Duke of Normandy (Normandy had itself been acquired by Vikings (Normans) in 911). Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the thirteenth and the fifteenth centuries. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Harald III (1015–September 25, 1066) was the king of Norway from 1046 together with the son of Olaf Haraldsson (St. ... Combatants Norwegians, Northumbrian rebels, Scots Anglo-Saxon England Commanders Harald HardrÃ¥de† Tostig Godwinson† Harold Godwinson Strength Uncertain, possibly 7500 men or more Unknown Casualties Unknown, reportedly very heavy Unknown The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England is often considered to mark the end of the Viking era in England. ... Harold II of England (Harold Godwinson; c. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Leicester, Justicar of Ireland (1130 – 20 April 1176), known as Strongbow, was a Cambro-Norman lord notable for his leading role in the Norman invasion of Ireland. ... The term Hiberno-Norman is used of those Norman lords who settled in Ireland, admitting little if any real fealty to the Anglo-Norman settlers in England. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... Haakon Haakonsson (1204 – December 15, 1263) (Norwegian HÃ¥kon HÃ¥konsson, Old Norse Hákon Hákonarson), also called Haakon the Old, was king of Norway from 1217 to 1263. ... The Battle of Largs took place in Largs, North Ayrshire in 1263 between Scotland and the forces of King Magnus III of Man and the Isles as well as the manxmens ally, King Haakon IV of Norway. ... Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone. ... William I of England (c. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Norman conquests in red. ... This article is about the year 911 A.D.; for the emergency telephone number, see 9-1-1. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ...


The traditional definition is no longer accepted by most Scandinavian historians and archaeologists. Instead, the Viking age is thought to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the establishment of Christianity as the dominant religion. The date is usually put somewhere in the early 11th century in all three Scandinavian countries, but for Denmark it can be argued to be much earlier, and for Sweden much later.


The end of the Viking-era in Norway is marked by the battle of Stiklestad, in the year 1030, They proclaimed Norway as a Christian nation and Norwegians could no longer be called vikings.


The clinker-built longships used by the Scandinavians were uniquely suited to both deep and shallow waters, and thus extended the reach of Norse raiders, traders and settlers not only along coastlines, but also along the major river valleys of north-western Europe. Rurik also expanded to the east, and in 859 founded the city of Novgorod (which means "new city") on Volkhov River. His successors (the Rurik Dynasty) moved further founding the first East Slavs state of Kievan Rus with the capital in Kiev, which persisted until 1240, the time of Mongol invasion. According to one author, the word "Rus" originally meant "Viking raider" [citation needed], as distinct from the native Slavic people. Other Norse people, particularly those from the area that is now modern-day Sweden and Norway, continued south on Slavic rivers to the Black Sea and then on to Constantinople. Whenever these Viking ships ran aground in shallow waters, the Vikings would reportedly turn them on their sides and drag them across the land into deeper waters. Clinker is a boat building technique used for constructing hulls of boats and ships by fixing wooden planks and in the early nineteenth century, iron plates to each other so that the planks overlap along their edges. ... The Oseberg longship (Viking Ship Museum, Norway) Oseberg longship from the front, one of the most stunning expressions of Norse art and craftsmanship A longship tacking in the wind Longships were ships primarily used by the Scandinavian Vikings and the Saxons to raid coastal and inland settlements during the European... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ... Events Battle of Abelda: Asturias beats the Muslims. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Volkhov River, also called Olhava river (Russian: Во́лхов) is a river in Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus, Rus principalities, and early Russia from 862 to 1598. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... Originally Rus (Русь, Rus’) was a medieval country and state that comprised mostly Early East Slavs. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


The Kingdom of the Franks under Charlemagne was particularly hard-hit by these raiders, who could sail down the Seine River with near impunity. Near the end of Charlemagne's reign (and throughout the reigns of his sons and grandsons) a string of heavy raids began, culminating in a gradual Scandinavian conquest and settlement of the region now known as Normandy. The very name "Normandy" itself derives from the Norse settlers who had taken control of the region. This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... The Seine (pronounced in French) is a major river of north-western France, and one of its commercial waterways. ...


In 911, the French king, Charles the Simple, was able to make an agreement with the Viking warleader Rollo, a chieftain of disputed Norwegian or Danish origins - the material suggesting a Norwegian origin identifies him with Hrolf Gangr, also known as Rolf the Walker. Charles gave Rollo the title of duke, and granted him and his followers possession of Normandy. In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and undertook to defend the northern region of France against the incursions of other Viking groups. The results were, in a historical sense, rather ironic: several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers not only thereafter identified themselves as French, but carried the French language, and their variant of the French culture into England in 1066, after the Norman Conquest, and became the ruling aristocracy of Anglo-Saxon England. Charles the Simple or Charles (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. ... Rollo on the Six Dukes statue in the Falaise town square. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ...


