FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Viking" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Viking
Danish seamen, painted mid-12th century.
Danish seamen, painted mid-12th century.

Viking refers to a member of the Scandinavian seafaring traders, warriors and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the late 8th to the 11th century. These Norsemen (literally, men from the north) used their famed longships to travel as far east as Constantinople and the Volga River in Russia, and as far west as Newfoundland. This period of Viking expansion is commonly referred to as the Viking Age of Scandinavian History. Viking can refer to: // Viking Age, the period between 793 A.D and 1066 A.D in Scandinavia Viking, seafaring Scandinavians during the Viking Age (in the western trail) Varangian, seafaring Scandinavians during the Viking Age (in the eastern trail) Viking (ship), the reconstruction of a Viking ship which was... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... The Oseberg longship (Viking Ship Museum, Norway) Oseberg longship from the front, one of the most stunning expressions of Norse art and craftsmanship A longship tacking in the wind Longships were ships primarily used by the Scandinavian Vikings and the Saxons to raid coastal and inland settlements during the European... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... “Volga” redirects here. ... Newfoundland may refer to: Newfoundland and Labrador, a Canadian province (known simply as Newfoundland until 2001) Dominion of Newfoundland, an independent country (from 1907 to 1934) Colony of Newfoundland, a British colony prior to 1907 Newfoundland (island), a Canadian island that forms part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word Viking was introduced to the English language with romantic connotations in the 18th century. However, etymologists trace the word to Anglo-Frankish writers, who referred to "víkingr" as one who set about to raid and pillage,[1] as in the saga of Egil Skallagrimsson. Romantics redirects here. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Look up anglo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Picture of Egill in a 17th century manuscript of Egils Saga Egill Skallagrímsson (also Egill Skalla-Grímsson) was a viking and a skald. ...


In Old Norse, the víkingr,[2] were men from the Vik.[3] Viken was the old name of the region bordering on the Skagerrak, from where the first Norse merchant-warriors originated. The Swedish county bordering on the Skagerrak, which is now called Bohuslän, was, prior to the construction of the Bohus fortress, also called Vikland. Vikland was once a part of the Norse district of Viken. Later on, the term, Viking, became synonymous with "naval expedition" or "naval raid", and a víking was a member of such expeditions. In current Scandinavian languages, the term Viking is applied to the people who went away on Viking expeditions, be it for raiding or |trading. The word Væringjar itself is regarded in Scandinavia as of Old Norse origin, cognate with the Old English Færgenga (literally, an expedition-goer or rover). Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Viken (literally the bay) is a landscape defined by Oslofjord in southeastern Norway which terminates at Terra Scania on the coast of West Sweden. ... The Skagerrak strait runs between Norway and the southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat strait, which leads to the Baltic Sea. ... , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige). ... Bohus Fortress, or Bohus Fästning, is a fortress from the 13th century at Kungälv in Sweden. ... Viken (literally the bay) is a landscape defined by Oslofjord in southeastern Norway which terminates at Terra Scania on the coast of West Sweden. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...


A second etymology suggested that the term is derived from Old English, wíc, ie. "trading city" (cognate to Latin vicus, "village").[citation needed] In Old English, the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, Widsith, which probably dates from the 9th century. In Old English, and in the writings of Adam von Bremen, the term refers to a pirate.[citation needed] Regardless of its possible origins, the word was used more as a verb than as a noun, and connoted an activity and not a distinct group of individuals. To "go Viking" was distinctly different from Norse seaborne missions of trade and commerce. Old English redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Widsith is an Old English poem of 144 lines. ... Adam of Bremen (also: Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German medieval chroniclers. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In English and many other languages, Viking may also have been used to refer to Viking Age Scandinavians in general.[4] For example the traders and raiders of the era that originated from the eastern coast of the Baltic sea were first mentioned in the Icelandic sagas as the Estonian vikings (Norwegian:Vikinger fra Estland).[5][6][7][8] Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... Estonian pirates appear at least twice in history and legend. ...


The word disappeared in Middle English, and was reintroduced as Viking during 18th century Romanticism (the "Viking revival"), with heroic overtones of "barbarian warrior" or noble savage. During the 20th century, the meaning of the term was expanded to refer not only to the raiders, but also to the entire period; it is now, somewhat confusingly, used as a noun both in the original meaning of raiders, warriors or navigators, and to refer to the Scandinavian population in general. As an adjective, the word is used in expressions like "Viking age", "Viking culture", "Viking colony", etc., generally referring to medieval Scandinavia. Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Romantics redirects here. ... Early modern publications dealing with what we now call Viking culture appeared in the 16th century, e. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this American Indian has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 17th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ...


The Viking Age

History of Scandinavia
Main article: Viking Age
The Gokstad Viking ship on display in Oslo, Norway.
The Gokstad Viking ship on display in Oslo, Norway.

The period from the earliest recorded raids in the 790s until the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian History. The Normans, however, were descended from Danes, Norwegian (in Norwegian they are still to date referred to as jeg er en Normann), Orkney, Hiberno-Norse, and Danelaw Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France — the Duchy of Normandy — in the 8th century. In that respect, the Vikings continued to have an influence in northern Europe. Likewise, King Harold Godwinson, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England who was killed during the Norman invasion in 1066, was descended from Danish Vikings. Many of the medieval kings of Norway and Denmark were married to English and Scottish royalty and Viking forces were often a factor in dynastic disputes prior to 1066.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Vikingshipmini. ... The history of Scandinavia is the common history of the Scandinavian countries— Denmark, Norway Sweden and Finland. ... The Nordic Stone Age refers to the Stone Age of Scandinavia. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... The Kalmar Union flag. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other. ... A Scandinavian defense union that would include Sweden, Norway and Denmark was planned between the three countries after World War II. Denmark and Norway had been occupied by Germany between 1940 and 1945, while Sweden, having escaped the horrors of occupation it had, still felt the effects of the war. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 611 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Longship Viking Gokstad ship Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 611 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Longship Viking Gokstad ship Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... The Gokstad ship is a late 9th century Viking ship found in a ship burial beneath a burial mound at Gokstad farm in Sandar, Sandefjord, Vestfold, Norway. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... Centuries: 7th century - 8th century - 9th century Decades: 740s - 750s - 760s - 770s - 780s - 790s - 800s - 810s - 820s - 830s - 840s Years: 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 Events and trends: In 793, the Vikings sack the monastery of Lindisfarne. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... Norman conquests in red. ... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Hiberno-Norse were a mix of Irish and Norwegians who inhabited certain settlements in Ireland in the 900s. ... Gold: Danelaw The Danelaw, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as the Danelagh, (Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Danelagen), is a name given to a part of Great Britain, now northern and eastern England, in which the laws of the Danes[1] held predominance over those of the Anglo... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... Harold II of England (Harold Godwinson); c. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ...


Geographically, a "Viking Age" may be assigned not only to Scandinavian lands (modern Denmark, Norway and Sweden), but also to territories under North Germanic dominance, mainly the Danelaw, which replaced the powerful English kingdom of Northumbria and the Isle of Man.[citation needed] Viking navigators opened the road to new lands to the north, west and east, resulting in the foundation of independent kingdoms in the Shetland, Orkney, and Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, and L'Anse aux Meadows, a short-lived settlement in Newfoundland, circa 1000 A.D.[9] Many of these lands, specifically Greenland and Iceland, were likely discovered by sailors blown off course.[citation needed] Greenland was later abandoned because its few "green" spots disappeared due to climate change. Vikings also seized and destroyed many villages and territories in Slavic-dominated areas of Eastern Europe. The Persian traveler Ibn Rustah described how Swedish Vikings, the Rus, terrorized and enslaved the Slavs.[citation needed] Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Gold: Danelaw The Danelaw, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as the Danelagh, (Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Danelagen), is a name given to a part of Great Britain, now northern and eastern England, in which the laws of the Danes[1] held predominance over those of the Anglo... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... LAnse aux Meadows (from the French LAnse-aux-Méduses or Jellyfish Cove) is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad and... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Ibn Rustah (in Persian: ابن رسته) was a 10th century Persian explorer and geographer born in Rosta district, Isfahan, Persia (See Encyclopaedia Iranica [1]). He wrote a geographical compendium. ... The Rus Khaganate was a polity that flourished during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe (roughly the late 8th and early to mid-9th centuries CE). ... Slave redirects here. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ...


From 839, Varangian mercenaries in the service of the Byzantine Empire, notably Harald Hardrada, campaigned in North Africa, Jerusalem, and other places in the Middle East. Important trading ports during the period include Birka, Hedeby, Kaupang, Jorvik, Staraya Ladoga, Novgorod and Kiev. The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Harald III (1015–September 25, 1066) was the king of Norway from 1046 together with the son of Olaf Haraldsson (St. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Location in Sweden During the Viking Age, Birka or Birca  , on the island of Björkö (also Bierkø, literally: Birch Island) in Sweden, was an important trading center which handled goods from Scandinavia as well as Central and Eastern Europe and the Orient. ... Hedeby (Haithabu in Old Norse; Heidiba in Latin; in Germany the name Haithabu is frequently used) was a Danish settlement and trading centre on the southern Baltic Sea coast of the Jutland Peninsula at the head of a narrow, navigable inlet, the Schlei (Danish: Slien) in the province of Schleswig... Kaupang is the name of a town with roots from the Viking Age, situated in Vestfold county in Norway. ... Jorvik was the Viking name for the English city of York and the kingdom centered there. ... The fortress of Ladoga was built in stone in the 12th century and rebuilt 400 years later. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


There is archaeological evidence (coins) that the Vikings reached the city of Baghdad, the center of the Islamic Empire and their considerable intellectual endeavors.[citation needed] In 921, Ibn Fadlan was sent as emissary on behalf of the Caliph of Baghdad to the iltäbär (vassal-king under the Khazars) of the Volga Bulgaria, Almış. The Bolgar King had petitioned to the Caliph to establish relations. He had asked to have someone come to teach him Arabic and the Qu'ran and pledge allegiance to Hanafi rite of the Sunni Muslims. The Caliph promised to send money to build a fort on the Volga, but the transaction never occurred. The Norse regularly plied the Volga with their trade goods: furs, tusks, seal fat to seal boats and slaves (notably female slaves; this was the one time in the history of the slave-trade when females were priced higher than males).[citation needed] However, they were far less successful in establishing settlements in the Middle East, due to the more centralized Islamic power, namely of the Umayyad and, later, Abbasid empires.[citation needed] Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Template:Islamic Empire infobox The Ottoman Empire (1299 - 29 October 1923) (Ottoman Turkish: Devlet-i Aliye-yi Osmaniyye; literally, The Sublime Ottoman State, modern Turkish: Osmanlı Ä°mparatorluÄŸu), is also known in the West as the Turkish Empire. ... Ahmad ibn-al-Abbas ibn Rashid ibn-Hammad ibn-Fadlan (Aḥmad ʿibn alʿAbbās ʿibn Rasẖīd ʿibn ḥammād ʿibn Fadlān أحمد ابن العبا&#1587... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ...


