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Encyclopedia > Viking 1
Viking 1 Orbiter

Viking orbiter
Organization NASA
Mission type Orbiter
Satellite of Mars
Orbital insertion date June 19, 1976
Launch date August 20, 1975
Launch vehicle Titan IIIE/Centaur launch vehicle
Mission duration August 20, 1975 to August 17, 1980
NSSDC ID 1975-075A
Webpage Viking Project Information
Mass 883 kg
Power 620 W
Orbital elements
Eccentricity .882213138
Inclination 39.3°
Orbital period 47.26 h
Apoapsis 320 km
Periapsis 56000 km
Viking 1 Lander

Viking Lander model
Organization NASA
Mission type Lander
Launch date August 20, 1975
Launch vehicle Titan IIIE/Centaur launch vehicle
Mission duration July 20, 1976 to November 13, 1982
NSSDC ID 1975-075C
Webpage Viking Project Information
Mass 572 kg
Power 70 W

Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program, and holds the record for the longest Mars surface mission of 4 years and 28 days (from landing until mission termination). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 463 pixelsFull resolution‎ (844 × 488 pixels, file size: 29 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Viking Spacecraft - NASA http://nssdc. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Titan IIIC is a space booster used by the United States Air Force. ... Model of Centaur with Surveyor as payload. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The International Designator (or NSSDC ID) is an international naming convention for satellites. ... The elements of an orbit are the parameters needed to specify that orbit uniquely, given a model of two ideal masses obeying the Newtonian laws of motion and the inverse-square law of gravitational attraction. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 692 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1745 × 1512 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) viking_lander_model - NASA - File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Viking 1 List of... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Titan IIIC is a space booster used by the United States Air Force. ... Model of Centaur with Surveyor as payload. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The International Designator (or NSSDC ID) is an international naming convention for satellites. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Viking mission profile. ...

Contents

Mission

Following launch using a Titan/Centaur launch vehicle on August 20, 1975 and a 10 month cruise to Mars, the orbiter began returning global images of Mars about 5 days before orbit insertion. The Viking 1 Orbiter was inserted into Mars orbit on June 19, 1976 and trimmed to a 1513 x 33,000 km, 24.66 h site certification orbit on June 21. Landing on Mars was planned for July 4, 1976, the United States Bicentennial, but imaging of the primary landing site showed it was too rough for a safe landing. The landing was delayed until a safer site was found. The lander separated from the orbiter on July 20 08:51 UT and landed at 11:53:06 UT. The Titan IIIC is a space booster used by the United States Air Force. ... Model of Centaur with Surveyor as payload. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Bicentennial was celebrated on Sunday, July 4, 1976, the 200th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Orbiter

The instruments of the orbiter consisted of two vidicon cameras for imaging (VIS), an infrared spectrometer for water vapor mapping (MAWD) and infrared radiometers for thermal mapping (IRTM).[1] The orbiter primary mission ended at the beginning of solar conjunction on 5 November 1976. The extended mission commenced on December 14, 1976 after solar conjunction. Operations included close approaches to Phobos in February 1977. The periapsis was reduced to 300 km on March 11, 1977. Minor orbit adjustments were done occasionally over the course of the mission, primarily to change the walk rate — the rate at which the planetocentric longitude changed with each orbit, and the periapsis was raised to 357 km on July 20, 1979. On August 7, 1980 Viking 1 Orbiter was running low on altitude control gas and its orbit was raised from 357 × 33943 km to 320 × 56000 km to prevent impact with Mars and possible contamination until the year 2019. Operations were terminated on August 17, 1980 after 1485 orbits. An orbiter is a spacecraft that orbits a planet or moon without landing on it in order to study the objects surface from a safe distance. ... An orbiter is a spacecraft that orbits a planet or moon without landing on it in order to study the objects surface from a safe distance. ... Solar Conjunction occurs when a planet or other solar system object is on the opposite side of the sun than the Earth. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Phobos (IPA: or [ˈfoÊŠ.bÉ™s]) (systematic designation: ) is the larger and closer of Mars two moons (the other being Deimos). ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Lander

The lander and its aeroshell separated from the orbiter on July 20 08:51 UT. At the time of separation, the lander was orbiting at about 4 km/s. The aeroshell's retrorockets fired to begin the lander deorbit maneuver. After a few hours at about 300 km altitude, the lander was reoriented for atmospheric entry. The aeroshell with its ablative heat shield slowed the craft as it plunged through the atmosphere. During this time, entry science experiments were performed by using a retarding potential analyzer, a mass spectrometer, and pressure, temperature and density sensors.[1] At 6 km altitude, traveling at about 250 m/s, the 16 m diameter lander parachutes deployed. Seven seconds later the aeroshell was jettisoned, and 8 seconds after that the three lander legs were extended. In 45 seconds the parachute had slowed the lander to 60 m/s. At 1.5 km altitude, retrorockets on the lander itself were ignited and, 40 seconds later at about 2.4 m/s, the lander arrived on Mars with a relatively light jolt. The legs had honeycomb aluminum shock absorbers to soften the landing.[1] is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In aeronautics, a heat shield is a protective layer on a spacecraft or ballistic missile that is designed to protect it from high temperatures, usually those that result from aerobraking during entry into a planets atmosphere. ... Atmosphere is the general name for a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass. ... This article is about the device. ...