Timeline


Geography

Scandinavian territories, colonies and voyages
Scandinavian territories, colonies and voyages

There are various theories concerning the causes of the Viking invasions. For people living along the coast, it would seem natural to seek new land by the sea. Another reason was that during this period England, Wales and Ireland, which were divided into many different warring kingdoms, were in internal disarray, and became easy prey. The Franks, however, had well-defended coasts, and heavily fortified ports and harbours. Pure thirst for adventure may also have been a factor. A reason for the raids is believed by some to be over-population caused by technological advances, such as the use of iron. Although another cause could well have been pressure caused by the Frankish expansion to the south of Scandinavia, and their subsequent attacks upon the Viking peoples. Another possibly-contributing factor is that Harald I of Norway, ("Harald Fairhair") had united Norway around this time, and the bulk of the Vikings were displaced warriors who had been driven out of his kingdom, and who had nowhere to go. Consequently, these Vikings became raiders, in search of subsistence and bases to launch counter-raids against Harald. One theory that has been suggested is that the Vikings would plant crops after the winter, and go raiding as soon as the ice melted on the sea, then returned home with their loot, in time to harvest the crops. They became wandering raiders and mercenaries, like their Celtic cousins. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (947x648, 254 KB)made by me; earth pic by NASA, data from Image:Viking Age. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (947x648, 254 KB)made by me; earth pic by NASA, data from Image:Viking Age. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Harald Fairhair or Harald Finehair (Old Norse:Haraldr hinn hárfagri, Icelandic:Haraldur hinn hárfagri, Norwegian:Harald Hårfagre) (c. ... Drawing of a Thracian peltast of 400 BC A warrior is a person habitually engaged in warfare. ... This article is about the European people. ...


One important center of trade was at Hedeby. Close to the border with the Franks, it was effectively a crossroads between the cultures, until its eventual destruction by the Norwegians in an internecine dispute around the year 1050. York was the center of the kingdom of Jorvik from 866, and discoveries there show that Scandinavian trade connections in the 10th century reached beyond Byzantium (e.g. a silk cap, a counterfeit of a coin from Samarkand and a cowry shell from the Red Sea or the Persian Gulf), although they could be Byzantine imports, and there is no reason to assume that the Varangians themselves travelled significantly beyond Byzantium and the Caspian Sea. Hedeby (Haithabu in Old Norse; Heidiba in Latin; in Germany the name Haithabu is frequently used) was a Danish settlement and trading centre on the southern Baltic Sea coast of the Jutland Peninsula at the head of a narrow, navigable inlet, the Schlei (Danish: Slien) in the province of Schleswig... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Jorvik was the Viking name for the English city of York and the kingdom centered there. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ...


British Isles

England

According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, after Lindisfarne was raided in 793, Vikings continued on small-scale raids across England. Viking raiders struck England in 793 and raided a Christian monastery that held Saint Cuthbert’s relics. For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Guests from Overseas, Nicholas Roerich (1899).
Guests from Overseas, Nicholas Roerich (1899).

The raiders killed the monks and captured the valuables. This raid was called the beginning of the “Viking Age of Invasion”, made possible by the Viking longship. There was great violence during the last decade of the 8th century on England’s northern and western shores. While the initial raiding groups were small, it is believed that a great amount of planning was involved. During the winter between 840 and 841, the Norwegians raided during the winter instead of the usual summer. They waited on an island off Ireland. In 865 a large army of Danish Vikings, supposedly led by Ivar, Halfdan and Guthrum arrived in East Anglia. They proceeded to cross England into Northumbria and captured York (Jorvik), where some settled as farmers. Most of the English kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings, but Alfred of Wessex managed to keep the Vikings out of his country. Alfred and his successors continued to drive back the Viking frontier and take York. A new wave of Norwegian Vikings appeared in England in 947 when Erik Bloodaxe captured York. The Viking presence continued through the reign of the Danish king Canute the Great (1016-1035), after which a series of inheritance arguments weakened the family reign. The Viking presence dwindled until 1066, when the Norwegians lost their final battle with the English. See also Danelaw. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x637, 143 KB) Description = Guests from Overseas (1899) Nicholas Roerich File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rurik Varangians Nicholas Roerich Talk:Main Page User talk:HappyUser/Main... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x637, 143 KB) Description = Guests from Overseas (1899) Nicholas Roerich File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rurik Varangians Nicholas Roerich Talk:Main Page User talk:HappyUser/Main... Guests from Overseas, 1899 (Varangians in Russia) Longships Are Built in the Land of the Slavs (1903) Nicholas Roerich, (October 9, 1874 - December 13, 1947) also known as Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh (Russian: Николай Константинович Рёрих), was a Russian painter and spiritual teacher. ... Events After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German fight over the division of the empire, with Lothar succeeding as Emperor. ... Events June 25: Battle of Fontenay _ Louis the German and Charles the Bald defeat Lothar. ... Events Ethelred succeeds as king of Wessex (or 866). ... The Great Heathen Army, also known as the Great Army, was a Viking army which pillaged and conquered much of England in the late 9th century. ... Jorvik was the Viking name for the English city of York and the kingdom centered there. ... Alfred (849? – 26 October 899) (sometimes spelt Ælfred) was king of England from 871 to 899, though at no time did he rule over the whole of the land. ... Eric I (Norw. ... Canute (or Cnut) I, or Canute the Great (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Danish: Knud den Store, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store) (ca. ... Green: Danelaw The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an 11th century name for an area of northern and eastern England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ...


The Vikings did not get everything their way. In one situation in England, a small Viking fleet attacked a rich monastery at Jarrow. The Vikings were met with stronger resistance than they expected: their leaders were killed, the raiders escaped, only to have their ships beached at Tynemouth and the crews killed by locals. This was one of the last raids on England for about 40 years. The Vikings instead focused on Ireland and Scotland. Map sources for Jarrow at grid reference NZ3465 Jarrow is a town on the River Tyne, England with a population around 27,000 (2001 Census). ...


Ireland

The Vikings conducted extensive raids in Ireland and founded a few towns, including Dublin. At some points, they seemingly came close to taking over the whole isle[citation needed]; however, the Vikings and Scandinavians settled down and intermixed with the Irish. Literature, crafts, and decorative styles in Ireland and Britain reflected Scandinavian culture. Vikings traded at Irish markets in Dublin. Excavations found imported fabrics from England, Byzantium, Persia, and central Asia. Dublin became so crowded by the 11th Century that houses were constructed outside the town walls. Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ...