Generally speaking, the Norwegians expanded to the north and west to places such as Iceland and Greenland, the Danes to England and France, settling in the Danelaw (northern England) and Normandy, and the Swedes to the east. These nations, although distinct, were similar in culture, especially language. The names of Scandinavian kings are known only for the later part of the Viking Age, and only after the end of the Viking Age did the separate kingdoms acquire a distinct identity as nations, which went hand in hand with their Roman Catholicization. Thus the end of the Viking Age for the Scandinavians also marks the start of their relatively brief Middle Ages. Gold: Danelaw The Danelaw, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as the Danelagh, (Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Danelagen), is a name given to a part of Great Britain, now northern and eastern England, in which the laws of the Danes[1] held predominance over those of the Anglo... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar...


Viking expansion

Map showing area of Scandinavian settlement in the eighth (dark red), ninth (red), tenth (orange) and eleventh (yellow) centuries. Green denotes areas subjected to frequent Viking raids.
Map showing area of Scandinavian settlement in the eighth (dark red), ninth (red), tenth (orange) and eleventh (yellow) centuries. Green denotes areas subjected to frequent Viking raids.

The Vikings reached south to North Africa and east to Russia and Constantinople, as looters, traders, or mercenaries. Vikings under Leif Eriksson, heir to Erik the Red, reached North America, with putative expeditions to present-day Canada, Maine and Southeastern Massachusetts, including Cape Cod in the 10th century.[citation needed] Image File history File links Viking_Expansion. ... Image File history File links Viking_Expansion. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A statue of Leif Eriksson near the Minnesota State Capitol in St. ... For other uses, see Erik the Red (disambiguation). ...


British Isles

England

See also: Danelaw

Traditionally, the earliest date given for a Viking raid is 787 when, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, three ships from Norway sailed to Portland Bay, in Dorset.[citation needed] There, they were mistaken for merchants by a royal official, and they murdered him when he tried to get them to accompany him to the king's manor to pay a trading tax on their goods. The next recorded attack, dated June 8, 793, was on the monastery on the island of Lindisfarne, off the east coast of England. The resident monks were killed, thrown into the sea to drown or carried away as slaves along with some of the church treasures.[citation needed] After repeated Viking raids, the monks fled Lindisfarne in AD 875, carrying the relics of Saint Cuthbert with them. hi In 840 and 841, Norwegians raided during the winter months instead of summer, as was their usual tactic.[citation needed] They waited on an island off Ireland. In 865 a large army of Danish Vikings, supposedly led by Ivar, Halfdan and Guthrum arrived in East Anglia. They proceeded to cross England into Northumbria and captured York (Jorvik), where some settled as farmers. Most of the English kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings, but Alfred of Wessex managed to keep the Vikings out of his county. Alfred and his successors were able to drive back the Viking frontier and retake York. Gold: Danelaw The Danelaw, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as the Danelagh, (Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Danelagen), is a name given to a part of Great Britain, now northern and eastern England, in which the laws of the Danes[1] held predominance over those of the Anglo... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ... The Isle of Portland is a long by wide limestone island in the English Channel. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city... The Great Heathen Army, also known as the Great Army, was a Viking army which pillaged and conquered much of England in the late 9th century. ... IVAR is a brand of packs / backpacks / bags based on a patented and proprietary feature called the Ivar System - a feature that encompasses a main compartment shelving design. ... Old Norse persons with the name Halfdan (half dane) (Old Norse sources) or Healfdene (Beowulf) or Haldan (Danish Latin sources) was probably kings. ... Guthrum (d. ... Jorvik was the Viking name for the English city of York and the kingdom centered there. ... Alfred (849? – 26 October 899) (sometimes spelt Ælfred) was king of England from 871 to 899, though at no time did he rule over the whole of the land. ...

Danelaw
Danelaw

A new wave of Vikings appeared in England in 947 when Erik Bloodaxe captured York.[citation needed] The Viking presence continued through the reign of Canute the Great (1016-1035), after which a series of inheritance arguments weakened the family reign. The Viking presence dwindled until 1066, when the Norwegians lost their final battle with the English.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (693x879, 79 KB)England and Wales at the time of the Treaty of Chippenham (AD 878). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (693x879, 79 KB)England and Wales at the time of the Treaty of Chippenham (AD 878). ... Erik Bloodaxe (Old Norse: Eiríkr blóðøx, Norwegian: Eirik Blodøks), (circa 885–954), was the second king of Norway (930-934) and the eldest son of his father Harald Fairhair. ... Canute II, or Canute the Great, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as Cnut (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store, Danish: Knud den Store) (c. ...


The Vikings did not get everything their way. In one instance in England, a small Viking fleet attacked a rich monastery at Jarrow. The Vikings were met with stronger resistance than they expected: their leaders were killed, the raiders escaped, only to have their ships beached at Tynemouth and the crews killed by locals.[citation needed] This was one of the last raids on England for about 40 years. The Vikings instead focused on Ireland and Scotland. There was a good deal of intermarriage between the Vikings and the Anglo-Saxons.[citation needed] Map sources for Jarrow at grid reference NZ3465 Jarrow is a town on the River Tyne, England with a population around 27,000 (2001 Census). ... Tynemouth beach This article concerns itself with the village. ...


Scotland

While there are few records from the earliest period, it is believed that Scandinavian presence in Scotland increased in the 830s.[citation needed] In 836, a large Viking force believed to be Norwegian invaded the Earn valley and Tay valley which were central to the Pictish kingdom.Pictish They slaughtered Eoganan, king of the Picts, and his brother, the vassal king of the Scots. They also killed many members of the Pictish aristocracy. The sophisticated kingdom that had been built fell apart, as did the Pictish leadership. The foundation of Scotland under Kenneth MacAlpin is traditionally attributed to the aftermath of this event. This article is about the country. ... The River Earn viewed from Forteviot bridge. ... The River Tay looking eastwards from Perth The River Tay, in terms of flow (193 kilometres or 120 miles), is the longest river in Scotland. ... The Picts inhabited Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858), (anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ...


The isles to the north and west of Scotland were heavily colonized by Norwegian Vikings. Shetland, Orkney, the Western Isles, Caithness and Sutherland were under Norse control, sometimes as fiefs under the King of Norway and other times as separate entities.[citation needed] Shetland and Orkney were the last of these to be incorporated into Scotland in as late as 1468. As well as Orkney and Shetland, Caithness and Sutherland, the Norse settled in the Hebrides. The west coast was also heavily settled, and Galloway, which got its name from the Gall-Gael or Foreigner Gael (as the mixed Norse Scots were known). For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... Sutherland (Cataibh in Gaelic) is a committee area of the Highland Council, Scotland, a registration county, and a lieutenancy area. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-Ghàidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern Scotland. ...


Cornwall

In 722, the Cornish allied with Danish Vikings in order to hold Wessex from expanding into Cornwall.[citation needed] A Wessex Saxon army led by King Ine was comprehensively destroyed by an alliance of Cornish and Vikings near the Camel estuary at "Hehil", possibly somewhere near modern day Padstow. This battle, recorded in the Analies Cambria, as well as the Vikings continual attacks on Wessex, enabled Cornwall to stay autonomous from Wessex for the next 100 years.[citation needed] The Danes provided tactical support to their Cornish allies by making devastating pillaging raids on Wessex which weakened the authority of the Saxons, and in 1013 Wessex was conquered by the Danes under the leadership of the Viking King of Denmark Sweyn Forkbeard. The Vikings were defeated in late-12th century.[citation needed] The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Ine (died 728) was the King of Wessex from 688 to 726, noted particularly for his code of laws. ... Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ...


Wales

Wales was not colonized by the Vikings as heavily as eastern England and Ireland.[citation needed] The Vikings did, however, settle in the south around St. David's, Haverfordwest, and Gower, among other places. Place names such as Skokholm, Skomer, and Swansea remain as evidence of the Norse settlement.[10] The Vikings, however, were not able to set up a Viking state or control Wales, owing to the powerful forces of Welsh kings, and, unlike in Scotland, the aristocracy was relatively unharmed. This article is about the country. ... Saint David (c. ... Haverfordwest (Welsh: Hwlffordd) is the county town of Pembrokeshire, in south-west Wales. ... “Gower” redirects here. ... Skokholm is an uninhabited island off south west Pembrokeshire in Wales, lying south of Skomer. ... Skomer is a 2. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ...


Nevertheless, following the successful Viking alliances with Cornwall in 722 and Britanny in 865, the Britons made their peace with the Danes, and a Viking/Welsh alliance in 878 defeated an Anglo-Saxon army from Mercia, although there were still some occasional skirmishes between the Britons of Wales and the Danes.[citation needed] This is about the region in France; for other meanings of Brittany and Bretagne, see Brittany (disambiguation). ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ...


Until recently, Wales was not thought to have significant Viking heritage, but the high number of coastal towns/villages in Wales with old Norse names, especially compared to the coastlines of the Home Counties, East Anglia or South-East England has meant that the Viking settlement in Wales is considered quite prominent - certainly on the coast.[citation needed] The most significant Viking town in Wales is Swansea, which was founded by the imperialist Viking King of Denmark Sweyn Forkbeard who by 1013 was King of the Danes, Anglo-Saxons and Norwegians. Swansea is a corruption of the Norse "Sweyn's Ey", which means "Sweyn's island". The island refers to the area around the estuary of the river Tawe. The neighboring Gower Peninsula has many place names of Norse origin (such as Worms Head; worm is the Norse word for dragon, as the Vikings believed that the serpent-shaped island was a sleeping dragon). Twenty miles (32 km) west of Cardiff on the Vale of Glamorgan coast is the semi-flooded island of Tusker Rock, which takes its name from Tuska, the Viking whose people semi-colonized the fertile lands of the Vale of Glamorgan. Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... “Gower” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... For other uses, see Vale of Glamorgan (disambiguation). ... Tusker Rock is a rock in the Bristol Channel, situated about 2 miles west of Ogmore-by-Sea, Bridgend, Wales. ... For other uses, see Vale of Glamorgan (disambiguation). ...