The landing rockets used an 18 nozzle design to spread the hydrogen and nitrogen exhaust over a large area. NASA calculated that this approach would mean that the surface would not be heated by more than one degree Celsius, and that it would move no more than 1mm of surface material. Since most of Viking's experiments focused on the surface material a more straightforward design would not have served.


The Viking 1 Lander touched down in western Chryse Planitia ("Golden Plain") at 22.697° N latitude and 48.222° W longitude at a reference altitude of −2.69 km relative to a reference ellipsoid with an equatorial radius of 3397.2 km and a flatness of 0.0105 (22.480° N, 47.967° W planetographic) at 11:53:06 UT (16:13 local Mars time). Approximately 22 kg of propellants were left at landing. Chryse Planitia is a smooth circular plain in the northern equatorial region of Mars close to the Tharsis region. ...


Transmission of the first surface image began 25 seconds after landing and took about 4 minutes. During these minutes the lander activated itself. It erected a high-gain antenna pointed toward Earth for direct communication and deployed a meteorology boom mounted with sensors. In the next 7 minutes the second picture of the 300° panoramic scene (displayed below) was taken.[2] On the day after the landing the first color picture of the surface of Mars was taken. The seismometer failed to uncage, and a sampler arm locking pin was stuck and took 5 days to shake out. Otherwise, all experiments functioned nominally. The lander had two means of returning data to earth: a relay link up to the orbiter and back, and by using a direct link to earth. The data capacity of the relay link was about 10 times higher than the direct link.[1]


The lander had two facsimile cameras, three analyses for metabolism, growth or photosyntheses, a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS), an x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, pressure, temperature and wind velocity sensors, a three-axis seismometer, a magnet on a sampler observed by the cameras, and various engineering sensors.[1]


The Viking 1 Lander was named the Thomas Mutch Memorial Station in January 1982 in honor of the leader of the Viking imaging team. The lander operated for 2245 sols (about 2306 earth days or 6 years) until November 13, 1982, when a faulty command sent by ground control resulted in loss of contact. The command was intended to uplink new battery charging software to improve the lander's deteriorating battery capacity, but it inadvertently overwrote data used by the antenna pointing software. Attempts to contact the lander during the next four months, based on the presumed antenna position, were unsuccessful.[3] In 2006 the Viking 1 lander was imaged on the Martian surface by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Thomas A. (Tim) Mutch (August 26, 1931 – October 6, 1980) was an American geologist. ... Various schemes have been used or proposed to keep track of time and date on the planet Mars independently of Earth time and calendars. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit. ...

First panoramic view by Viking 1 from the surface of Mars.
First panoramic view by Viking 1 from the surface of Mars.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 164 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,497 × 512 pixels, file size: 342 KB, MIME type: image/png) The image is based on an original image from NASA to which the following copyright statement is applicable: File historyClick on a date/time to...

Viking 1 image gallery

Test of General Relativity

High-precision test of general relativity by the Cassini space probe (artist's impression)
High-precision test of general relativity by the Cassini space probe (artist's impression)

Gravitational time dilation is a phenomenon predicted by the theory of General Relativity. Scientists used the lander to test this hypothesis, by sending radio signals to the lander on Mars, and instructing the lander to send back signals. Scientists then found that the observed signals matched the predictions of the theory of General Relativity.[4] Newton’s conception and quantification of gravitation held until the beginning of the 20th century, when Albert Einstein extended the special relativity to form the general relativity (GR) theory. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 415 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 924 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artists concept of general relativity experiment. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 415 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 924 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artists concept of general relativity experiment. ... Cassini-Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ... Gravitational time dilation is a consequence of Albert Einsteins theories of relativity and related theories which causes time to pass at different rates in regions of a different gravitational potential; the higher the local distortion of spacetime due to gravity, the slower time passes. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ...


See also

Frost on Mars. ... Computer-generated image of one of the two Mars Exploration Rovers which touched down on Mars in 2004. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ... It has been suggested that Space probe be merged into this article or section. ... Viking mission profile. ...