The Vikings pillaged monasteries on Ireland's west coast in 795, and then spread out to cover the rest of the coastline. The north and east of the island were most affected. During the first 40 years, the raids were conducted by small, mobile Viking groups. From 830 on, the groups consisted of large fleets of Viking ships. From 840, the Vikings began establishing permanent bases at the coasts. Dublin was the most significant settlement in the long term. The Irish became accustomed to the Viking presence. In some cases they became allies and also married each other. Events Leo III becomes pope Earliest recorded Viking raid on Ireland. ... Events Christian missionary Ansgar visits Birka, trade city of the Swedes. ...


In 832, a Viking fleet of about 120 invaded kingdoms on Ireland’s northern and eastern coasts. Some believe that the increased number of invaders coincided with Scandinavian leaders' desires to control the profitable raids on the western shores of Ireland. During the mid-830s, raids began to push deeper into Ireland, as opposed to just touching the coasts. Navigable waterways made this deeper penetration possible. After 840, the Vikings had several bases in strategic locations dispersed throughout Ireland. Events Theophilus forbids the usage of icons, establishing strict punishments. ...


In 838, a small Viking fleet entered the River Liffey in eastern Ireland. The Vikings set up a base, which the Irish called a longphort. This longphort would eventually become Dublin. After this interaction, the Irish experienced Viking forces for about 40 years. The Vikings also established longphorts in Cork, Limerick, Waterford, and Wexford. The Vikings could sail through on the main river and branch off into different areas of the country. The Liffey in West Wicklow The Liffey (An Life in Irish) is a river in the Republic of Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin. ... A longphort is a term used in Ireland for a Viking ship enclosure or shore fortress. ...


One of the last major battles involving Vikings was the Battle of Clontarf in 1014, in which Vikings fought both for High King Brian Boru's army and for the Viking-led army opposing the High King. Irish and Viking Literature depict the Battle of Clontarf as a gathering of this world and the supernatural. For example, witches, goblins, and demons were present. A Viking poem portrays the environment as strongly pagan. Valkyries chanted and decided who would live and die. Combatants Irish of Munster Irish of Leinster and Dublin Vikings Commanders Brian Boru† Máelmorda mac Murchada, Sigtrygg Strength ca. ... A much later engraving of Brian Boru Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig (926 or 941[1] – 23 April 1014) (known as Brian Boru in English) was High King of Ireland from 1002 to 1014. ...


During the raids of the 800s, incredible pieces of Irish art disappeared.[citation needed] Irish art was fragile and delicate so it was easily destroyed during the raids.[citation needed] Furthermore, workshops used to construct the art disappeared.[citation needed] The Irish art completed in the 8th century was so unique that it was impossible to recreate the achievements that were made.[citation needed] Secrets disappeared as well, including specific processes that could never again be used.[citation needed] There were great changes in metalwork, which was the only area significantly affected by the Viking invaders. [citation needed] The pattern of metalwork changed from ornamentation in gilt bronze to decoration in solid silver. Some of the new styles are reflected in Scandinavian brooches. One of the first traces of Scandinavian influence on Irish metalwork is in Scandinavian brooches, or "tortoise brooches" and "box brooches". Animals depicted have strange appearances and bodies end in comb patterns. Irish art also strongly influenced Scandinavian decoration since they brought Irish artifacts home. They are similar in that they combine abstract patterns and animals are of importance. Newgrange: Entrance slab with megalithic art. ...


Scotland

The Vikings are supposed to have led their first raids on what is now modern Scotland by the early eighth century. While there are few records, their first known attack was on the Holy island of Iona in 794, the year following the raid on the other Holy island of Lindisfarne, Northumbria. This article is about the country. ... Iona is a small island, in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland. ... Events Kyoto becomes the Japanese capital. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and...


In 839, a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn, both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu. They defeated Eogán mac Óengusa, king of the Picts, his brother Bran and the king of the Scots of Dál Riata, Áed mac Boanta, along with many members of the Pictish aristocracy in battle. The sophisticated kingdom that had been built fell apart, as did the Pictish leadership, which had been stable for over a hundred years since the time of Óengus mac Fergusa (The accession of Cináed mac Ailpín as king of both Picts and Scots can be attributed to the aftermath of this event). Events Louis the Pious attempts to divide his empire among his sons. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... The River Tay looking eastwards from Perth The River Tay, in terms of flow (193 kilometres or 120 miles), is the longest river in Scotland. ... The River Earn viewed from Forteviot bridge. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Fortriu or the the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for an ancient Pictish kingdom, and often used synonymously with Pictland in general. ... Uen (Scottish Gaelic: Eógan or (dim. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... // wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... Áed mac Boanta (died 839) is believed to have been a king of Dál Riata. ... This is the royal figure on the St Andrews sarcophagus. ... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858) (Anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ...