The Danes made significant settlements on the coastal lowlands of Wales, such as Glamorgan, Gower and South Pembrokeshire, and in total contrast to the Anglo-Saxons of Mercia and Wessex, by the middle-to-end of the Viking Age, the Danes and Britons managed to live peacefully alongside each other, and like the Britons, the Danes were loath to give up their new territory in Wales to the Saxons without a fight[citation needed], and ultimately, the Saxons were unable to conquer Wales, partly as in 1013 the Saxons were themselves conquered by the Vikings and annexed to a Danish empire controlled by King Canute. Glamorgan or Glamorganshire (Welsh: ) is one of thirteen historic counties and former administrative counties of Wales. ... The electoral ward of Gower, City and County of Swansea, South Wales, consists of some or all of the following areas, Ilston, Upper Killay, Bishopston, Cheriton, Fairyhill, Horton, Knelston, Landimore, Llanddewi, Llangennith, Llanmadoc, Llanrhidian, Middleton, Nicholaston, Oldwalls, Overton, Oxwich Green, Oxwich, Parkmill, Penmaen, Pennard, Penrice, Port Eynon, Reynoldston, Rhossili, Fforest... South Pembrokeshire was a local government district of Dyfed, Wales from 1974 to 1996. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... Canute (or Cnut) I, or Canute the Great (Danish Knud den Store) (994/995 - November 12, 1035) was king of England, Denmark and Norway and governor or overlord of Schleswig and Pomerania. ...


Ireland

The Vikings conducted extensive raids in Ireland and founded many towns, including Dublin, Limerick, Mullingar, Wexford, Waterford and Leixlip. Literature, crafts, and decorative styles in Ireland and the British Isles reflected Scandinavian culture. Vikings traded at Irish markets in Dublin. Excavations found imported fabrics from England, Byzantium, Persia, and central Asia. Dublin became so crowded by the 11th century that houses were constructed outside the town walls. For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limerick (disambiguation). ... For the place in Canada, see Mullingar, Saskatchewan. ... This article is about the Irish town. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S604123 Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 41. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference O003360 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 46 m Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural:   15,016  15,154 Website: kildare. ...


The Vikings pillaged monasteries on Ireland’s west coast in 795, and then spread out to cover the rest of the coastline. The north and east of the island were most affected. During the first 40 years, the raids were conducted by small, mobile Viking groups. From 830 on, the groups consisted of large fleets of Viking ships. From 840, the Vikings began establishing permanent bases at the coasts. Dublin was the most significant settlement in the long term. The Irish became accustomed to the Viking presence & culture. In some cases they became allies and also intermarried throughout all of Ireland.


In 832, a Viking fleet of about 120 ships under Turgesius invaded kingdoms on Ireland’s northern and eastern coasts. Some believe that the increased number of invaders coincided with Scandinavian leaders’ desires to control the profitable raids on the western shores of Ireland. During the mid-830s, raids began to push deeper into Ireland. Navigable waterways made this deeper penetration possible. After 840, the Vikings had several bases in strategic locations throughout Ireland. Turgesius; (Turgeis or Turgesius) the conquering viking, who is aclaimed to have taken by force Dublin, is estimated to have arrived in the year 820 to Ireland. ...


In 838, a small Viking fleet entered the River Liffey in eastern Ireland, probably led by the chieftain Saxolb (Soxulfr) who was killed later that year[11]. The Vikings set up a base, which the Irish called longphorts. This longphort would eventually become Dublin. After this interaction, the Irish experienced Viking forces for about 40 years. The Vikings also established longphorts in Cork, Limerick, Waterford, and Wexford. The Vikings were driven out of Ireland for a short period around 900, but returned to Waterford in 914 to found what would become Ireland's first city. The other longphorts were soon re-occupied and developed into cities and towns. The Liffey in West Wicklow The Liffey (An Life in Irish) is a river in the Republic of Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin. ... A longphort is a term used in Ireland for a Viking ship enclosure or shore fortress. ...


The last major battle involving Vikings was the Battle of Clontarf in 1014, in which a large force from the pan-Viking world and their Irish allies opposed Brian Boru, then the High King of Ireland and his forces, a small contingent of which were Viking defectors. The battle was fought in what is the now Dublin suburb of Clontarf on Good Friday of that year. Boru, the Irish High King had gracefully allowed the Viking King of Dublin; Sigtrygg Silkbeard, one year to prepare for his coming assault. Silkbeard responded by offering the bed of his mother to several Viking lords from Scandinavia and the British Isles. The savage melee between the heavily mailed Norse and the unarmoured, yet undaunted Gaels ended in a rout of the Vikings and their Irish allies. Careful accounts were taken by both sides during the battle, and thus many famous warriors sought each other out for personal combat and glory. High King Brian, who was nearly eighty, did not personally engage in the battle but retired to his tent where he spent the day in quiet prayer. The Viking Earl Brodir of Man chanced upon Brian's tent as he fled the field. He and a few followers seized the opportunity, and surprised the High King, killing the aged Brian before being captured. Brian's foster son Wolf the Quarrelsome later tracked down and dispatched Brodir by disembowelment; Wolf watching as Brodir marched and wound his own innards around the trunk of a large tree. The battle was fairly matched for most of the day and each side had great respect for the prowess of the other; however, in the end, the Irish forced the Norse to return to the sea. Many of the fleeing Vikings were drowned in the surf due to their heavy mail coats as they struggled for the safety of their longships; others were pursued and slain further inland. After the battle, Viking power was broken in Ireland forever, though many settled Norse remained in the cities and prospered greatly with the Irish through trade. With Brian dead, Ireland returned to the fractured kingdom it had once been, but was now cleared of further Viking predation. Combatants Irish of Munster Irish of Leinster and Dublin Vikings Commanders Brian Boru† Máelmorda mac Murchada, Sigtrygg Strength ca. ... A much later engraving of Brian Boru Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig (926 or 941[1] – 23 April 1014) (known as Brian Boru in English) was High King of Ireland from 1002 to 1014. ... Clontarf is a place name used in several English speaking countries. ... Wolf the Quarrelsome was brother to Brian Boru who was High King of Ireland from 1002 to 1014. ...


West Francia

West Francia suffered more severely than East Francia during the Viking raids of the ninth century. The reign of Charles the Bald, coincided with some of the worst of these raids, though he did take action by the Edict of Pistres of 864 to secure a standing army of cavalry under royal control to be called upon at all times when necessary to fend off the invaders. He also ordered the building of fortified bridges to prevent inland raids. Western Francia was the land under the control of Charles the Bald after the Treaty of Verdun of 843, which divided the Carolingian Empire of the Franks into an East, West, and Middle. ... Eastern Francia were the lands of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun of 843. ... Charles the Bald[1] (numbered Charles II of France and the Holy Roman Emperor) (French: , German: ) (13 June 823 – 6 October 877), Holy Roman Emperor (875–877) and king of West Francia (840–877), was the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious, by his second wife Judith. ... The Edict of Pistres is often held up as one of the few examples, if not the sole example, of good government from Charles the Bald, the man who can be called first king of France. ...


Nonetheless, the Bretons allied with the Vikings and Robert, the margrave of Neustria, (a march created for defence against the Vikings sailing up the Loire), and Ranulf of Aquitaine died in the Battle of Brissarthe in 865. The Vikings also took advantage of the civil wars which ravaged the Duchy of Aquitaine in the early years of Charles' reign. In the 840s, Pepin II called in the Vikings to aid him against Charles and they settled at the mouth of the Garonne. Two dukes of Gascony, Seguin II and William I, died defending Bordeaux from Viking assaults. A later duke, Sancho Mitarra, even settled some at the mouth of the Adour in an act presaging that of Charles the Simple and the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte by which the Vikings were settled in Rouen, creating Normandy as a bulwark against other Vikings. Breton can refer to: The Breton language A person from Brittany Author André Breton This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Robert the Strong (died September 15, 866) was a count of Tours. ... Margrave (Latin: marchio) is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... Neustria & Austrasia The territory of Neustria originated in A.D. 511, made up of the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel, approximating most of the north of present-day France, with Paris and Soissons as its main cities. ... This article is about the French department. ... Ranulf I (also Ramnulf, Rannulf, and Ranulph; 820 – 866) was a Count of Poitiers (from 835) and Duke of Aquitaine (from 852). ... The Battle of Brissarthe was fought on 15 September 866 between the Franks and a joint Breton-Viking army near Brissarthe, Neustria. ... [Note : The Roman numerals after the names indicate which duke of that name they were and are not necessarily the same as their ordinals for their other titles. ... Pepin II, called the Younger (823-after 864, Senlis), was King of Aquitaine from 838 as the successor upon the death of his father, Pepin I. Pepin II was eldest son of Pepin I and Ingeltrude (also called Engelberga, Hringard, or Ringart), daughter of the count of Madrie, Theodobert. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ... Seguin II[1] (died 846), called Mostelanicus, was the Count of Bordeaux and Saintes from 840 and Duke of Gascony from 845. ... William I (French: Guillaume, Gascon: Guilhem, Spanish: Guillermo) was the Duke of Gascony, appointed in 846 following the death of Seguin II in battle with the Norse assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... Sancho III (Basque: Antso, Sanzio, Santio, Sanxo, Santzo, Santxo, or Sancio; French: Sanche; Gascon: Sans), called Mitarra (from the Arabic for terror or the terrible) or Menditarra (meaning the mountaineer) in Romance languages and called Handia (meaning the great) in Basque, was the Duke of Gascony in a very obscure... Map of the Adour River The Adour (Basque: Aturri) is a river in southwestern France, rising in High-Bigorre (Pyrenees) and flowing into the Atlantic Ocean (Bay of Biscay) near Bayonne. ... Charles the Simple or Charles (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. ... The Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte was signed in the autumn of 911 between Charles the Simple and Rollo, the leader of the Vikings, for the purpose of settling the Normans in Neustria and to protect Charles kingdom from any new invasion from the northmen. No written records survive... Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ...