External links

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Soffen, G.A., Snyder, C.W. (August 1976). "The First Viking Mission to Mars". Science, New Series 193 (4255): 759-766. Retrieved on 2008-01-17. 
  2. ^ Mutch, T.A. et al. (August 1976). "The Surface of Mars: The View from the Viking 1 Lander". Science, New Series 193 (4255): 791-801. Retrieved on 2008-01-17. 
  3. ^ D. J. Mudgway (1983). "Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Systems Support for the Viking 1975 Mission to Mars" (PDF). NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  4. ^ Reasenberg, R. D.; Shapiro, I. I.; MacNeil, P. E.; Goldstein, R. B.; Breidenthal, J. C.; Brenkle, J. P.; Cain, D. L.; Kaufman, T. M.; Komarek, T. A.; Zygielbaum, A. I. (December 1979). "Viking relativity experiment - Verification of signal retardation by solar gravity". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor 234: p. L219-L221. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... For the singer/songwriter, see Jon Peter Lewis. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Computer-generated image of one of the two Mars Exploration Rovers which touched down on Mars in 2004. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Mariner 4 (Mariner-Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft used for planetary exploration in a flyby mode and performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface. ... As part of the wider Mariner program, in 1969 Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 ( Mariner Mars 69A / 69B) completed the first dual mission to Mars, flying over the equator and south polar regions and analysing atmosphere and surface with remote sensors as well as recording and relaying hundreds of pictures. ... As part of the wider Mariner program, in 1969 Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 ( Mariner Mars 69A / 69B) completed the first dual mission to Mars, flying over the equator and south polar regions and analysing atmosphere and surface with remote sensors as well as recording and relaying hundreds of pictures. ... The Mars program was a series of Mars unmanned landers and orbiters launched by the Soviet Union in the early 1970s. ... Rosetta is a European Space Agency-led unmanned space mission launched in 2004 intended to study the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. ... The Dawn Mission, launched on September 27, 2007, is NASAs mission to send a robotic space probe to the two most massive members of the asteroid belt: the asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mariner 9 launch Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars 71 / Mariner-I) was a NASA space probe orbiter that helped in the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program. ... The Mars program was a series of Mars unmanned landers and orbiters launched by the Soviet Union in the early 1970s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mars 2. ... The Mars program was a series of Mars unmanned landers and orbiters launched by the Soviet Union in the early 1970s. ... The Mars program was a series of Mars unmanned landers and orbiters launched by the Soviet Union in the early 1970s. ... Frost on Mars. ... Illustration of the Phobos spacecraft Image of Phobos taken by Phobos 2 spacecraft The Phobos program was an unmanned space mission consisting of two probes launched by the Soviet Union to study Mars and its moons Phobos and Deimos. ... The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was a US spacecraft developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996. ... 2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars. ... Oblique view of the Reull Vallis near the Hellas basin, rendered from data obtained by the Mars Express orbiters High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) The Mars Express Orbiter is part of the Mars Express program, a European Space Agency (ESA) mission to Mars. ... NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit. ... A lander is a type of spacecraft which descends to come to rest on the surface of an astronomical body. ... Two different Mars rover designs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mars 2. ... Frost on Mars. ... The Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II just a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched. ... The launch patch for Spirit, featuring Marvin the Martian. ... The launch patch for Opportunity, featuring Duck Dodgers (Daffy Duck). ... Phoenix is a robotic spacecraft on a space exploration mission to Mars under the Mars Scout Program. ... 2007 Mars Science Laboratory concept Schematic diagram of the planned rover components The Mars Science Laboratory (or MSL for short) is a NASA rover scheduled to launch in September 2009 and perform a precision landing on Mars in July-September 2010. ... Phobos-Grunt (rus. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mars Science and Telecommunication Orbiter or MSTO is a proposal for what would be primarily an infrastructure component for future missions, but also perform some yet to be determined science activities of its own. ... ExoMars model at ILA 2006 (Berlin) ExoMars. ... The Astrobiology Field Laboratory is a proposed NASA unmanned planetary spacecraft to explore the planet Mars. ... The Mars Return Sample Mission is a joint project between NASA and ESA to collect rock and dust samples from Mars and to return them to Earth for analysis. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Computer-generated image of one of the two Mars Exploration Rovers which touched down on Mars in 2004. ... Mars Mars is the focus of much speculation and serious study about possible human colonization. ...

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Viking (369 words)
The Viking mission to Mars sent twin spacecraft to the Red Planet.
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Viking 1 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (736 words)
The Viking 1 Orbiter was inserted into Mars orbit on 19 June 1976 and trimmed to a 1513 x 33,000 km, 24.66 h site certification orbit on 21 June.
On 7 August 1980 Viking 1 Orbiter was running low on attitude control gas and its orbit was raised from 357 x 33943 km to 320 x 56000 km to prevent impact with Mars and possible contamination until the year 2019.
The Viking 1 Lander was named the Thomas Mutch Memorial Station in January 1982 in honor of the leader of the Viking imaging team.
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