By the mid-ninth century the Norsemen had settled in Shetland, the Orkneys (the Nordreys- Norðreyjar), the Hebrides and Man, (the Sudreys- Súðreyjar - this survives in the Diocese of Sodor and Man) and parts of mainland Scotland. The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local Gaelic population (see-Gall Gaidheal) in the Hebrides and Man. These areas were ruled over by local Jarls, originally captains of ships or Hersirs. The Jarl of Orkney and Shetland however, claimed supremacy. Location Geography Area Ranked 12th  - Total 1,466 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Lerwick ISO 3166-2 GB-ZET ONS code 00RD Demographics Population Ranked 31st  - Total (2005) 22,000  - Density 15 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Shetland Islands Council http://www. ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ... The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of mainland Scotland. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... Motto (Latin) Whithersoever you throw it, it will stand Anthem Isle of Man National Anthem Royal anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Douglas Official languages Manx, English Government    -  Lord of Mann Elizabeth II  -  Lieutenant Governor Sir Paul Haddacks  -  First Deemster Michael Kerruish  -  President of Tynwald Noel Cringle... Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles) redirects here. ... For the fictional Island of Sodor, see Sodor (fictional island). ... Gael (Ancient people) : A Gael is a member of a distinct culture existing in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man whose language is one that is Gaelic. ... The Norse-Gaels were a people who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland for a large part of the Middle Ages, whose aristocracy were mainly of Scandinavian origin, but as a whole exhibited a great deal of Gaelic and Norse cultural syncretism. ... Jarl may refer to: Alternative word for the peerage dignity Earl Japan Amateur Radio League, the Amateur Radio association of Japan Jarl, a Norse title Jarl Wahlström, the 12th General of The Salvation Army Category: ... A Hersir was a middle ranking warrior in Dark Age Scandanavia. ... Earl of Orkney - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


In 875, King Harald Finehair led a fleet from Norway to Scotland. In his attempt to unite Norway, he found that many of those opposed to his rise to power had taken refuge in the Isles. From here, they were raiding not only foreign lands but were also attacking Norway itself. He organised a fleet and was able to subdue the rebels, and in doing so brought the independent Jarls under his control, many of the rebels having fled to Iceland. He found himself ruling not only Norway, but the Isles, Man and parts of Scotland. Events December 29 - Charles the Bald, king of west Danes capture Lindisfarne and arrive in Cambridge. ... Harald Fairhair or Harald Finehair (Old Norse:Haraldr hinn hárfagri, Icelandic:Haraldur hinn hárfagri, Norwegian:Harald Hårfagre) (c. ...


In 876 the Gall-Gaidheal of Man and the Hebrides rebelled against Harald. A fleet was sent against them led by Ketil Flatnose to regain control. On his success, Ketil was to rule the Sudreys as a vassal of King Harald. His grandson Thorstein the Red and Sigurd the Mighty, Jarl of Orkney invaded Scotland were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle. Ketil declared himself King of the Isles. Ketil was eventually outlawed and fearing the bounty on his head fled to Iceland. Events Seiwa is succeeded by Yozei as emperor of Japan. ... A Norwegian hersir of the mid 800s. ... Thorstein the Red or Thorstein Olafsson was a viking chieftain who flourished in late ninth-century Scotland. ... The Earl of Orkney was originally a Norse jarl ruling Orkney, Shetland and parts of Caithness and Sutherland. ...


The Gall-Gaidheal Kings of the Isles continued to act semi independently, in 973 forming a defensive pact with the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde. Until, in 1095, the King of Man and the Isles, Godred Crovan, was killed by Magnus Barelegs, King of Norway. Magnus and King Edgar of Scotland agreed a treaty. The islands would be controlled by Norway, but mainland territories would go to Scotland. The King of Norway continued to be nominally king of the Isles and Man. However, in 1156, The Kingdom was split into two. The Western Isles and Man continued as to be called the "Kingdom of Man and the Isles", but the Inner Hebrides came under the influence of Somerled, a Gaelic speaker, who was styled 'King of the Hebrides'. His kingdom was to develop latterly into the Lordship of the Isles. Events Edgar of England is crowned king by Saint Dunstan Births September 15 - Al_Biruni, mathematician († 1048) Abu al-Ala al-Maarri, poet Deaths May 7 - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Categories: 973 ... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ... Godred Crovan Haroldson (King of Man) was born sometime before 1066 and died in 1087 in Islay, an island of the Inner Hebrides. ... Magnus Barefoot (1073-1103), son of Olaf Kyrre, was king of Norway from 1093 until 1103 and King of the Isle of Man from 1099 until 1102. ... Edgar of Scotland (Etgair mac Maíl Coluim) (1074 – January 8, 1107 ), was king of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. ... The Hebrides (Inner Hebrides in red) The Inner Hebrides are a group of islands off the west coast of Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides. ... Somerled (Old Norse Sumarliði, Scottish Gaelic Somhairle) was a military and political leader of the Scottish Isles in the 12th century who was known in Gaelic as ri Innse Gall (King of the Hebrides). Somerled first appears in historical chronicles in the year 1140 as the regulus, or King... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... MacDonald, Lord of the Isles For the series of fantasy novels by David Drake, see Lord of the Isles (David Drake). ...


The Jarls of Orkney continued to rule much of Northern Scotland until 1196, when Harald Maddadsson agreed to pay tribute to William the Lion, King of Scots for his territories on the Mainland. Events Spring, London, popular uprising of the poor against the rich led by William Fitz Osbern. ... The Lewis chessmen an iconic image of Scandinavian Scotland in Harald Maddadssons time. ... William I (William the Lion, William Leo, William Dunkeld or William Canmore), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scotland from 1165 to 1214. ...