Iberia

By the mid 9th century, though apparently not before [12] there were Viking attacks on the coastal Kingdom of Asturias in the far northwest of the peninsula, though historical sources are too meagre to assess how frequent or how early raiding occurred. By the reign of Alfonso III Vikings were stifling the already weak threads of sea communications that tied Galicia (to the rest of Europe. Richard Fletcher attests raids on the Galician coast in 844 and 858: "Alfonso III was sufficiently worried by the threat of Viking attack to establish fortified strong points near his coastline, as other rulers were doing elsewhere." In 861, a group of Vikings ransomed the king of Pamplona, whom they had captured the previous year, for 60,000 gold pieces. Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of... Alfonso III (c. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Raiding continued for the next two centuries. In 968 Bishop Sisnando of Compostela was killed, the monastery of Curtis was sacked, and measures were ordered for the defence of the inland town of Lugo. After Tui was sacked early in the 11th century, its bishopric remained vacant for the next half-century. Ransom was a motive for abductions: Fletcher instances Amarelo Mestáliz, who was forced to raise money on the security of his land in order to ransom his daughters who had been captured by the Vikings in 1015. Bishop Cresconio of Compostela (ca. 1036 – 66) repulsed a Viking foray and built the fortress at Torres do Oeste (Council of Catoira) to protect Compostela from the Atlantic approaches. The city of Póvoa de Varzim in Northern Portugal, then a town, was settled by Vikings around the 9th century and its influence kept strong until very recently, mostly due to the practice of endogamy in the community. Compostela could refer to any of the following: Compostela, Nayarit, Mexico Compostela, Cebu, Philippines Compostela Valley, Philippines Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Location Coordinates : Time zone : UST - summer : UST +1 General information Native name Lugo (Galician) Spanish name Lugo Postal code 2700X Website http://www. ... Tui can refer to: the Tui bird, endemic to New Zealand. ... Cresconius ( Cresconio) (c. ... Nickname: Catoira Official website: http://www. ... Póvoa de Varzim (pron. ... Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ...


In the Islamic south, the first navy of the Emirate was built after the humiliating Viking ascent of the Guadalquivir in 844 when they sacked Seville. Nevertheless, in 859, Danish pirates sailed through Gibraltar and raided the little Moroccan state of Nakur. The king's harem had to be ransomed back by the emir of Cordoba. These and other raids prompted a shipbuilding program at the dockyards of Seville. The Andalusian navy was thenceforth employed to patrol the Iberian coastline under the caliphs Abd al-Rahman III (912 – 61) and Al-Hakam II (961 – 76). By the next century, piracy from North Africans superseded Viking raids. The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... The Guadalquivir is the second longest river in Spain (after the Tagus). ... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Abd-ar-Rahman III, Emir and Caliph of Cordoba (912 - 961) was the greatest and the most successful of the princes of the Ummayad dynasty in Spain. ... Al-Hakam II was Caliph of Cordoba, in Al-Andalus, and son of Abd_ar_rahman III (al_Nasir). ...

In Athens, Greece, Swedish Vikings wrote a runic inscription on the Piraeus Lion.
In Athens, Greece, Swedish Vikings wrote a runic inscription on the Piraeus Lion.

Image File history File links Pireuslejonet. ... Image File history File links Pireuslejonet. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Ancient Greek lion statue at the Arsenal, Venice The Piraeus Lion is one of four lion statues on display at the Venetian Arsenal, where it was displayed as a symbol of Venices patron saint, Saint Mark. ...

Byzantine Empire, Russia, Ukraine

Main article: Varangians
See also: Rus' Khaganate

The Vikings settled coastal areas along the Baltic Sea, and along inland rivers in Russian territories such as Staraya Ladoga, Novgorod and along major waterways to the Byzantine empire. Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes. ... The Rus Khaganate was a polity that flourished during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe (roughly the late 8th and early to mid-9th centuries CE). ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... The fortress of Ladoga was built in stone in the 12th century and rebuilt 400 years later. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


The Varangians or Varyags (Russian, Ukrainian: Варяги, Varyagi) sometimes referred to as Variagians were Scandinavians who migrated eastwards and southwards through what is now Russia, Belarus and Ukraine mainly in the 9th and 10th centuries. Engaging in trade, piracy and mercenary activities, they roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki, reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople. Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


Greenland

Two areas along Greenland's southwest coast were colonized by Norse settlers around 986. The land was marginal at best. The settlers arrived during a warm phase, when short-season crops such as rye and barley could be grown. Sheep and hardy cattle were also raised for food, wool, and hides. Their main export was walrus ivory, which was traded for iron and other goods which could not be produced locally. Greenland became a dependency of the king of Norway in 1261. During the 13th century, the population may have reached as high as 5,000, divided between the two main settlements of Austrbygd and Vestrbygd. Greenland had several churches and a cathedral at Gardar. The Catholic diocese of Greenland was subject to the archdiocese of Nidaros. However, many bishops chose to exercise this office from afar. As the years wore on, the climate shifted (qv. little ice age) and elephant ivory from Africa became increasingly available. Crops failed and trade declined. The Greenland colony gradually faded away. By 1450 it had lost contact with Norway and Iceland and disappeared from all but a few Scandinavian legends. Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Walrus Subspecies Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Nidaros was the old name of Trondheim, Norway, in the middle ages. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ...


North America

Some exploration and expansion occurred still further west, in modern-day North America, with exploration led by Erik the Red and his son, Leif Erikson from Iceland. Eriksson, known from Icelandic sagas as a descendant from a line of Norwegian Viking chieftains, who had established the first European settlement in Greenland in about 985, was most likely the first European discoverer of America in about 1000.[13] Permanent settlements were established in the L'Anse aux Meadows, located in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The Icelandic Vikings called the new found territory "Vinland." For other uses, see Erik the Red (disambiguation). ... A statue of Leif Ericson in front of the Hallgrímskirkja in Reykjavik Leif Ericson (old Icelandic: Leifr Eiríksson) was an explorer, the son of Eric the Red (Eiríkr rauði), a Norwegian outlaw, who was the son of another Norwegian outlaw, Þorvaldr Ásvaldsson. ... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... LAnse aux Meadows (from the French LAnse-aux-Méduses or Jellyfish Cove) is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad and... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


Motives for expansion

Map showing area of Scandinavian settlements during the 9th to 10th centuries. Also the trade and raid routes, often inseparable, are marked.
Map showing area of Scandinavian settlements during the 9th to 10th centuries. Also the trade and raid routes, often inseparable, are marked.

The motives driving the Viking expansion is a much debated topic in Nordic history. One common theory posits that the Viking population had outgrown agricultural potential of their Scandinavian homeland.[citation needed] For a coastal population with superior naval technologies, it made sense to expand overseas in the face of a youth bulge effect. However, this theory does little to explain why the expansion went overseas rather than into the vast, uncultivated forest areas on the interior of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Moreover, no such rise in population or decline in agricultural production has been definitively proven. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (947x648, 254 KB)made by me; earth pic by NASA, data from Image:Viking Age. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (947x648, 254 KB)made by me; earth pic by NASA, data from Image:Viking Age. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... This distribution is named for the pyramidal shape of its graph. ... The Scandinavian Peninsula is in northeastern Europe, consisting principally of the mainland territories of Norway and Sweden. ...


Another explanation is that the Vikings exploited a moment of weakness in the surrounding regions. For instance, the Danish Vikings were aware of the internal divisions within Charlemagne's empire that began in the 830s and resulted in schism.[citation needed] The Danish expeditions in England also profited from the disunity of the different English kingdoms.[citation needed] Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The decline in the profitability of old trade routes could also have played a role. Trade between western Europe and the rest of Eurasia suffered a severe blow when the Roman Empire fell in the 5th century.[citation needed] The expansion of Islam in the 7th century had also affected trade with western Europe.[citation needed] Trade on the Mediterranean Sea was historically at its lowest level when the Vikings initiated their expansion.[citation needed] By opening new trade routes in Arabic and Frankish lands, the Vikings profited from international trade by expanding beyond their traditional boundaries.[citation needed] Finally, the destruction of the Frisian fleet by the Franks afforded the Vikings an opportunity to take over their trade markets.[citation needed] For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ...


Viking expansion could also have originated as a means of resistance to forced Christianisation, in particular Charlemagne’s persecutions against all the Pagan people, who would’ve had to accept “conversion, or the massacre."


Decline

Following a period of thriving trade and settlement, cultural impulses flowed from the rest of Europe to affect Viking dominance. Christianity had an early and growing presence in Scandinavia, and with the rise of centralized authority and the development of more robust coastal defense systems, Viking raids became more risky and less profitable. For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the...


Snorri Sturluson in the saga of St. Olafr chapter 73, describes the brutal process of Christianisation in Norway: “…those who did not give up paganism were banished, with others he (St. Olafr) cut off their hands or their feet or extirpated their eyes, others he ordered hanged or decapitated, but did not leave unpunished any of those who did not want to serve God (…) he afflicted them with great punishments (…) He gave them clerks and instituted some in the districts.” Clerical pressure by violence since Charlemagne can explain partly the Vikings’ strandhögg targeting of Christian buildings. A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Strandhögg in old Norse was a kind of Vikings fight, based on the spies followed by a flash raid , like a commando on the coast. ...


As the new quasi-feudalilistic system became entrenched in Scandinavian rule, organized opposition sealed the Viking's fate – 11th century chronicles note Scandinavian attempts to combat the Vikings from the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, which eventually lead to Danish and Swedish participation in the Baltic crusades during the 12th and 13th centuries, and contributed to the development of the Hanseatic League.[14] Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... The Northern Crusades, or Baltic Crusades, were crusades undertaken by the Catholic kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ...