The end of the Viking age proper in Scotland is generally considered to be in 1266. In 1263, King Haakon IV of Norway, in retaliation for a Scots expedition to Skye, arrived on the west coast with a fleet from Norway and Orkney. His fleet linked up with those of King Magnus of Man and King Dougal of the Hebrides. After peace talks failed, his forces met with the Scots at Largs, in Ayrshire. The battle proved indecisive, but it did ensure that the Norse were not able to mount a further attack that year. Haakon died overwintering in Orkney, and by 1266, his son Magnus the Law-mender ceded the Kingdom of Man and the Isles, with all territories on mainland Scotland to Alexander III, through the Treaty of Perth. For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... Haakon Haakonsson (1204 – December 15, 1263) (Norwegian HÃ¥kon HÃ¥konsson, Old Norse Hákon Hákonarson), also called Haakon the Old, was king of Norway from 1217 to 1263. ... The Old Man of Storr, Skye The Isle of Skye, usually known simply as Skye (Scottish Gaelic: An t-Eilean Sgiathanach) is the largest and most northerly island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. ... Magnus III was the last recognized King of Man. ... The Battle of Largs took place in Largs, North Ayrshire in 1263 between Scotland and the forces of King Magnus III of Man and the Isles as well as the manxmens ally, King Haakon IV of Norway. ... Magnus Lagabøte (lit. ... Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone. ... The Treaty of Perth ended military conflict between Norway under Magnus the Law-mender and Scotland under Alexander III over the sovereignty of the Western Isles, the Isle of Mann and Caithness. ...


Orkney and Shetland continued to be ruled as autonomous Jarldoms under Norway until 1468, when King Christian I pledged them as security on the dowry of his daughter, who was betrothed to James III of Scotland. The dowry was never paid, and the islands passed to Scotland. There are two monarchs who have been named Christian I Christian I of Denmark Christian I of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ...


Wales

Wales was not colonised by the Vikings as heavily as eastern England and Ireland. The Vikings did, however, settle in the south around St. David's, Haverfordwest, and Gower, among other places. Place names such as Skokholm, Skomer, and Swansea remain as evidence of the Norse settlement.[7] The Vikings, however, did not subdue the Welsh mountain kingdoms. Saint David (c. ... Haverfordwest (Welsh: Hwlffordd) is the county town of Pembrokeshire, in south-west Wales. ... “Gower” redirects here. ...


Southern and Eastern Europe

The Varangians or Varyags (Russian, Ukrainian : Варяги, Varyagi) sometimes referred to as Variagians were Scandinavians, often Swedes, who migrated eastwards and southwards through what is now Russia and Ukraine mainly in the 9th and 10th centuries. Engaging in trade, piracy and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki, reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople. Contemporary English publications also use the name "Viking" for early Varangians in some contexts.[8][9] Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes. ... Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national of a Party to the conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a... Gardariki (compare Icl. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ...


The term Varangian remained in usage in the Byzantine Empire until the 13th century, largely disconnected from its Scandinavian roots by then. “Byzantine” redirects here. ...

Map showing the major Varangian trade routes: the Volga trade route (in red) and the Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in purple). Other trade routes of the 8th-11th centuries shown in orange.
Map showing the major Varangian trade routes: the Volga trade route (in red) and the Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in purple). Other trade routes of the 8th-11th centuries shown in orange.

Having settled Aldeigja (Ladoga) in the 750s, Scandinavian colonists were probably an element in the early ethnogenesis of the Rus' people, and likely played a role in the formation of the Rus' Khaganate. The Varangians (Varyags, in Old East Slavic) are first mentioned by the Primary Chronicle as having exacted tribute from the Slavic and Finnic tribes in 859. It was the time of rapid expansion of the Vikings in Northern Europe; England began to pay Danegeld in 859, and the Curonians of Grobin faced an invasion by the Swedes at about the same date. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (872x605, 859 KB) Map showing the major Varangian trade routes, the Volga trade route (in red) and the Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in purple). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (872x605, 859 KB) Map showing the major Varangian trade routes, the Volga trade route (in red) and the Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in purple). ... In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea. ... The Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Путь «из варяг в греки» in Russian) was a trade route, which connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus and the Byzantine Empire. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The fortress of Ladoga was built in stone in the 12th century and rebuilt 400 years later. ... Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... The Rus Khaganate was a polity that flourished during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe (roughly the late 8th and early to mid-9th centuries CE). ... Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ... The Primary Chronicle (Old-Slavonic: Повсть времяньныхъ лтъ; Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let; Ukrainian: Повість времмених літ, Povist vremennykh lit; often translated into English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the Ancient Rus from around 850 to 1110 originally compiled in Kiev about 1113. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Finnic peoples (Fennic, sometimes Baltic-Finnic) refers to a group of related ethnic groups and nations speaking Finnic languages (also known as Balto-Finnic languages). ... Events Battle of Abelda: Asturias beats the Muslims. ... The Danegeld was an English tribute raised to pay off Viking raiders (usually led by the Danish king) to save the land from being ravaged by the raiders. ... Events Battle of Abelda: Asturias beats the Muslims. ... The term Curonian language may refer to two different, but genetically related Baltic languages. ... Grobiņa (German: Seeburg, Seleburg) is a town in western Latvia, eleven kilometers east of Liepaja. ...

Runic graffiti inscribed in a column in Constantinople (now Istanbul) by members of the Varangian Guard.

In 862, the Finnic and Slavic tribes rebelled against the Varangian Rus, driving them overseas back to Scandinavia, but soon started to conflict with each other. The disorder prompted the tribes to invite back the Varangian Rus "to come and rule them" and bring peace to the region. Led by Rurik and his brothers Truvor and Sineus, the invited Varangians (called Rus) settled around the town of Holmgard (Novgorod). Download high resolution version (517x716, 99 KB)Runic inscriptions on a Byzantine column, Istanbul. ... Download high resolution version (517x716, 99 KB)Runic inscriptions on a Byzantine column, Istanbul. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Varangians or Variags were Vikings who travelled eastwards from Sweden and Norway. ... Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ... Truvor and Sineus were, according to the Primary Chronicle, the brothers of Rurik. ... Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... For other cities named Novgorod see Novgorod (disambiguation). ...


In the 9th century, the Rus' operated the Volga trade route, which connected Northern Russia (Gardariki) with the Middle East (Serkland). As the Volga route declined by the end of the century, the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks rapidly overtook it in popularity. Apart from Ladoga and Novgorod, Gnezdovo and Gotland were major centres for Varangian trade.[10] In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea. ... Gardariki (compare Icl. ... This runestone, raised circa 1040 at Gripsholm, commemorates a Viking lost during an ill-fated raid in Serkland. ... The Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Путь «из варяг в греки» in Russian) was a trade route, which connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus and the Byzantine Empire. ... Gnezdovo or Gnyozdovo (Russian: ) is an archeological site located near the village of Gnyozdovo in Smolensk Oblast, Russia. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ...


Western historians tend to agree with the Primary Chronicle that these Scandinavians founded Kievan Rus' in the 880s and gave their name to the land. Many Slavic scholars are opposed to this theory of Germanic influence on the Rus' (people) and have suggested alternative scenarios for this part of Eastern European history. Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ...


In contrast to the intense Scandinavian influence in Normandy and the British Isles, Varangian culture did not survive to a great extent in the East. Instead, the Varangian ruling classes of the two powerful city-states of Novgorod and Kiev were thoroughly Slavicized by the end of the 10th century. Old Norse was spoken in one district of Novgorod, however, until the 13th century.

For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... The Novgorod Republic was an early republic that existed in the North-West territory of modern day Russia, in Novgorod lands between 1136 and 1478. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Other territories

Iceland

The Norwegians travelled to the north-west and west, founding vibrant communities in the Faroe Islands, Shetland, Orkney, Iceland, Ireland and Great Britain. Apart from Britain and Ireland, Norwegians mostly found largely uninhabited land, and established settlements in those places. According to the saga of Erik the Red, when Erik the Red was exiled from Iceland he went west. There he found a land that he named "Greenland" to attract people from Iceland to settle it with him. Location Geography Area Ranked 12th  - Total 1,466 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Lerwick ISO 3166-2 GB-ZET ONS code 00RD Demographics Population Ranked 31st  - Total (2005) 22,000  - Density 15 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Shetland Islands Council http://www. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... For other uses, see Erik the Red (disambiguation). ...


Greenland

The Viking Age settlements in Greenland were established in the sheltered fjords of the southern and western coast. They settled in three separate areas along approximately 650 kilometers of the western coast.

  • The Eastern Settlement (61°00′N, 45°00′W). The remains of about 450 farms have been found here. Erik the Red settled at Brattahlid on Ericsfjord.
  • The Middle Settlement (62°00′N, 48°00′W) near modern Ivigtut, consisting of about 20 farms.
  • The Western Settlement, at modern Godthåbsfjord (64°00′N, 51°00′W), established before the 12th century. It has been extensively excavated by archaeologists.

Location of the Ivittuut municipality in Greenland The cryolite mine Ivigtut, Greenland, summer 1940 Ivittuut, (old spelling Ivigtût) has been a municipality in the south of West Greenland since 1951. ... Ivittuut, also spelt Ivigtût, is a town in Greenland. ... Location of the Nuuk municipality in Greenland Nuuk (The Cape) (Danish: Godthåb, which translates to Good Hope in English) is the capital and largest city of the self-governing Danish territory of Greenland. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...

France

Further information: Siege of Paris (885-886)

Combatants Franks Danes Commanders Odo, Count of Paris Sigfred and Rollo Strength 200 men-at-arms 30,000 The Siege of Paris of 885 to 886 was a Viking siege of Paris, then capital of the kingdom of the West Franks. ...

North America

In about the year 986 AD, North America was reached by Bjarni Herjólfsson. Leif Ericson and Þórfinnur Karlsefni from Greenland attempted to settle the land, which they dubbed Vinland about the year 1000 AD. A small settlement was placed on the northern peninsula of Newfoundland, near L'Anse aux Meadows, but previous inhabitants, and a cold climate brought it to an end within a few years (see Freydís Eiríksdóttir). The archaeological remains are now a UN World Heritage Site.[11]
North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Bjarni Herjólfsson (fl. ... Statue of Leif in front of Hallgrímskirkja, in Reykjavík, Iceland. ... Thorfinn Karlsefni or Þorfinnur Karlsefni was an Icelandic explorer who led an attempt to settle Vinland circa 1010 A.D. with three ships and 160 settlers. ... Vinland (Old Icelandic: Plain land ) was the name given to an area of North America by the norseman Leif Eiríksson, about the year (AD) 1000. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... LAnse aux Meadows (from the French LAnse-aux-Méduses or Jellyfish Cove) is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad and... Freydís Eiríksdóttir was a Viking woman who sailed to Vínland in the early 11th century. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Influence of Viking settlement on the English language

The long-term linguistic effect of the Viking settlements in England was threefold: over a thousand words eventually became part of Standard English; a large number of places in the east and north-east of England have Danish names; and many English personal names are of Scandinavian origin.[12] Words that entered the English language by this route include landing, score, beck, fellow, take, busting, and steersman.[12] The vast majority of loan words do not begin to appear in documents until the early twelfth century; these include many modern words which use sk- sounds, such as skirt, sky, and skin; other words appearing in written sources at this time include again, awkward, birth, cake, dregs, fog, freckles, gasp, law, neck, ransack, root, scowl, sister, seat, sly, smile, want, weak, and window.[12] Some of the words that came into use by this route are among the most common in English, such as both, same, get, and give. The system of personal pronouns was affected, with they, them, and their replacing the earlier forms. Old Norse even influenced the verb to be; the replacement of sindon by are is almost certainly Scandinavian in origin, as is the third-person-singular ending -s in the present tense of verbs.[12] Standard English is a controversial term used to denote a form of written and spoken English that is thought to be normative for educated users. ...