Weapons and warfare

Main article: Viking Age arms and armor

Our knowledge about arms and armor of the Viking age is based on relatively sparse archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century. Our knowledge about arms and armour of the Viking age (8th to 11th centuries Europe) is based on relatively sparse archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century. ... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons, as well as permitted to carry them at all times. These arms were also indicative of a Viking's social status. A wealthy Viking would have a complete ensemble of a helmet, shield, chainmail shirt, and animal-skin coat, among various other armaments. A lesser off man, however, could only afford a single weapon, and perhaps a shield. A person wearing a helmet. ... This article is about the defensive device. ... David rejects the unaccustomed armour (detail of fol. ... The bayonet, still used in war as both knife and spearpoint. ...


The spear and shield were the most basic armaments of the Viking warrior; most would probably also wear a knife of some description, commonly of the seax type. As an alternative, or perhaps in addition, to the spear a warrior might carry a bow or axe. The wealthiest Vikings would have worn a sword in addition to his primary arms and have had access to body armor, such as a helmet and a mail hauberk. For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... This article is about the defensive device. ... This article is about the tool. ... Some Merovingian seaxes The remains of a seax together with a reconstructed replica A Seax (also Hadseax, Sax, Seaxe, Scramaseax and Scramsax), was a type of Germanic single-edged knife. ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A person wearing a helmet. ... Hauberk, Museum of Bayeux. ...


Historical opinion and cultural legacy

In England the Viking Age began dramatically on June 8, 793 when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne. The devastation of Northumbria's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal Courts of Europe to the Viking presence. "Never before has such an atrocity been seen," declared the Northumbrian scholar, Alcuin of York.[citation needed] More than any other single event, the attack on Lindisfarne demonized perception of the Vikings for the next twelve centuries. Not until the 1890s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills and seamanship.[15] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Vikings sack the monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Flaccus Albinus Alcuin (about 735 - May 19, 804) was a monk from York, England. ...


The first challenges to anti-Viking sentiments in Britain emerged in the 17th century. Pioneering scholarly editions of the Viking Age began to reach a small readership in Britain, archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past, and linguistic enthusiasts started to identify the Viking-Age origins for rural idioms and proverbs. The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas.[16] Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, June 20, 1837) gave her name to the historic era. ... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ...


In Scandinavia, the 17th century Danish scholars Thomas Bartholin and Ole Worm, and Olaf Rudbeck of Sweden were the first to set the standard for using runic inscriptions and Icelandic Sagas as historical sources.[citation needed] During the Age of Enlightenment and the Nordic Renaissance, historical scholarship in Scandinavia became more rational and pragmatic, as witnessed by the works of a Danish historian Ludvig Holberg and Swedish historian Olof von Dalin.[citation needed] Until recently, the history of the Viking Age was largely based on Icelandic sagas, the history of the Danes written by Saxo Grammaticus, the Russian Primary Chronicle and the The War of the Irish with the Foreigners. Although few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, historians nowadays rely more on archeology and numismatics, disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.[17] Thomas Bartholin (October 20, 1616 - December 4, 1680) was a Danish doctor, mathematician and theologist. ... Ole Worm Ole Worm (May 13, 1588 – August 31, 1654), (pronounced Olay Vorm) who often went by the Latinized form of his name Olaus Wormius, was a Danish physician and antiquary. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Olof von Dalin (1708-1763), the Swedish poet, was born on 29 August 1708 in the parish of Vinberg in Halland, where his father was the minister. ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Old-Slavonic: Повсть времяньныхъ лтъ; Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let; Ukrainian: Повість времмених літ, Povist vremennykh lit; often translated into English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the Kievan Rus from around 850 to 1110 originally compiled in Kiev about 1113. ... The War of the Irish with the Foreigners (Irish: Cogad Gaedel re Gallaib) is a two-part medieval Irish chronicle that claims to record the depredations of the Vikings in Ireland and the Irish king Brian Borus great war against them. ...


Until the 19th century reign of Queen Victoria, public perceptions in Britain continued to portray Vikings as violent and bloodthirsty.[citation needed] The chronicles of medieval England had always portrayed them as rapacious 'wolves among sheep'.[citation needed] In 1920, a winged-helmeted Viking was introduced as a radiator cap figure on the new Rover car, marking the start of the cultural rehabilitation of the Vikings in Britain.[citation needed] Queen Victoria redirects here. ... // Rover was a British automobile manufacturer and later a marque based at the former Austin Longbridge plant in Birmingham. ...


Icelandic sagas and other texts

Norse mythology, sagas and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes. However, early transmission of this information was primarily oral, and later texts were reliant upon the writings and transcriptions of Christian scholars, including the Icelanders Snorri Sturluson and Sæmundur fróði. Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the Icelanders' continued interest in Norse literature and law codes. Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Excerpt NjÃ¥ls saga in the Möðruvallabók (AM 132 folio 13r) circia 1350. ... Old Norse poetry encompasses a range of verse forms written in a number of Nordic languages, embraced by the term Old Norse, during the period from the 8th century to as late as the far end of the 13th century. ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... Sæmundr the wise or Sæmundr fróði in Icelandic (1056-1133) was an Icelander and Christian priest, who studied in Paris. ...


The 200 year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonization, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants. Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Ruslan chronicles, and many brief mentions by the Fosio bishop from the first big attack on the Byzantine empire. The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony From prehistoric to modern times, the human History of Europe has been turbulent, cultured, and much-documented. ... The word may have one of the following meanings. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Ahmad ibn-al-Abbas ibn Rashid ibn-Hammad ibn-Fadlan (Aḥmad ʿibn alʿAbbās ʿibn Rasẖīd ʿibn ḥammād ʿibn Fadlān أحمد ابن العبا&#1587... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen, who wrote "There is much gold here (in Zealand), accumulated by piracy. These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king" in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, and Egil Skallagrimsson, who mentioned that "Björn was a great traveler; sometimes as Viking, sometimes as tradesman." Adam of Bremen (also: Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German medieval chroniclers. ... Map showing location of Zealand within Denmark. ... Picture of Egill in a 17th century manuscript of Egils Saga Egill Skallagrímsson (also Egill Skalla-Grímsson) was a viking and a skald. ...


In 991, the Battle of Maldon between Viking raiders and the inhabitants of the town of Maldon in Essex, England was commemorated with a poem of the same name. The Battle of Maldon took place in 991 near Maldon beside the River Blackwater in Essex, England, during the reign of Ethelred the Unready. ... See also Malden. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ...


Modern revivals

See also: 19th century Viking revival

Early modern publications, dealing with what we now call Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e.g. Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus (Olaus Magnus, 1555), and the first edition of the 13th century Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus in 1514. The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda (notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of 1665). Early modern publications dealing with what we now call Viking culture appeared in the 16th century, e. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 894 KB) Summary Vikings fighting (part of a festival), photo taken in August 2005 in Denmark by Tone Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Viking ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 894 KB) Summary Vikings fighting (part of a festival), photo taken in August 2005 in Denmark by Tone Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Viking ... Combat reenactment is a side of historical reenactment which aims to depict events of battle, normally a specific engagement in history, but also unscripted battles where the winner is not predetermined. ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... The term Edda (Plural: Eddas or Icelandic plural: Eddur) applies to the Old Norse Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, both of which were written down in Iceland during the 13th century, although some of the poems included in them may be centuries older. ...


Romanticism

The word Viking was popularized, with positive connotations, by Erik Gustaf Geijer in the poem, The Viking, written at the beginning of the 19th century. The word was taken to refer to romanticized, idealized naval warriors, who had very little to do with the historical Viking culture. This renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had political implications. A myth about a glorious and brave past was needed to give the Swedes the courage to retake Finland, which had been lost in 1809 during the war between Sweden and Russia. The Geatish Society, of which Geijer was a member, popularized this myth to a great extent. Another Swedish author who had great influence on the perception of the Vikings was Esaias Tegnér, member of the Geatish Society, who wrote a modern version of Friðþjófs saga ins frœkna, which became widely popular in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom and Germany. Erik Gustaf Geijer. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The Geatish Society, or Götiska förbundet in the Swedish language, was a social club for literature studies among academics in Sweden created by a number of poets and authors in 1811. ... Esaias Tegnér Esaias Tegnér (November 13, 1782 - November 2, 1846), Swedish writer, was born at Kyrkerud in Wermelandia. ... The Geatish Society, or Götiska förbundet in the Swedish language, was a social club for literature studies among academics in Sweden created by a number of poets and authors in 1811. ... Ingeborg, by Peter Nicolai Arbo Friðþjófs saga hins frÅ“kna is a legendary saga from Iceland which in its present form is from ca 1300. ...


A focus for early British enthusiasts was George Hicke, who published a Linguarum vett. septentrionalium thesaurus in 1703 – 05. During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and Nordic culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations as well as original poems, extolling Viking virtues and increased interest in anything Runic that could be found in the Danelaw, rising to a peak during Victorian times. The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


Nazi and fascist imagery

Main article: Nazi mysticism

Political organizations of the same tradition, such as the Norwegian fascist party, Nasjonal Samling, used an amount of Viking symbolism combined with Roman symbolism and imagery widely in their propaganda and aesthetical approach. Nazi mysticism is a quasi-religious undercurrent of Nazism; it denotes the mixture of Nazism with occultism, esotericism, cryptohistory, and/or the paranormal — especially in the traditions of Germanic mysticism. ... Symbol of the Hirden, the stormtroopers or paramilitary organization of the Nasjonal Samling. ...


Similar to Wagnerian mythology, the romanticism of the heroic Viking ideal appealed to the Germanic supremacist thinkers of Nazi Germany. Political organizations of the same tradition, such as the Norwegian fascist party, Nasjonal Samling, used Viking symbolism and imagery widely in its propaganda. The Viking legacy had an impact in parts of Europe, especially the Northern Baltic region, but in no way was the Viking experience particular to Germany. However, the Nazis did not claim themselves to be the descendants of any Viking settlers. Instead, they resorted to the historical and ethnic fact that the Vikings were descendants of other Germanic peoples; this fact is supported by the shared ethnic-genetic elements, and cultural and linguistic traits, of the Germans, Anglo-Saxons, and Viking Scandinavians. In particular, all these peoples also had traditions of Germanic paganism and practiced runelore. This common Germanic identity became - and still is - the foundation for much National Socialist iconography. For example, the runic emblem of the SS utilized the sig rune of the Elder Futhark and the youth organization Wiking-Jugend made extensive use of the odal rune. This trend still holds true today (see also fascist symbolism). Romantics redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Symbol of the Hirden, the stormtroopers or paramilitary organization of the Nasjonal Samling. ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Sig is the name given by Guido von List for the Sigel or s rune of the Armanen Futharkh, and is also used by Karl Maria Wiligut for his runes. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Wiking-Jugend (WJ, Viking youth) was a German Neo-Nazi organization modelled after the Hitlerjugend. ... The Odal rune. ... As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ...


Reenactments

Since the 1960s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of re-enactors has increased. Reenactors of the American Civil War Historical reenactment is a type of roleplay in which participants attempt to recreate some aspects of a historical event or period. ...


On 1 July 2007, the reconstructed Viking ship Skuldelev 2, renamed Sea Stallion[18], began a journey from Roskilde, Denmark to Dublin, Ireland. The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during an 1962 excavation in the Roskilde Fjord. This multi-national experimental archeology project saw 70 crew members sail the ship back to its home in Ireland. Tests of the original wood show that it was made out of Irish trees. The Sea Stallion arrived outside Dublin's Custom House on 14 August 2007. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The purpose of the voyage was to test and document the seaworthiness, speed and manoeuvrability of the ship on the rough open sea and in coastal waters with treacherous currents. The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society. The ship was built using Viking tools, materials and much the same methods as the original ship.


Neopaganism

Main article: Germanic neopaganism

Germanic neopagan groups place emphasis on reconstructing the culture and pre-Christian beliefs of the Germanic peoples, including the Viking era of Norse culture. The Mjolnir is one of the primary symbols of Germanic neopaganism. ...


Archaeology

Rune stones

Main article: Rune stone

The vast majority number of runic inscriptions from the Viking period come from Sweden, especially from the tenth and eleventh century. Many rune stones in Scandinavia record the names of participants in Viking expeditions, such as the Kjula Runestone which tells of extensive warfare in Western Europe and the Turinge Runestone which tells of a warband in Eastern Europe. Other rune stones mention men who died on Viking expeditions, among them the around 25 Ingvar stones in the this Mälardalen district of Sweden erected to commemorate members of a disastrous expedition into present-day Russia in the early 11th century. The rune stones are important sources in the study of Norse society and early medieval Scandinavia, not only of the 'Viking' segment of the population (Sawyer, P H: 1997). A rune stone in Lund Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age. ... A rune stone in Lund Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age. ... The Kjula Runestone or Sö 106 is a famous runestone located in Kjula, Södermanland, on the road between Eskilstuna and Strängnäs, Sweden. ... The Turinge Runestone or Sö 338, from the 11th century, is located in the church of Turinge, in Södermanland, Sweden. ... Ingvar or Yngvar Harra, Proto-Norse *Ingu-Hariz (d. ... Mälardalen (Swedish, literally the Lake Mälaren Valley) is the easternmost part of Svealand. ...


Rune stones attest to voyages to locations, such as Bath,[19] Greece,[20] Khwaresm,[21] Jerusalem,[22] Italy (as Langobardland),[23] London,[24] Serkland (i.e. the Muslim world),[25] England,[26] and various locations in Eastern Europe. , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... Khwarezmid Empire (1190-1220) Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as the eastern shores of the northern Caspian Sea. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This runestone, raised circa 1040 at Gripsholm, commemorates a Viking lost during an ill-fated raid in Serkland. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The word Viking appears on several rune stones found in Scandinavia. A rune stone in Lund Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Burial sites

There are numerous burial sites associated with Vikings. Some examples include:

  • Gettlinge gravfält, Öland, Sweden, ship outline
  • Jelling, Denmark, a World Heritage Site
  • Oseberg, Norway.
  • Gokstad, Norway.
  • Tuna, Sweden.
  • Hulterstad gravfält, near the villages of Alby and Hulterstad, Öland, Sweden, ship outline of standing stones

For the Finnish island, see Åland. ... Burial mound in Jelling churchyard Northern burial mound and church in Jelling churchyard Jelling is a town located in Jelling municipality near Vejle, Denmark on the Jutland peninsula. ... The Oseberg longship (Viking Ship Museum, Norway) vantage exactly from the front - one of the most stunning expressions of Norse art and craftsmenship The Oseberg ship was found in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold county, Norway, in 1904. ... The Gokstad ship is a late 9th century Viking ship found in a ship burial beneath a burial mound at Gokstad farm in Sandar, Sandefjord, Vestfold, Norway. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... Medieval drystone bridge in Alby Alby, Sweden (Latitude: 59° 16 60N; Longitude: 17° 41 60E) is a village on the Baltic Sea in the Hulterstad district at the western fringe of the Stora Alvaret. ... For the Finnish island, see Åland. ...

Ships

Miniatures of two different types of longships, on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, Denmark.
Miniatures of two different types of longships, on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, Denmark.
Viking ship head of dragon, has a dog's nostrils, canines, and rounded ears.
Viking ship head of dragon, has a dog's nostrils, canines, and rounded ears.
Main article: Viking ship

There were two distinct classes of Viking ships: the longship (sometimes erroneously called "drakkar", a corruption of "dragon" in Norse) and the knarr. The longship, intended for warfare and exploration, was designed for speed and agility, and were equipped with oars to complement the sail as well as making it able to navigate independently of the wind. The longship had a long and narrow hull, as well as a shallow draft, in order to facilitate landings and troop deployments in shallow water. The knarr, on the other hand, was a slower merchant vessel with a greater cargo capacity than the longship. It was designed with a short and broad hull, and a deep draft. It also lacked the oars of the longship. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (863x583, 31 KB) Summary Modells, Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, Denmark (April 1991). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (863x583, 31 KB) Summary Modells, Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, Denmark (April 1991). ... The Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde is the Danish national museum for ships, seafaring and boatbuilding in the ancient and medieval periods. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Oslo Viking museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Oslo Viking museum. ... Models of Viking ships at port, including a Knarr, Longship and Faering Viking ship is a collective term for ships used during the Viking Age (800–1100) in Northern Europe. ... The Oseberg longship (Viking Ship Museum, Norway) Oseberg longship from the front, one of the most stunning expressions of Norse art and craftsmanship A longship tacking in the wind Longships were ships primarily used by the Scandinavian Vikings and the Saxons to raid coastal and inland settlements during the European... The knarr (plural: knarrer) was the generic name for viking trade and mercantile ships. ...


Longships were used extensively by the Leidang, the Scandinavian defence fleets. The term "Viking ships" has entered common usage, however, possibly because of its romantic associations (discussed below). This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


In Roskilde are the well-preserved remains of five ships, excavated from nearby Roskilde Fjord in the late 1960s. The ships were scuttled there in the 11th century to block a navigation channel, thus protecting the city, which was then the Danish capital, from seaborne assault. These five ships represent the two distinct classes of Viking ships, the longship and the knarr. The remains of these ships can be found on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. Ølsted gravel pit with Roskilde Fjord in the background Roskilde Fjord is the fjord north of Roskilde, located at , . It is a long branch of the Isefjorden. ... The Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde is the Danish national museum for ships, seafaring and boatbuilding in the ancient and medieval periods. ...


Longships are not to be confused with longboats. A longboat is a large boat powered by multiple oars and carried on a ship (especially sailed merchant ships). ...


North American settlements

In 1931 a railroad brakeman named James Edward Dodd found a broken sword and fragments of an axe and shield near Beardmore Ontario east of Lake Nipigon. Upon extensive examination, European Norse experts agreed that the relics were authentic Norse weapons.[27] However, Eli Ragout, an acquaintance of "Liar Dodd" (as he was affectionately referred to by his neighbors) later proclaimed that these weapons were planted. According to his tale, he had helped Dodd move from an apartment he was renting, and saw Dodd pack away the artifacts. Dodd had been renting a house owned by J. M. Hanson, who had given a loan to a Norwegian immigrant, and had apparently received these artifacts as collateral. [28]


Similarly, an artifact called the Kensington Runestone was unearthed in 1898 by a Norwegian-American farmer in West-Central Minnesota. Now residing in a Minnesota Museum, the stone carries an inscription that depicts an attack on a party of Geats and Norwegians that took place in 1362. The inscription translates roughly to: "Eight Swedes and twenty-two Norwegians on an exploration journey from Vinland westward. We had our camp by two rocky islets one day's journey north of this stone. We were out fishing one day. When we came home we found ten men red with blood and dead. AVM save us from evil. We have ten men by the sea to look after our ships, fourteen days journey from this island. Year 1362." The authenticity of this artifact is in dispute.[29] Although some of the runes were very old, some were modern, with several phrases dating back to the 19th century, and with grammar that wasn't common until well after the 1300s. The Kensington runestone is a roughly rectangular slab of greywacke covered in runes on its face and side. ...


Genetics

The Vikings’ prolific expansion is still exhibited in modern genetics. Relatively high frequencies of Haplogroup R1a1 are found in Northern Europe, the largest being 23% in Iceland, and it is believed to have been spread across Europe by the Indo-Europeans and later migrations of Vikings, which accounts for the existence of it in, among other places, the British Isles.[30] In human genetics, Haplogroup R1a1 (M17) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup, that is spread across Eurasia. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ...


Common misconceptions

Horned helmets

Main article: Horned helmet

Apart from two or three representations of (ritual) helmets – with protrusions that may be either stylized ravens, snakes or horns – no depiction of Viking Age warriors' helmets, and no actually preserved helmet, has horns. In fact, the formal close-quarters style of Viking combat (either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands") would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side. Representation of a horned helmet from a Danish toy. ...


Therefore it can be ruled out that Viking warriors had horned helmets, but whether or not they were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes remains unproven. The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet, founded in 1811 in Stockholm, Sweden, with the aim of promoting the suitability of Norse mythology as subjects of high art and other ethnological and moral aims. The Geatish Society, or Götiska förbundet in the Swedish language, was a social club for literature studies among academics in Sweden created by a number of poets and authors in 1811. ... Stockholm [, ] is the capital and the largest City of Sweden. ...


The Vikings were also often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity, especially in depictions of Norse gods. This was done in order to legitimize the Vikings and their mythology, by associating it with the Classical world which has always been idealized in European culture.