There are over 1,500 Scandinavian place names in England, mainly in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire (within the former boundaries of the Danelaw): over 600 end in -by, the Scandinavian word for "farm" or "town" — for example Grimsby, Naseby, and Whitby;[13] many others end in -thorpe ("village"), -thwaite ("clearing"), and -toft ("homestead").[12] Green: Danelaw The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an 11th century name for an area of northern and eastern England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ...


The distribution of family names showing Scandinavian influence is still, as an analysis of names ending in -son reveals, concentrated in the north and east, corresponding to areas of former Viking settlement. Early medieval records indicate that over 60% of personal names in Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire showed Scandinavian influence.[12]


Technology

A Viking longship

The Vikings were equipped with the technologically superior longships; for purposes of conducting trade however, another type of ship, the knarr, wider and deeper in draught, were customarily used. The Vikings were competent sailors, adept in land warfare as well as at sea, and they often struck at accessible and poorly-defended targets, usually with near impunity. The effectiveness of these tactics earned vikings a formidable reputation as raiders and pirates, and the chroniclers paid little attention to other aspects of medieval Scandinavian culture. This is further accentuated by the absence of contemporary primary source documentation from within the Viking Age communities themselves, and little documentary evidence is available until later, when Christian sources begin to contribute. It is only over time, as historians and archaeologists have begun to challenge the one-sided descriptions of the chroniclers, that a more balanced picture of the Norsemen has begun to become apparent. This is a black and white picture of a viking ship, taken from the side. ... The knarr (plural: knarrer) was the generic name for viking trade and mercantile ships. ...


Besides allowing the Vikings to travel vast distances, their longships gave them certain tactical advantages in battle. They could perform very efficient hit-and-run attacks, in which they approached quickly and unexpectedly, then left before a counter-offensive could be launched. Because of their negligible draught, longships could sail in shallow waters, allowing the Vikings to travel far inland along the rivers. Their speed was also prodigious for the time, estimated at a maximum of 14 or 15 knots. The use of the longships ended when technology changed, and ships began to be constructed using saws instead of axes. This led to a lesser quality of ships. Together with an increasing centralisation of government in the Scandinavian countries, the old system of Leidang — a fleet mobilization system, where every Skipen (ship community) had to deliver one ship and crew — was discontinued. Shipbuilding in the rest of Europe also led to the demise of the longship for military purposes. By the 11th and 12th centuries, fighting ships began to be built with raised platforms fore and aft, from which archers could shoot down into the relatively low longships. A knot is a unit of speed abbreviated kt or kn. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


There is an archaeological find in Sweden of a bone fragment that has been fixated with in-operated material; the piece is as yet undated. These bones might possibly be the remains of a trader from the Middle East. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The nautical achievements of the Vikings were quite exceptional. For instance, they made distance tables for sea voyages that were so exact, that they only differ 2-4% from modern satellite measurements, even on long distances, such as across the Atlantic Ocean. This article is in need of attention. ...


There is a find known as the Visby lenses from the island of Gotland in Sweden that might possibly be components of a telescope, from long before the usually accepted date of invention of the telescope in the 1600s.[14] The Visby lenses are ten lens-shaped rock crystals found in a viking grave in Gotland dating from the 10th century. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Religion and Archaeology

At the start of the Viking age, the Vikings adhered to the Norse religion and system of beliefs. They believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses, as well as Valhalla, a heaven for warriors. If you were in the lower-class of society you went to a place called "hel", where it was a bit like life on earth. According to Viking beliefs, Viking chieftains would please their war-gods by their bravery, and would become "worth-ship;" that is, the chieftain would earn a "burial at sea." They also performed land burials which often still included a ship, treasure, weapons, tools, clothing and even live slaves and women buried alive with the dead chieftain, for his "journey to Valhalla, and adventure and pleasure in the after-life." Then, sages would compose sagas about the exploits of these chieftains, keeping their memories alive. Freyr and his sister Freyia were fertility gods. They were responsible for ensuring that people had many children and that the land produced plentiful crops. Some farmers even called their fields after Freyr, in the hope that this would ensure a good harvest. Towards the end of the Viking Age, more and more Scandinavians converted to Christianity. The introduction of Christianity did not instantaneously bring an end to the Viking voyages, but it may have been a contributing factor in bringing the Viking Age to an end. Nordic religion is a termed used to abbreviate the religion preferably amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries under pre-Christian period that are supported by archaeology findings and early written materials. ...