The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with glimpses of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2,000 years earlier, for which actual horned helmets, probably for ceremonial purposes, are attested both in petroglyphs and by actual finds (see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets[31]). Liberty leading the people, embodying the Romantic view of the French Revolution of 1830; its painter Eugène Delacroix also served as an elected deputy Romantic nationalism (also organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... For other uses, see Petroglyph (disambiguation). ... , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige). ... Veksø or Viksø is a small town in Copenhagen County located between Ballerup and Stenløse on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. ...


The cliché was perpetuated by cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking, and sports uniforms such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Denmark Vikings football teams. Hägar the Horrible is the title and the name of the main character of a syndicated comic strip by Dik Browne, first seen in February 1973 and distributed to 1,900 newspapers in 58 countries, in 13 languages. ... Vicky the Viking (Wickie und die starken Männer in Germany, ChÄ«sa na Viking Bikke in Japan, Wikki de Viking in The Netherlands, Vickie, o Viking in Portugal and Vicky el Vikingo in Spain) is an Austrian-German-Japanese cartoon series which tells the adventures of Vicky, a young... City Minneapolis, Minnesota Other nicknames The Vikes, The Purple People Eaters Team colors Purple, Gold, and White Head Coach Brad Childress Owner Zygi Wilf General manager Rob Brzezinski Fight song Skol, Vikings Mascot Viktor the Viking League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1961–present) Western Conference (1961-1969) Central Division... Vikings guernsey The Vikings are Denmarks national Australian rules football team. ...


The regular Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for the regular troops and the iron helmet with mask and chain mail for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel age helmets from central Sweden. The only true Viking helmet found, is that from Gjermundbu in Norway. This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century. Ohtheres mound Vendel is a parish in the Swedish province of Uppland. ...


Savage marauders

Despite images of Viking marauders who live for plunder and warfare, the heart of Viking society was reciprocity, on both a personal, social level and on a broader political level. The Vikings lived in a time when numerous societies were engaged in many violent acts, and the doings of the Vikings put into context are not as savage as they seem. Others of the time period were much more savage than the Vikings[citation needed], such as the Frankish king, Charlemagne, who cut off the heads of 4,500 Saxons for practicing paganism (Bloody Verdict of Verden) in one day. Most Vikings were traders, although some did plunder, often monasteries around Ireland, Scotland, Wales and England, as they had a lot of valuables in gold and silver. As monasteries were centers of learning & writing, their experiences were much more likely to enter the historical record. However, considerable literature in the monasteries would have been destroyed during the plunderings. Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ... Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... The Bloody Verdict of Verden (from German Blutgericht) was an alleged massacre of Saxons in 782, ordered by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars. ...


One of the Vikings' largest profit-centers was the slave trade; any group that acts as slave-takers is likely to be viewed with disdain by their victims. During the period of the Vikings, slavery was common throughout Northern Europe, and the fact that many slaves were captured persons was irrelevant in law. A person from Poland could be captured and later sold in England, for example. Slavery was common amongst the Scandinavians themselves, as well. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Slavery in medieval Europe was the keeping of people in slavery in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


In the 300-year period where Vikings were most active, there were approximately 347 recorded attacks that spread from the British Isles to Morocco, Portugal, and Turkey. In Ireland, where the Vikings are most famous for attacking monasteries, there were 430 known attacks during this 300-year period. Monastery of St. ...


Skull cups

Main article: Skull cups

The use of human skulls as drinking vessels is also ahistorical. The rise of this myth can be traced back to a Ole Worm's Runer seu Danica literatura antiquissima of 1636), warriors drinking ór bjúgviðum hausa [from the curved branches of skulls, i.e. from horns] were rendered as drinking ex craniis eorum quos ceciderunt [from the skulls of those whom they had slain]. The skull-cup allegation may also have some history in relation with other Germanic tribes and Eurasian nomads, such as the Scythians and Pechenegs. The use of the human skull as a drinking cup is something that is found repeatedly in historical documents. ... Eurasian nomads are a large group of peoples of the steppes of Central Asia, Mongolia and Eastern Europe (Pontic steppe). ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ...


Uncleanliness

The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality. Non-Scandinavian Christians are responsible for most surviving accounts of the Vikings and, consequently, a strong possibility for bias exists. This attitude is likely attributed to Christian misunderstandings regarding paganism. Viking tendencies were often misreported and the work of Adam of Bremen, among others, told largely disputable tales of Viking savagery and uncleanliness[32]. Adam of Bremen (also: Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German medieval chroniclers. ...


However, it is now known that the Vikings used a variety of tools for personal grooming such as combs, tweezers, razors or specialized "ear spoons". In particular, combs are among the most frequent artifacts from Viking Age excavations. The Vikings also made soap, which they used to bleach their hair as well as for cleaning, as blonde hair was ideal in the Viking culture. A comb A comb for people with hair loss. ... Tweezers are tools used for picking up small objects that are not easily handled with the human hands. ... Collection of Modern Safety Razors - Gillette Fusion Power, Gillette M3Power, Mach3 Turbo Champion, Schick Quattro Chrome, Schick Quattro Power, Gillette Mach3, Gillette Sensor, Schick Xtreme3, Schick Xtreme SubZero, and Schick Xtreme3 Disposables A razor is an edge tool primarily used in shaving. ... A Japanese bamboo ear pick with a down puff A metal ear pick Ear picks, also called ear scoops, ear spoons, or auriscalpium, are a type of curette used to clean the ear canal of ear wax (cerumen). ... A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ...


The Vikings in England even had a particular reputation for excessive cleanliness, due to their custom of bathing once a week, on Saturdays (unlike the local Anglo-Saxons). To this day, Saturday is referred to as laugardagur/laurdag/lørdag/lördag, "washing day" in the Scandinavian languages, though the original meaning is lost in modern speech in most of the Scandinavian languages ("laug" still means "bath" or "pool" in Icelandic). For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ...


As for the Rus', who had later acquired a subjected Varangian component, Ibn Rustah explicitly notes their cleanliness, while Ibn Fadlan is disgusted by all of the men sharing the same, used vessel to wash their faces and blow their noses in the morning. Ibn Fadlan's disgust is probably motivated by his ideas of personal hygiene particular to the Muslim world, such as running water and clean vessels. While the example intended to convey his disgust about the customs of the Rus', at the same time it recorded that they did wash every morning. Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Ibn Rustah (in Persian: ابن رسته) was a 10th century Persian explorer and geographer born in Rosta district, Isfahan, Persia (See Encyclopaedia Iranica [1]). He wrote a geographical compendium. ... Ahmad ibn-al-Abbas ibn Rashid ibn-Hammad ibn-Fadlan (Aḥmad ʿibn alʿAbbās ʿibn Rasẖīd ʿibn ḥammād ʿibn Fadlān أحمد ابن العبا&#1587...


In fiction

Spearheaded by the operas of German composer Richard Wagner such as Der Ring des Nibelungen, Vikings and the Romanticist Viking Revival have inspired many works of fiction, from historical novels directly based on historical events like Frans Gunnar Bengtsson's The Long Ships (which was also filmed) to extremely loosely based historical fantasies such as the film The Vikings, Michael Crichton's Eaters of the Dead (movie version called The 13th Warrior) and the comedy film Erik the Viking. Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ... Frans Gunnar Bengtsson (October 4, 1894 - December 19, 1954) was a Swedish novelist, essayist, poet and biographer. ... The Long Ships or Red Orm (original title: Röde Orm) is a best-selling Swedish novel written by Frans Gunnar Bengtsson 1894-1954. ... The Long Ships is a 1963 Yugoslavian English language motion picture released by Columbia Pictures very loosely based on the Swedish novel The Long Ships by Frans G. Bengtsson. ... The Vikings was an action/adventure film directed by Richard Fleischer in 1958, produced by and starring Kirk Douglas, and based on a novel by Edison Marshall. ... Michael Crichton, pronounced [1], (born October 23, 1942) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ... Eaters of the Dead: The Manuscript of Ibn Fadlan Relating His Experiences with the Northmen in A.D. 922 is a 1976 novel by Michael Crichton. ... The 13th Warrior is a 1999 action film based on Michael Crichtons novel Eaters of the Dead, directed by John McTiernan and an uncredited Crichton, and starring Antonio Banderas as Ahmad ibn Fadlan and Vladimir Kulich as Buliwyf (Beowulf). ... Erik the Viking is a 1989 film written and directed by Terry Jones, who also makes an appearance in it. ...


Modern influence is also exhibited in the genre of Viking metal. A popular sub-genre of heavy metal music, originating in the early 1990s as an off-shoot of the black metal sub-genre. This style is notable for its lyrical and theatrical emphasis on Norse mythology as well as Viking lifestyles and beliefs. Popular bands that contribute to this genre include Einherjer, Valhalla, Týr, Amon Amarth, Ensiferum and Enslaved. Viking metal is a term used in reference to heavy metal music with a dramatic emphasis on Norse mythology, Norse paganism, and the life and times of Northern and Central Europeans prior to the Christianization of Scandinavia. ... Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... This article is about the musical genre. ... Einherjer band logo Einherjer was a Viking metal band from Haugesund, Norway, founded in 1993. ... Týr (pronounced [tÊŠiːɹ]) is a band from the Faroe Islands which plays a combination of heavy metal and folk music, and signed a worldwide deal with Austrias Napalm Records in early 2006, while previously signed to the Faroese record label Tutl. ... Amon Amarth is a viking-themed melodic death metal band from Sweden founded in 1990 in Tumba, named after a location in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... Ensiferum (Latin ensÄ­fÄ•rum (neuter adjective) meaning sword bearing) is a Viking / Folk metal band from Helsinki, Finland. ... Enslaved is a progressive black/viking metal band from Haugesund, Norway. ...


Notable Vikings

Olav Tryggvason (969 - September 9, 1000) was a great-grandson of Harald Hairfair He began his meteoric career in exile as his ancestors fled from the executions of the royal family by Eric Bloodaxe. ... London Bridge Is falling down is a well-known traditional nursery rhyme which is found in different versions all over the world. ... Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... Magnus Barefoot (1073-1103), son of Olaf Kyrre, was king of Norway from 1093 until 1103 and King of the Isle of Man from 1099 until 1102. ... Askold (Höskuldr) and Dir (Dyri) were according to the Primary Chronicle, two of Ruriks men. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Helgi means holy and is an old Nordic name still used in Iceland. ... Prince Oleg ( Norse name Helgu) was the East Slavic ruler who moved the capital of Rus from Novgorod the Great to Kiev. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Björn Járnsíða or Björn Järnsida, Swedish king (ca 785-800) was a legendary viking from the 8th century. ... Aella murdering Ragnar Lodbrok. ... Bróðir and Óspak of Man were two Danes mentioned in the 13th century Njals Saga and the 12th century Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh as key leaders in the Battle of Clontarf. ... A much later engraving of Brian Boru Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig (926 or 941[1] – 23 April 1014) (known as Brian Boru in English) was High King of Ireland from 1002 to 1014. ... Picture of Egil in a 17th century manuscript of Egils Saga Egil Skallagrímsson[1] (910-c. ... The skald was a member of a group of courtly poets, whose poetry is associated with the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking age, who composed and performed renditions of aspects of what we now characterise as Old Norse poetry. ... Egill Skallagrímsson in a 17th century manuscript of Egils Saga Egils saga is an epic Icelandic saga possibly by Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241 A.D.), who may have written the account between the years 1220 and 1240 A.D. It is an important representative of the sagas and has... For other uses, see Erik the Red (disambiguation). ... A statue of Leif Ericson in front of the Hallgrímskirkja in Reykjavik Leif Ericson (old Icelandic: Leifr Eiríksson) was an explorer, the son of Eric the Red (Eiríkr rauði), a Norwegian outlaw, who was the son of another Norwegian outlaw, Þorvaldr Ásvaldsson. ... Vinland (pronounced Winland) was the name given to part of North America by the Icelandic Norseman Leif Eiríksson, about year 1000. ... For other uses, see Erik the Red (disambiguation). ... Freydís Eiríksdóttir was a Viking woman who sailed to Vínland in the early 11th century. ... Vinland (pronounced Winland) was the name given to part of North America by the Icelandic Norseman Leif Eiríksson, about year 1000. ... Canute II, or Canute the Great, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as Cnut (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store, Danish: Knud den Store) (c. ... Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... Harold Bluetooth Gormson (Danish Harald Blåtand, Norwegian Harald Blåtann) (ca 935- November 1, 986), sometimes Harold II, succeeded his father Gorm the Old as king of Denmark in 958 (or 959) and was king of Norway for a few years, probably around 970. ... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Harald III Sigurdsson (1015 – September 25, 1066), later surnamed Harald HardrÃ¥de (Old Norse: Haraldr harðráði, roughly translated as stern counsel or hard ruler) was the king of Norway from 1047[1] until 1066. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Gardar Svavarsson (also known as Garðarr Svavarsson and Garðar Svavarsson) was a Swedish Viking who was the first Scandinavian to live in Iceland, although only for one winter. ... Guthrum (d. ... Ingvar the Far-Travelled (Norse: Ingvar Vittfarne) was the leader of an unsuccessful Viking attack against Persia, in 1036-1042. ... Ivar the Boneless (Ivar inn beinlausi) (c. ... statue of Ingólfur Arnarson by Einar Jónsson Ingólfur Arnarson is recognized as the first permanent Nordic settler of Iceland. ... Prince Oleg ( Norse name Helgu) was the East Slavic ruler who moved the capital of Rus from Novgorod the Great to Kiev. ... Aella murdering Ragnar Lodbrok. ... Rollo on the Six Dukes statue in the Falaise town square. ... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ... Turgesius Island, middle of Lough Lene Lough Lene, Turgesius Island on map Thorgest (also listed as: Turgeis, Thorgisl, Thorgils, Old Norse:Þurgestr) first came to Ireland with a large fleet of Viking ships from Norway in 839. ... Olav II Haraldsson ( 995 – 1030), king from 1015–1028, called during his lifetime the Fat and afterwards known as Saint Olaf, was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvesson came to Norway. ...

References

  1. ^ Goldsmith, E., The etymology of “Viking”, Viking Times magazine. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
  2. ^ The Syntax of Old Norse By Jan Terje Faarlund; p 25ISBN 0199271100
  3. ^ Bengtsson, F.G. 1954. The Long Ships: A Saga of the Viking Age. Collins, p. 139. (no ISBN).
  4. ^ See Gunnar Karlsson, "Er rökrétt að fullyrða að landnámsmenn á Íslandi hafi verið víkingar?", The University of Iceland Science web April 30, 2007; Gunnar Karlsson, "Hver voru helstu vopn víkinga og hvernig voru þau gerð? Voru þeir mjög bardagaglaðir?", The University of Iceland Science web December 20, 2006; and Sverrir Jakobsson "Hvaðan komu víkingarnir og hvaða áhrif höfðu þeir í öðrum löndum?", The University of Iceland Science web July 13, 2001 (in Icelandic).
  5. ^ (Norwegian)Olav Trygvassons saga at School of Avaldsnes
  6. ^ Heimskringla; Kessinger Publishing (March 31, 2004); on Page 116;ISBN 0766186938
  7. ^ A History of Pagan Europe by Prudence Jones; on page 166; ISBN 0415091365
  8. ^ Nordic Religions in the Viking Age by Thomas A. Dubois; on page 177;ISBN 0812217144
  9. ^ The Norse discovery of America
  10. ^ Welsh place names.
  11. ^ A History of Viking Dublin, Viking Network Ireland. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
  12. ^ Fletcher 1984, ch. 1, note 51
  13. ^ The Complete Idiot's Guide to American History By Alan Axelrod; p. 8 ISBN 0028644646
  14. ^ The Northern Crusades: Second Edition by Eric Christiansen; p.93; ISBN 0140266534
  15. ^ Northern Shores by Alan Palmer; p.21; ISBN 0719562996
  16. ^ The Viking Revival By Professor Andrew Wawn at bbc
  17. ^ The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings By Peter Hayes SawyerISBN 0198205260
  18. ^ Return of Dublin's Viking Warship. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
  19. ^ baþum (Sm101), see Nordiskt runnamnslexikon PDF
  20. ^ In the nominative: krikiaR (G216). In the genitive: girkha (U922$), k--ika (U104). In the dative: girkium (U1087†), kirikium (SöFv1954;20, U73, U140), ki(r)k(i)(u)(m) (Ög94$), kirkum (U136), krikium (Sö163, U431), krikum (Ög81A, Ög81B, Sö85, Sö165, Vg178, U201, U518), kri(k)um (U792), krikum (Sm46†, U446†), krkum (U358), kr... (Sö345$A), kRkum (Sö82). In the accusative: kriki (Sö170). Uncertain case krik (U1016$Q). Greece also appears as griklanti (U112B), kriklati (U540), kriklontr (U374$), see Nordiskt runnamnslexikon PDF
  21. ^ Karusm (Vs1), see Nordiskt runnamnslexikon PDF
  22. ^ iaursaliR (G216), iursala (U605†), iursalir (U136G216, U605, U136), see Nordiskt runnamnslexikon PDF
  23. ^ lakbarþilanti (SöFv1954;22), see Nordiskt runnamnslexikon PDF
  24. ^ luntunum (DR337$B), see Nordiskt runnamnslexikon PDF
  25. ^ serklat (G216), se(r)kl... (Sö279), sirklanti (Sö131), sirk:lan:ti (Sö179), sirk*la(t)... (Sö281), srklant- (U785), skalat- (U439), see Nordiskt runnamnslexikon PDF
  26. ^ eklans (Vs18$), eklans (Sö83†), ekla-s (Vs5), enklans (Sö55), iklans (Sö207), iklanþs (U539C), ailati (Ög104), aklati (Sö166), akla-- (U616$), anklanti (U194), eg×loti (U812), eklanti (Sö46, Sm27), eklati (ÖgFv1950;341, Sm5C, Vs9), enklanti (DR6C), haklati (Sm101), iklanti (Vg20), iklati (Sm77), ikla-ti (Gs8), i...-ti (Sm104), ok*lanti (Vg187), oklati (Sö160), onklanti (U241), onklati (U344), -klanti (Sm29$), iklot (N184), see Nordiskt runnamnslexikon PDF
  27. ^ Old Norse. TIME (October 24, 1938).
  28. ^ Carpenter, E. (1957). Further evidence on the Beardmore relics. American Anthropologist 59, 875-878.
  29. ^ Hoyt, B. Kensington Runestone FAQ. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
  30. ^ Y Haplogroup R1a1. Ancestry.com community. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
  31. ^ Did Vikings really wear horns on their helmets? The Straight Dope, 7 December 2004. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
  32. ^ Williams, G. (2001) How do we know about the Vikings? BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 14 November 2007.

is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The University of Iceland Science web (in Icelandic Vísindavefurinn) is a website upheld by the University of Iceland. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The University of Iceland Science web (in Icelandic Vísindavefurinn) is a website upheld by the University of Iceland. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Iceland Science web (in Icelandic Vísindavefurinn) is a website upheld by the University of Iceland. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Generations Network is an Internet company based in Provo, Utah and the largest for-profit genealogy company in the world. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Cecil Adams is the pen name of the author of The Straight Dope since 1973, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader, syndicated in thirty newspapers in the United States and Canada, and available online. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Further reading

  • Downham, Clare, Viking Kings of Britain and Ireland: The Dynasty of Ívarr to AD 1014. Dunedin Academic Press, 2007. ISBN 1903765890
  • Hadley, D.M., The Vikings in England: Settlement, Society and Culture. Manchester University Press, 2006. ISBN 0719059828
  • Hall, Richard, Exploring the World of the Vikings. Thames and Hudson, 2007. ISBN 9780500051443
  • Sawyer, Peter, The Age of the Vikings (second edition) Palgrave Macmillan, 1972. ISBN 0312013655

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to (category):
Viking or Vikings or
Viking ship

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Viking Missions to Mars: A Look Back (390 words)
Viking 1's first pictures from the Martian surface showed a reddish sky and rust-colored rocks and soil.
The Viking missions detected evidence of water ice in the northern polar cap and large areas of permafrost.
Viking data revealed that Mars' thin atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide and could not support human life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m