Trading cities

Some of the most important trading ports during the period include both existing and ancient cities such as Jelling (Denmark), Ribe (Denmark), Roskilde (Denmark), Hedeby (modern Germany), Aarhus (Denmark), Vineta (Pomerania), Truso (Poland), Bergen (Norway), Kaupang (Norway), Birca (Sweden), Bordeaux (France), Jorvik (England), Dublin (Ireland) and Aldeigjuborg (Russia). Burial mound in Jelling churchyard Northern burial mound and church in Jelling churchyard Jelling is a town located in Jelling municipality near Vejle, Denmark on the Jutland peninsula. ... Ribe (German: Ripen) is the name of the oldest town of Denmark. ... This article is about the town in Denmark. ... Hedeby (Haithabu in Old Norse; Heidiba in Latin; in Germany the name Haithabu is frequently used) was a Danish settlement and trading centre on the southern Baltic Sea coast of the Jutland Peninsula at the head of a narrow, navigable inlet, the Schlei (Danish: Slien) in the province of Schleswig... For the meteorite Aarhus, see Meteorite falls. ... Vineta or Wineta is an ancient and possibly legendary town believed to have been on the German or Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. ... Truso, situated on Lake Druzno, was an Old Prussian (Pomesanian) town near the Baltic Sea just east of the Vistula River. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... Kaupang is the name of a town with roots from the Viking Age, situated in Vestfold county in Norway. ... Birka, also Birca and Bierkø (today named Björkö, literally Birch Island), was an important trading center in the Baltic Sea region from the 8th century, which handled goods from Eastern Europe and the Orient, possibly as far as China, thus covering most of the Viking Age. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jorvik was the Viking name for the English city of York and the kingdom centered there. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... The fortress of Ladoga was built in stone in the 12th century and rebuilt 400 years later. ...


See also

This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Rune (disambiguation). ... A rune stone in Lund Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age. ... Trelleborg is a collective name for six Viking ring castles, located in Denmark and the southern part of modern Sweden. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... The raven banner The raven banner (in Old Norse, Hrafnsmerki; in Old English, Hravenlandeye) was a flag, possibly totemic in nature, flown by various viking chieftains and other Scandinavian rulers during the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries CE. The flag, as depicted in Norse artwork, was roughly triangular, with a... Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ...

Place names

Green: Danelaw The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an 11th century name for an area of northern and eastern England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ... Biarmland (or Bjarmaland) was a territory in Northern Europe, Northern Russia, mentioned by Norse sagas, where Finnic Biarmians lived or rather ruled. ... Helluland is the name given to one of the three lands discovered by Leif Eriksson sometime around 1000 CE on the North Atlantic coast of North America. ... Markland is the name given to an area of unknown location, named by Leif Ericson when visiting North America. ... Vinland (Old Icelandic: Plain land ) was the name given to an area of North America by the norseman Leif Eiríksson, about the year (AD) 1000. ... The Shetland Islands (also sometimes spelled Zetland or Hjaltland) are one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland and a Scottish island group between the Orkney Islands and the Faroe Islands, north of mainland Scotland, with a total area of approximately 1466 km2. ... Gardariki (compare Icl. ... This runestone, raised circa 1040 at Gripsholm, commemorates a Viking lost during an ill-fated raid in Serkland. ... This article needs cleanup. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Viking Age from the Norway article at Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ The Viking Age from the Denmark article atEncyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ The Viking Age from the Sweden article at Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ Northern Shores by Alan Palmer ; p.21; ISBN 0719562996
  5. ^
  6. ^ The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings By Peter Hayes SawyerISBN 0198205260
  7. ^ Welsh place names.
  8. ^ Viking (Varangian) Oleg at Encyclopaedia Britannica
  9. ^ Viking (Varangian) Rurik at Encyclopaedia Britannica
  10. ^ A massive majority (40,000) of all Viking-Age Arabian coins found in Scandinavia were found in Gotland. In Skåne, Öland and Uppland together, about 12,000 coins were found. Other Scandinavian areas have only scattered finds: 1,000 from Denmark and some 500 from Norway. Byzantine coins have been found almost exclusively in Gotland, some 400. See Arkeologi i Norden 2. Författarna och Bokförlaget Natur & kultur. Stockholm 1999. See also Gardell, Carl Johan: Gotlands historia i fickformat, 1987. ISBN 91-7810-885-3.
  11. ^ World Heritage Site reference
  12. ^ a b c d e f Crystal, David, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, CUP, 2001 edition, ISBN 0-521-59655-6, p25-6.
  13. ^ "The -by ending is almost entirely confined to the area of the Danelaw, supporting a theory of Scandinavian origin, despite the existence of the word by "dwelling" in Old English." Crystal, p 25.
  14. ^ Visby lens reference

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... ... ...

References

Carey, Brian Todd. “Technical marvels, Viking longships sailed seas and rivers, or served as floating battlefields”, Military History 19, no. 6 (2003): 70-72.
Forte, Angelo. Oram, Richard. Pedersen, Frederik. Viking Empires. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005
Henry, Francoise. Irish Art in the Early Christian Period. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1940
Hudson, Benjamin. Viking Pirates and Christian Princes: Dynasty, Religion, and Empire in North America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Maier, Bernhard. The Celts: A history from earliest times to the present. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2003.

External links

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Viking Age
  • Jorvik and the Viking Age (866 AD - 1066 AD)
  • Old Norse literature from «Kulturformidlingen norrøne tekster og kvad» Norway.
  • BBC - History - Blood of the Vikings
  • All About Vikings

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i am learning about vikings like right now =)


  Results from FactBites:
 
Viking Age Club & Society - Sons of Norway (508 words)
The Viking Age Club and Society-Sons of Norway was formed to study the history of the Vikings and to lecture to the public about the true facts of this era.
The Viking Age Club and Society-Sons of Norway is a non-profit educational organization based out of Sons of Norway Lodge #1-517.
The lounge was filled with Viking age motifs such as a horned helmet, a sword and an axe.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Viking Age (851 words)
The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8th-11th century.
The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age.
The newly founded Viking settlement at Cork was destroyed and in 849 the Norse territory of Dublin was ravaged by Máel Seachnaill.
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